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1816.) Parallel between the Turks and Chinese.

331 with their foreheads, and never use their with their foreheads, and never use their names except in their writings.

names except in their writings. Among the Turks we find no other here- Among the Chinese we find no other heditary nobles than the descendants of the reditary nobles than the descendants of the family of Mahomed.

family of Confucius. The presents of the Emperor of the 'Turks The presents of the Emperor of China consist chiefly of caftans and costly apparel. consist chiefly of stuffs of gold and costly

apparel. The seals of the Turkish Emperor and of The seals of the Emperor of China and of the Turks bear no arms, like ours, but the Chinese have no arms upon them, but merely engraved letters.

merely ancient letters. The Sultans send to the grandees a silk The sovereigns of China likewise send to cord with which they are to strangle them- their grandees a silk cord with which they selves or to be strangled.

are to strangle themselves or to be strangled. The bow is the principal ancient weapon

The bow is the principal and ancient wea. of the Turks.

pon of the Chinese. The red standard is the principal banner On a standard of red is the inscription of the Turks when they assemble for war. “Red Banner," to arrange and direct the

troops (lo cin hung-ki). The jugh, or a pole with a horse-tail The tu, or a pole with a cow's tail fastened tastened to it, is a distinguished mark of to it, is a distinguished mark of honour honour among the Turks.

among the Chinese. The great drum, which is carried full in The great drum is an essential part of the front, is an essential part of Turkish music. music of the Chinese, and is also carried

exactly in the front of the body. Among the Turks it is a rudeness to take Among the Chinese it is a rudeness to unoff the turban or to uncover the head, cover the head. For this reason the Pope

was obliged to grant to the missionaries a dispensa:ion for performing mass with their

heads covered. The left hand is the most honourable The left hand is the most honourable in among the Turks.

the northern provinces of China. The Turks leave their slippers at the door The Chinese formerly left their shoes at when they enter an apartment, and put the entrance of an apartment when they them on again when they leave it.

went in, and put them on again at their

return. The Turks assume the turban at about The Chinese assume the male barett in the age of fourteen years, and are then con. their fourteenth year, and are then conducted ducted to the mosque.

to the mino, or temple. The Turks frequently make donanmas, or The Chinese annually celebrate the Feast general illuminations, which last four or of Lanterns, an illumination which lasts four

or five nights. 'The Turks are accustomed to play with The Chinese, when conversing with one the balls of the rosary which they carry in another, play with the balls of their rosaries. their hands.

The Turks are scarcely ever seen but with The Chinese are never without pipes in pipes in their mouths smoking tobacco. their mouths, smoking.

The Turkish women smoke as well as The Chinese women smoke as well as the the men. The Turks present coffee to every visitor,

The Chinese present tea to every visitor, and in every nouse the coffee-pot is constant and the tea-kettle is always on the fire in h upon the fire.

every house. The public ians in Turkey are called Han. The public inns of the merchants who

come to China are called hang. Thus the word han, which is spread over all Asia,

seems to be of Chinese origin. The Turks are accustomed to drink their The Chinese drink their tea without sugar. coffee without sugar.

Pillar or rice is the most common food of Rice is the most general food of the Chithe Turks. Grape-wine is prohibited among the Turks. Grape-wine is probibited among the Chi.

nese. The Turks of both sexes sit cross-legged.

The Chinese of both sexes have been accustomed from remote antiquity to sit

cross-leggel, Instead of chairs' the Turks uge pillows, Till the dynasty of the Han the Chinese and their rooms are covered with carpets of uscd pillows instead of chairs; and till chat

five nights.




332 Parallel between the Turks and Chinese--America. [May 1,

time the floors of their apartments were com

vered with carpets or mats. The offices and dignities of the Turks are The offices of the Chinese are indicated indicated by their turbans.

by their baretts. The Turks place the titles of lord, prince, The Chinese prefix the titles of lord, &c. after their names.

prince, &c. to their names. The words which we term prepositions, Prepositions are placed after the words are placed after the words which they govern which they govern in the Chinese language. in the Turkish language.

The women in Turkey are shut up in the The women of the Chinese are shut up'in innermost part of the house, and are not the innermost part of the house, and are not allowed to go abroad, to market, &c. allowed to go abroad, to market, &c.

In Turkey the bridegroom never sees his In China the bridegroom never sees his bride before marriage. The marriage con- bride before marriage. The marriage contract is concluded by means of a third per. tract is concluded by another person. son.

The Turkish Sullan may have three other The Hoang-ti of China may have three wives besides his lawful wife, and as many other wives hesides his lawful wife, and as concubines as he plcases.

many concubines as he pleases. The Turkish sovereigns have eunuchs to The Chinese sovereigns have eunuchs to guard their harem.

guald their harem. The twelve signs of the zodiac occur in The twelve signs of the zodiac occur in the Turkish calendar.

the Chinese calendar. In the Ruz-nameh, or Turkish calendar, In the Chinese calendar the lucky and the lucky and unlucky days are niarked upon unlucky days are specified upon which busiwhich journies may be undertaken, contracts ness of every kind may be transacted or not. and marriages concluded, and every kind of businoss transacted or not.

The Turks have only lunar months. The Chinese reckon only by lunar months,

The Turks strive to introduce into all The Chinese strive to introduce now and their tales, stories, and romances, from time then in their tales, stories, romances, &c. to time, one, two, or more poetical lines, to two or three poetical lines to enlivca the enliven the subject.

subject. The moral is said to be the principal ob. The moral is the principal object of the ject of most of the Turkish tales.

Chinese books aníl stories. The Turks pay the greatest respect to the The Chinese manifest the highest respect smallest scrap of paper which they happen for the smallest scrap of paper written upon to find any where upon the ground. which they find any where upon the ground.

The Koran is so highly venerated by the The Sciu-King, a canonical book of the Turks, that every word as well as every let. first rank, is held in such veneration by the ter contained in it is counted.

Chinese, that every word and every charac

ter in it is counted, The burial-places of the Turks are without The burial-places in China must be out the towns, and the graves in them are adorn- of the towns, and the graves in them are ed with cypress-trees.

adorned with cypresses. God is called in the Turkish language Tien-lie in the Chinese language signifies Tanri.

Ruler of Heaven-and is the title which is given to the Emperor, because he, according to the Chinese, is God's vicegereat upon


AMERICA. The field of American literature, if York in half-yearly numbers, the public British talent were to reclaim all that is informed, that « it is designed to fill belongs to it

, would be left extremely its pages with matter chiefly selected bare indeed. All English books of any from the best and most recent European merit are reprinted as fast as they ap- publications." Notice is also given, that pear, and this circumstance naturally a religious newspaper, under the title of tends to the discouragement of native The Christian Herald;will be coinmenced exertion. But even for the greater part in tlie same city “ as soon as a safficient

of works of a miscellaneous nature, which amount of subscriptions shall be ol originate with themselves, the Americans tained." The stereotype art has found

are indebted to Europe, and to Britain its way to the United States; COLLINS more particularly. Thus, in the an. and Co. of New York, have finished a nouncement of the Christian Register quarto Family Bible printed in that dianand Literary and Theological Magazine ner, and accompanied with engravings, and Review, which is to appear at New coasisting of 23 historical subjeets and

1816.) Report from the Select Committee on the Elgin Marbles. 333 maps. Pinkerton's Atlas is re-engrave three 8vo. volumes; a Life of General ing at Philadelphia : it has advanced to Jackson, hy Major Reid; a History of the fourth number. Among the original the War in Louisiana, by Latour; and works in preparation are : General Wil- an Emporium of Arts and Sciences, by KINSON's Memoirs of his Own Times, in Cooper.


« L'onore conferito da Grandi à bravi Artisti dà vita e vigore alle Belle Arti; come il poco incoragimento, e le critiche severe, e poco discrete, le fanno languire."

CONDIV1, Vila di Michel Angiolo Buonarotti.

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1800 to May 1801, without having any Froin the Select Committee of the House sort of facility or accommodation afford

of Commons on the Earl of Elgin's ed to them; nor was the Acropolis acCollection of Sculptured Marbles, &c. cessible to them, even for the purpose of

taking drawings, except hy the payment The Select Committee appointed to inquire, of a large fee, which was exacted daily.

whether it be expedient that the Collec The other five artists were withdrawu tion mentioned in the Earl of Elgin's Pe- from Athens in January 1803, but Luution, presented to the House on the 15th sieri has continued there ever since, exo day of February last, should be purchased cepting during the short period of our on behalf of the public, and if so, what hostilities with the Ottoman Porte. price it may be reasonable to allow for the

During the year 18no, Egypt was in sanie, consider the subject referred to the power of the French; and that sort them as divided into four principal heads: of contempt and dislike which has always

The first of which relates to the authority characterized the Turkish government by which this collection was acquired : and people in their behaviour towards

The second to the circumstances under every denomination of Christians, prewhich that authority was granted :

vailed in full force. The success of the The third to the merit of the marbles as British arms in Egypt, and the expected works of sculpture, and the importance of restitution of that province to the Porte,

aking them public property, for the pur- wrought a wonderful and instantaneous pose of promoting the study of the fine arts in Great Britain : and,

change in the disposition of all ranks and The fourth, to their value as objects of descriptions of people towards our na

tion. sale, which includes the consideration of the

Nothing was refused which was expense which has attended the removing, asked; and Lord Elgin, availing himself transporting, and bringing them to England of this favourable and unexpected alle

To these will be added some general ob- ration, obtained in the sum er of 1801 servations upon what is to be found in various access to the Acropolis for general purauthors relating to these marbles.

poses, with permission to draw, model,

and remove; to which was added, a speWHEN the Earl of Elgin quitted Eng. cial license to excavate in a particular tand upon his mission to the Ottoman place. Lord Elgin mentions in his eviPorte, it was bis original intention to dence, that he was obliged to send from make that appointment beneficial to the Athens to Constantinople for leave to progress of the Fine Arts in Great Bri- remove a house; at the same time retain, by procuring accurate drawings marking theat, in point of fact, all perand Gasts of the valuable remains of missions issuing from the Porte to any sculpture and architecture scattered distant provinces, are little better than throughout Greece, and particularly con. authorities to make the best bargain thac centrated at Athens. With this view he can be made with the local magistracies. engaged Signor Lusieri, a painter of re- The applications upon this subject passed pucation, who was then in the service of in verbal conversations; but the war. the King of the Two Sicilies, together rants or fermauns were granted in writwith two architects, two modellers, and ing, addressed to the chief authorities

a figure-painter, whom Mr. Hamilton resident at Athens, to whom they were - (now under-secretary of state) engaged delivered, and in whose hands they reat Rome, and dispatched with Lusieri, mained: so that your committee had no in the summer of 1800, from Constanti- opportunity of learning from Lord Elgia sople to Athens. They were einployed bimself their exacť teñour, or of ascere there about nine months, from August taining in what terms they noticed or 334 Report from the Select Committee on the Elgin Marbles. [May 1, allowed the displacing or carrying away benefit and advancement of the fine arts of these marbles. But Dr. Hunt, who in this country, to Mr. Pilt, Lord Greaaccompanied Lord Elgin as chaplain to ville, and Mr Dundas, suggesting to the embassy, has preserved, and has now them the propriety of considering it as a in his possession, a translation of the national object, fit to be undertaken, second fermaun, which extended the and carried into effect at the public expowers of the first; but as he had it not pense; but this recommendation was with him in London, to produce before in no degree encouraged, either at that your comunittre, he stated the substance time or afterwards. according to buis recollection, which was: It may not be unworthy of renark, • That, in order to show their particular that the only other piece of sculpture Jespect for the ambassador of Great which was ever removed from its place Britain, the august aliy of the Porte, was taken by Mr. Choiseul Gouffer, with whom they were now and had long when he was ambassador from France to been in the strictest alliance, they gave the Porte; but whether he did it by exto his excellency and to his secretary, press permission, or in some less ostenand the artists employed by him, the sible way, no means of ascertaining are most extensive permission to view, draw, within the reach of your committee. It and model, the ancient temples of the was undoubtedly at various times an idols, and the sculptures upon them; ohject with the French government to and to inake excavations, and to take obtain possession of these valuable reaway any stones that might appear inte. mains, and it is probable, according to resting to them.” He stated further, the testimony of Lord Aberdeen and that no remonstrance was at any time others, that at no great distance of time masle, oor displeasure shown, by the they might have been removed by that Turkish government, either at Constan- government from their original site, if tinople or at Athens, against the exten- they had not been taken away, and se sive interpretation which was put upon scured for this country by Lord Elgin. this fermaun; and although the work of The testimony of several of the most taking down and removing was going on eminent artists in this kingdom, who for months, and even years, and was have been examined, rates these marbles conducted in the most public manner- in the very first class of ancient art, numbers of native labourers, to the some placing them a little above, and amount of several hundreds, being fre- others, but very little below the Apollo quently employed---not the least obstruc- Belvidere, the Laocoon, and the Torso tion was ever interposed, nor the smallest of the Belvidere. They speak of them uneasiness shown, after the granting of with admiration and enthusiasm : and this second fermaun. Among the Greek notwithstanding the manifold injuries of population and inhabitants of Athens it time and weather, and those muulations isccasioned no sort of dissatisfaction; which they bave sustained from the forbut as Mr. Hamilton, an eye-witness, tuitous, or designed injuries of neglect, expresses it, so far from exciting any un- or mischief, they consider them as among pleasant sensation, the people seemed the finest models, and the most exquisite to feel it as the means of bringing fo- monuments of antiquity. The general reigners into their country, and of hav- current of this portion of the evidence ing money spent among them. The makes no doubt of referring the date of Turks showed a total indifference and these works to the original building of apathy as to the preservation of these the Parthenon, and to the designs of Phiremains, except when, in a fit of wanton dias, the dawn of every thing which destruction, they sometimes carried their adorned and ennobled Greece. With disregard so far as to do mischief by this estimation of the excellence of these Gring at thein. The numerous travellers works, it is natural to conclude that they and admirers of the Arts committed are recommended by the same autbogreater waste, from a very different ino- rities as highly fit, and admirably adapted tive; for many of those who visited the to form a school for study, to improre Acropolis tempted the soldiers and other our national taste for the Fine Arts, and people about the fortress, to bring them to diffuse a more perfect kuowledge of down heads, legs, or arms, or whatever them throughout this kingdom. other pieces they could carry off.

Muc!, indeeil, may be reasonably Antecedently in Lord Elgin's depar- hoped and expected, from the general obture for Constantinople, he communi- servation and admiration of such discated is mentions of bringing home tinguished examples. The end of the casts and drawings from Athens, for the fifteentb and beginning of the sixteenth

1816.) Report from the Sclect Committee on the Elgin Murbles. 335 centuries, enlightened by the discovery market, if it should be offered for sale of several of the noblest remains of an- without separation, could not be numetiquity, produced in Italy an abundant rous. Some of the sovereigns of Europe, harrest of the most eminent med, who added to such of the great galleries or made gigantic advances in the path of national institutions in various parts of Art, as painters, sculptors, and architects. the continent, as may possess funds at Caught by the novelty, attracted by the the disposal of their directors sufficient beauty, and enamoured of the perfec- for such a purpose, would in all probation of those newly disclosed treasures, bility be the only purchasers. they imbibed the genuine spitit of ancient It is not, however, reasonable nor beexcellence, and cransfused it into their coming the liberality of Parliament, to own compositions.

withhold upon this account, whatever, It is surprising to observe in the best of under all the circumstances, may be these marbles, in how great a degree the deemed a just and adequate price; and close imitation of nature is combined more particularly in a case where Parwith grandeur of style, while the exact liament is left to fix its own valuation, details of the former in no degree de- and no specific sum is demanded, or even tract from the effect and predominance suggested by the party who offers the of the latter.

collection to the public. The two finest single figures of this Your committee refer to Lord Elgini's collection differ materially in this res- evidence for the large and heavy charges pect from the Apollo Belvidere, which which have attended the formation of may be selected as the highest and most this collection, and the placing of it in sublime representation of ideal form and its present situation; which amount, beauty which sculpture has ever embo- from 1799 to January 1803, to 62,4401. died and turned into shape.

including 23,2401. for the interest of In the judgment of Mr. Payne Knight, money; and according to a supplemenwhose valuation will be referred to tal account, continued from 1803 to hereafter, the first class is not assigned 1816, to no less a suon than 74,0001, into the two principal statutes of this cluding the same sum for interest... collection; but he rates the Metopes Two valuations, and only two in dein the first class of works in high relief, tail, have been laid before your coinand knows of nothing so fine in that mittee, differing most widely in the parkind. He places also the Frize in the ticulars, and in the total; that of Mr. first class of low relief, and considering Payne Knight ainourting to 25,0001. and a general Museum of Art to be very dee that of Mr. Hamilton tu 60,8001. sirable, he looks upon such an addition The only other sum mentioned as !! to our national collection as likely to money price, is in the evidence of the contribute to the improvement of the Earl of Aberdeen, who named 35,000%. Arts, and to become a very valuable ac- as a sort of conjectural estimate of the quisition; for the importation of which whole, without entering into particuLord Elgin is entitled to the gratitude lars. of his country.

Io addition to the instances of prices The produce of this collection, if it quoted in Mr. Payne Knight's evidence, should be brought to sale in separate the sums paid for other celebrated mara lots, in the present depreciated state of bles deserve to be brought under the almost every article, and more particu- notice of the House. larly of such as are of precarious and fan The Townley collection, which was ciful value, would probably be much purchased for the British Museum in inferior to what may be denoininated its June, 1805, for 20,0001. is frequently intrinsic value.

referred to in the examinations of the The mutilated state of all the larger witnesses, with some variety of opinion figures, the want either of heads or fea- as to its intrinsic value; but it is to be tures, of limbs or surface, in most of the observed of all the principal sculptures Metopes, and in a great proportion of in that collection, that they were in exthe compartments even of the larger frize, cellent condition, with the surface prerender this collection, if divided, but fect; and where injured, they were ye-little adapted to serve for the decoration nerally well restored, and perfectly welt of private houses. It should, therefore, adapted for the decoration, and almost be considered as forming a whole, and for the ornamental furniture of a private should unquestionably be kept entire as house, as they were indeed disposed by a School of Art and study for the forma- Mr. Townley in his life-time. tion of artists. The competitors in the In what proportion the state of muti

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