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316 Tours of Professor Tauscher in Russia in Asia [May 1,

Hence the two ineffable numbers, or « Astrachan may be compared to a numbers whose roots cannot be obtained, card of patterns, on which specimens of will be 300 and 77, instead of 15 and 13. the greater part of the eastern nations

Permit me also to add, that this geo- are offered to our notice. Above twenty metric number is said by Proclus, (in different races of Asiatics, differing in Tim. p. 271) to comprehend in itself the their language, manners, and costume, proper motions of the fixed stars, and in and brought together from the remotest short, of all the bodies that revolve in regions, either by the impulse of self-inthe heavens, whether visibly or invisibly, terest or their mutual wants, engage the as likewise of the longer or shorter pe- attention of the inquisitive European, riods in the sublunary region, and of the Among the lively crowd, you may see fertility and sterility which there exists. the Hindu and the American jostling Hence he adds, it has also dominion the Persian and Buckharian, - or the over the period of the human race. Calmuc come in contact with the Rus.

Thomas TAYLOR. sian; cach frequently developing the peMunor-Place, Walworth.

culiar characteristic of his native coun

try by traits distinct in their nature, and SKETCH of the Tours of ProFESSOR forcible in their expression. Is it possi

Tauscuer in the SOUTHERN parts of ble to find a more striking difference than RUSSIA, &c. &c.

what exists between the mild, amiable (Concluded from p. 227.) Hindu, and the fierce, waspish Per“GURIEFF,which lies on a marshy is- sian,-- the lazy Mogul, and the fiery land near the influx of the Oral into the warlike Circassian ; or, the grovelling Caspian sea, and like the Samara lakes, selfish Armenian, and the

generous is surrounded by impenetrable thickets of spirited descendant of the illustrious reeds, is a most melancholy spot. I have Tartars? Of all this motley throug 1 reasons enough, and most disagreeable was most captivated by the gentle openreasons too, for remembering it on ac

countenanced Hindu, whose character count of the gnats, which are bred in the

seems to have retained the primitive neighbouring marshes, and fill the air simplicity of the human race, above with their countless hosts ; nothing can that of every other people, and whose exceed the pain, which the inhabitants origin and mythology may be traced back of these parts suffer from these vampires to the infancy of mankind. The settlers both day and night. Though you enve. of this nation, who are chiefly from Benlope your body with an atmosphere of gal and the Indian peninsula, amount to smoke, or cover your hands and face between thirty and forty, inclusive of one with ever so much care, or hood your. Bramin, and inhabit a spacious handself at niglut in a thick veil, there is still

some dwelling, built in the Oriental style no escaping from their stings. They with a large court in front. I paid repenetraie through the most impercep- peated visits to them in that abole during tible aperture, and satiate themselves

iny residence here, conversed with them with human blood.

through the medigin of the Russian tongue “ A variety of cireumstances prevented and was present at several of their relime from proceeding along the sea coast gious assemblies. Indeed, I was never to Astrachan, and I was delighted, there- in their society without feeling my es fore, to find a Tartarian vessel, in teem increased for their upright unaswbich, after rempaioing a few days here, şuming character, and the integrity wbich I set sail for that place. The Tartars their whole deportment bespeaks. are but sorry sailors, and kept us eleven In one of the various arms of the days on the passage, which good seamen Wolga, grows the beautiful plant, nelunwith a favourable wind, would have bo, properly a native of India, by wbose effected in two. A small island, at which tribes it is held sacred. It had been we touched on our passage, though expreviously found after some search, by tremely parched by the heat, afforded M. Londes,one of my precursors who died me several unknown plants.* Sailing at Georgieffsk, on the Caucasus, and had up one of the numerous arms, through been highly praised by him for its splendid which the Wolga flows into the Caspian, appearance. Being commissioned to we came to Astrachan, where I purposed transport it, if practicable, to the gardens remaining until I had received more at Gorenki, I went down in a gondola, certain accounts and directions from to Sedlüstow, about forty versts below Moscow.

Astrachan; this is an islet close to the They were of the Melilotus and Are- mouth of the Wolga, where the quaranpria species.

tine iş established. Here I pirocured-a

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by 1816.). - · Tours of Professor Tauscher in Russia in Asia 317

guide, who was acquainted with the Krasnoyar, a small town, about thirty dazy windings of the arms of the Wolga, versts distant from Astrachan, and con. as well as with the spot where the ne- pletely surrounded by water. This place lumbo is found, and was fortunate enough prored more welcome to us on account to meet with a great many specimens of of the rare species of water-fowl and this plant, in which Indian mythologists snipes, than oi the plants, which we colpretend to discover the sacred mystery of lected there. generation, fourishing in full bloom. It " That part of the steppe which lies grows on an insulated spot, in one of the near it, is generally visited during the side arms of the Wolga, where the summer, by the Konduroffsky Tartars, a' water is from two yards and a half, to roaming horde, who pass their winter in three yards in depth; and sends out fixed habitations, contrary to the usual its vigorous roots several yards around, custom of the Datives of the Steppes: over a fenny soil, whilst it annually these habitations compose two viliages, throws up young and verdant shoots situated cluse upon the Wolga. Of all above the water. Having carefully the wandering tribes I had yet niet deposited a sufficient number of these with, I found this by far the inost cioffsets in a vessel filled with water, vilized and wealthy. For some days I I immediately forwarded them by the was the guest of one of their most dispost from Astracban to Gorenki, To Linguished men. In his appearance, he the great delight of the botanists, as I resembled one of those patriarchs, was afterwards informed, they arrived at whose portraiture owes its existence to their destination in excelleni condition, the imagination of some celebrated arand were transplanted into a pond re- tist: the simplicity of bis inanners, the served purposely for their cultivation. mild and paternal solicitude with which In spite, however, of every care and pre- the master of the family governs every caution, the hope of domesticating this individual of his household, wives, chilirare and beautitul plant was completely, dren and servants, and I am almost frustrated, as it perished the very first tempted to add, the tender attention he winter after its transplantation.

bestows on his herds, consisting of “I then turned off from Sedlüstow horses, camels, oxen and sheep, which to the Island of the Four Hills, a few compose the wealth of the nomadic miles distant from the shore, wbich is tribes, and constitute almost is whole provided with a lofty lighthouse, as a livelihood, bring the pictures given us mark for vessels sailing into the Wolga. by the Scriptures of the primitive habits We collected several insects and beauti- of the world's earliest ages, forcibly to ful plants on this island.

our recollection. “ The country round Astrachan is of “ This tribe is not very numerous; at no great iaterest either in a botanical the utmost it includes scarcely nuore than or entomological point of view; though, five or six bundred kibitkes or tenis, and as I perceived from some specimens about five thousand souls. It is infinitely shewn to me by a collector, it must superior to any other steppic race, parbe much richer in those classes in the ticularly the Calmucs and Kirghisians. spring of the year. The goats wbich This is even externally evident from the render Gureff and its vicinity a com- greater cleanliness and size of their felt plete purgatory, also infest these quar- tents, their clothing, the attire of their lers though ju a less degree.

women, and the use they make of a pe “In conformity with advices from culiar species of carriage, (an inmense Moscow, I resolved to make a tour on covered waggon on two wheels, which the approach of autumn, into the steppic they call Arpa,) that serves as a moveable regions, lying to the north-east of Astra- dwelling for their women, and other apchan, and to devote it to the collecting purtenances. of saline plants. I quitted this place, * Three hundred versts from Kras-, therefore, in the first days of September; noyar, but more to the north than 'Arsaboth myself and my attendants having far, lies a rock-salt hill, similar to, though previously performed quarantine at So- better known than the former, and called lanka, on the opposite bank of the Wol- by the Moguls, Tschaptschatschi. ga. It was not, however, so rigidly ob- the centre of a circle of rather teep hills, served as to debar us from making ex- from fourteen to fifteen versts in circunycursions round the adjoining countryference, where masses of rock-salt, some. during its continuance. Hence I ren times covered over with a thin laver of crossed to the left bank of the Wolga, earth, occasionally project, is a hollow and sailed down one of its side-arms to of a crater-like form, and some versts

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318 Miscellaneous Inquiries.

(May 1, un circuit. When the snow melts in the route we had taken two years before, spring, it is filled with water, which the to the other side of the Wolga, and ultiheat of the summer afterwards exhales, mately to Sarepla. leaving bebind a mixture of saltpetre, « Various considerations determined glauber-slt,and common salts. The ac- us to winter there. The Buckharian clivities as well as the borders of this mission being apparently abandoned, a salt-lake are covered with a great variety variety of propositions and negociations of saline herbs; but we were unsuccess- were set on foot on the subject of a ful in our search after the rare and beau- journey on a more extensive scale to the tiful Sals, rosacea of Pallas, to which my delightful Persian province of Masandeparticular attention had been directed. ran, (lying on the southern coast of the Between these salt-hills and the Achtuba, Caspian,) near the frontiers of which the we unexpectedly met with a spot, where expedition of the younger Gmelin once the Pallusia, of which we bad before terminated in so melancholy a way. found a single plant only on the lakes of “ A dangerous illness which after. Kamysch Samara, grew in great abund- wards attacked me at Sarepta, was fol.

lowed by several relapses, and my re“ From Wolodimirofka on the Ach- covery from it was but slow and tuba, I again visited lake Bogdo, whose dual; this expelled every thought of a environs I had explored in the spring greater undertaking from my mind. two years before: it now wore a totally “ M. Herrman, who had hitherto been different aspect. The gay and luxuriant my companion, set out on an excursion scene of the spring bad disappeared to the southern environs of the Don, beand was succeeded by a few salive herbs. tween Katschalsca and Tscherkaskoi, the These, however being the object of our capital of the Dor Cossacks. But I mypresent pursuit, we gleaned an unex- self, returned through Tambow and pectedly rich harvest of them, and found Riesen to Moscow and Gorenki, in the sereral sorts that have been hitherto beginning of June 1812." H. W. S. unnoticed, I then returned by the same

MISCELLANEOUS INQUIRIES. ORIGIN OF THE NAME OF ELSPETH. is the author of the following lines :

Scotus observes: “ The name of Els- When winds breathe soft along the silent deep, PET Or Elspeth is cominou in our fainily, The waters curl, the peaceful billows sleep; abich is of Scottish origin. My friends A stronger gale the troubled wave awakes ; have frequently enquired the derivation The surface roughens, and the ocean shakes, of this name, which does not appear to

More dreadfulstill, when furious storms arise, be handed down from great antiquity: On liquid rocks the tottring vessel's toss'd,

The mounting billows bellow to the skies; I am inclined to believe that it has been brought across the North Sea from Den- The raging waves, excited by the blast,

Unnumber'd surges lash the foaming coast; mark, or Lower Saxony, where if I am

Whiten with wrath, and split the sturdy mast: not mistaken, Elzbeth, or as it is pro- When in an instant, he who rules the floods

, nounced Elzpet, (a contraction for Eli- Earth, air and fire, Jehovah ! God of Gods! zabeth) is not uncommon. If any of In pleasing accents speaks his sov'reign will, your numerous readers can give me some And bids the waters and the winds be suill! information on this subject, I shall feel Hush'd are the winds, the waters cease to roat; gratified and obliged."

Safe are the seas, and silent as the shore. OSWELD'S AIR-POETICAL LINES. Now say, what joy elates the sailor's breast, A NATIVE OF WINDSOR, (see Vol. IV. With prosp'rous gales so unexpected blest! 211,) begs us to state that he should What ease, what transport, in cach face is feel much obliged if W. S. (p. 389) could

seen! procure him a sight of the printed copy The heav'ns look bright, the ass and sea of “ Osweld's Air," mentioned in his

serene ; communication. He would gladly wait For ev'ry plaint we hear a joyful strain on W. S. at any time and place, and

To him, whose pow'r unbounded rules the show him what further information he

main. has collected, respecting the parish

APRIL FOOL DAY, chimes at Windsor.

NED RETLAS wishes for an elucidation The same correspondent will be tbank- of the origin of the practice of making ful to any one who can inform him who fools on the first of April.

1816.)

[319]

THE GUARDIAN OF HEALTH.

NUMBER VII.

ON THE BENEFITS OF FREQUENTING WATERING-PLACES. HOW few of the inhabitants of towns that by fears equally absurd, and another live agreeably to the general rules for by the most frightful dreams

that the preservation of health, which were melancholy can suggest. One who has the subject of a former paper! It is in all his heart can desire, possesses novain to preach to them what they ought thing, because he is incapable of any or ought not to do, in the expectation of enjoyment. Another, by dint of mediobtaining a strict observance of the pre- tation upon all the misfortunes that cepts that we inculcate. Every man, might by possibility chance to befal from the most independent monarch to bim, completely cuts himself off from the purchased slave, has peculiar duties the means of remedying such as actually incident to his station, which he ought overtake him. Melancholy, depression to perform even at the expense of his of spirits, indolence, indigestion, want life and health, Were the soldier to take of appetite, nausea, flatulence, obstrucit into his head no longer to expose him- tions, unpleasant dreams, spleen, vaself to cold and rain; the tailor not to pours, vitiated juices, and a thousand sit in a bending posture; the man of let- other plagues, are the constant cumpaters not to meditate ; the merchant not nions of merchants, artists, men of letto write and keep accounts; the women ters, women, wealthy idlers and the vonot to wash, sew, and cook; were, in taries of luxurious indulgence; and yet short, every individual determined to all these are complaints for which no do nothing but what is consistent with person need keep bis bed or neglect the rigid rules of health, the world would his employment, although they may soon be overrun with lazy and hearty beg, sometimes require the exercise of a phygars; and the fruits of such a general sician's skill for their alleviation or reself-indulgence would be the total abo- moval. lition of all ranks in society, nay, even

Of all remedies the most effectual for the destruction of society itself. We the persons in question, is a trip to some live, not merely for the sake of existe watering-place; and that they may be the ing, but that we may be serviceable to more ready to try it, as I know them to the world. To be worthy of that life be rather slow in their resolves, I will which the Creator hath given us, we

state the benefits which may be expected must possess the courage to sacrifice it from their compliance. I shall premise when necessary for the benefit of our that. I confine myself to the advantages fellow creatures, and we must be satis- which are common to most kinds of fied with such a state of health, as the mineral waters: as an enumeration of the duties of the trade or profession which peculiar qualities of each species could we have voluntarily embraced will allow not be brought within a reasonable comus to enjoy.

pass. Merchants, artists, literati, and the Most of the patients, whose case I am female sex in general, are obliged by now considering, are prevented by their their respective avocations to follow mode of life from taking sufficient exsuch an unnatural mode of life, as often ercisc. They are mostly fixed to their renders them sickly and ailing. If we chairs. Their juices beconie depraved. could but hear those persons who scem' Their digestive powers are weakened, all bustle and vivacity as they pass along and obstructions in the viscera are prothe streets complaining in private to duced by the compression of the abdotheir physicians, their friends, or by men, and from these sources spring themselves, we should be astonished to most of their disorders. find how much secret misery oppresses

At a watering-place, the rules genemankind. One cannot touch a morsel rally prescribed to those persons who at the most sumptuous entertainment drink the waters, require them to assist because he has no appetite, and his sto- the effects of the Auid by a due portion mach no power of digestion ; to ano- of bodily exercise. At such times, therether almost every kind of food is too fore, they return to their obedience to strong, and all sorts of liquors over- nature, who requires of us incessant acbeating; while a third sits distended tivity, if we would continue in health. with Batulence and gasps for breath. Here the man bloated'with fat accumu* This man istorinented by absurd doubts, lated in sitting still, waddles along as fast

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320 On the Benefits of frequenting Watering-places. [May 1, as the asthmatic female, who has not place is most needful, are low-spirited, snuffed the fresh air since the month of dissatisfied persons, enemies to pleasure, September. Here the spare scholar and society, mirth, and the enjoyments of the rotund alderman, the deformed sense." I must, therefore, inform them artist and the gouty squire, the cachec. that water-drinking alone would be of tic prelate, and the hypochondriac peer, very little benefit to them, unless they all meet in pursuit of the same object, take part in every thing, however triand are all impelled to an exertion of their vial they may consider it, that tends to active powers. In exercise alone they divert their minds, and to dispel some of find the means so indispensable to them, the darkness which envelopes their of securing themselves against the bad gloomy imagination. consequences of a too luxurious or too The amusements to be preferred are sedentary life. By these means they those connected with bodily exercise. quicken ihe circulation of the blood, and for the most delicate, excursions in conproduce a better commixture of all their venient vehicles or upon the water, in juices. They promote the due perform- calm warm weather, may answer this ance of all the natural functions of the purpose. To stronger persons, I would viscera, and strengthen by exercise their recommend walking, battledore and relaxed muscles. Hence we fee bow shuttlecock, conversation, singing, munecessary it is that water-drinkers should sical exercises especially dancing, shootseek to enjoy this advantage in its fullesting, and hunting. Whoever considers extent. For this reason I should advise these amusements as improper or sinfol, them to repair to the fountain-bead, in- should be informed that this way of stead of having the water brought to thinking is merely a consequence of that them; for, in truth, the journey itself mental disease, for the cure of which he is more beneficial to such persons than is ordered to drink the waters and to the water. Neither is it sufficient for dance. them to walk only the distance pre- Next to bodily exercises come those scribed; they ought to pass the re- amusements which consist in an agree mainder of the day in gentle exercise, able diversion and occupation of the and to lead a real country life. Walking, mind, and with which those hours may riding, dancing, conversation, are all be filled up when exercise cannot be wholesome exercises with which the visi- taken. The reading of entertaining works tors at watering-places should diversify suitable to the taste of each individual, the day, without sitting down to the society, music, balls, masquerades, change gaming-table and passing the whole af- of objects, the contemplation of nature, ternoon or evening in an employment fishing, fowling, but above all, tbeatrialike destructive of health of body and cal exhibitions are excellently adapted to tranquillity of mind.

this purpose. A play transports the One of the greatest benefits of water. spectator, as it were, into a new world, ing-places is the diversion of the mind in which he with pleasure forgets from the usual avocations, and its being bimself and the old one. The mind of occupied in seeking incessant amuse- that person must be a perfect blank, ment. For this reason also it is better devoid alike of feeling and of thought, not to driuk the water at home, but at who can witness a good play, well pers its source, or in some strange place, formed, without interest and gratificawhere the objects are novel and agree- tion. I can easily imagine that my br. able, and of a totally different kind pochondriacs may have strong scruples from those which people are in the daily about going to the theatre. But they habit of seeing. This a very essential may rely upon it that a virtuous mind is point for my patients, whose malady is not in such danger of contamination as often more in the mind than in the body. they fancy, from theatrical exhibitions ; The visitors at a watering-place must be- and lest my arguments should have very come Arcadian swains and shepherdesses. little weight with them, I will appeal to The fields, the gardens, the meadows, the great reformer, Luther, whose are must be their haunts, the azure firma- thority they will not question. In bis meix their covering, the verdant turf Table-talk, cap. xxxvi. on Schools, chis their couch, the pure air their element, pious man expressly says, “ Christians and amusement their object. Some ought not to renounce plays entirely, be:usements are to be preferred to others, cause obscenities and gallantries some but no kind must be wholly rejected, if times occur in them, for in this case, 10 other is to be had. In general, we ought not for the same reason to read those for wbom & visit to a watering the Bible. It is therefore frivolous to

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