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301 may be made evident by presenting the place the conductor of the work may fame of a candle first near the roof, and think best for firing the gas, or for ascer then near the pavement, when it will be taining if there be any. The apparatus, seen to burn brighter at the roof than at although very simple, may be made to the pavement.
fire the inflammable gas at any given The carburated hydrogen gas, known time after being left, so as to allow the to miners by the name of fire-damp, or men sufficient time to quit the works inflammable air, being the lightest of the before the explosion. three, foats upon the atmospheric air, I next turned my attention to a mer occupying a space of more or less exo thod to prevent the accumulation of tent, according to its quantity, next to this gas. The first thing proposed in the roof of the workings, is ignitible by adopting this plan, was to attend strictly fiame, but not by sparks from flint and to the ventilation, not only of the going steel,
works, but also of the wastes immeThe tube that Dr. Murray proposes diately adjoining to them; cutting off to attach to the bottom of his lamp such parts of the wastes as are not necescase, will undoubtedly supply his lanp sary for ventilating the going works, by with carbonic acid girs, whenever that building up all the communications, gas floats along the parenent by which when found practicable, as air-tight as the flame of his lamp, in such cir- possible. It is likewise proposed, that cumstances, will be extinguished. To the stoppings, or buildings in the walls, remedy this in part, the tube may be stentings, or throughers, be substantially made to screw on and off from the case built, and be made as air-tight as posat pleasure; and within the circumfe- sible, and that the trap-doors be made rence of the screw, at the bottom of to shut air-tight, on purpose that the the case, holes may be made, sufficient current of atmospheric air may circulate to admit just air enough for the com- through the workings in proper channels, bustion of the lamp, as proposed by Sir for the better rentilation of the works. H. Davy.
A plan should be made, and kept, of In cutting a mine across the strata, the whole works, including the adjoining more or less water is always met with ; wastes, where all the channels or pasand when the face or head of the mine sages that the air circulates along, are to is cut to a great distance from an air be conspicuously marked with red and pit, the air then becomes, as the miners black darts, that point out the direction term it, scarce: it becomes contami- of the current; the red darts pointing nated with the breath of the miners, one direction of the current, and the and the heat of their lamps; their lamps black darts the contrary direction. As then give less and less light, until they the currents below ground frequently will no longer burn. It is, however, change their direction from various found in such cases, that the lainps burn causes, such as a change in the direcwith more brightness near the surface tion of the winds upon the surface, of the water, in the mine, than near its opening new communications between roof. It is therefore probable, that different parts of the works below ground, Dr. Murray's lamp, with a flexible tube, &c.; from such causes, sometimes one might, in such circumstances, be found pit will take the dranght (as it is termed of much use.
by the Scotch colliers), and at other In some collieries, where small quan- times another. By these changes, án tities of the carburated hydrogen col- experienced coal-oversman will at all lect, men are found hardy enough to times be enabled to point out the direcenter the works covered with wet skins, tion of the currents on bis under-ground and to crawl along the under-ground pass plan. sages until they reach certain points, These changes frequently affect the when they lay themselves flat upon the quality of the air, especially when the pavement, and then fire the works, as current comes in a direction froin old they term it. This mode of exploding wastes. But one of the principal causes the inflammable air, led me to think of of a change in the purity of ihe air in the following safer method, viz. : to coal works, is occasioved hy the changes make a self-acting apparatus (which it that take place in the atmosphere; for is unnecessary here to describe), to be when the mercury in the baromeier is carried by the light giren by a steel mill ligh, the air in the wastes bec.vines (a binall machine' that gives light by dense; and when the mercury b. comes flirning a 'plain thin cylinder of steel low, the air in the wastes expands uotil against a piece of Aint), to whatever it becomes of an equal rarity with the
302 Recommendation of Polyænus to the Greek Student.
(May 1, surrounding air; and it will therefore
MR. EDITOR, mix with the air in the going works, and IT is a matter of great surprise to me, if of a noxious quality, will more or less that in most of our public schools, some contaminate the whole air in the works. interesting and useful classical authors For which reason, it is here recom- have not been introduced to promote mended to cut off the communication of with greater facility the improvement of as large a proportion of the old wastes the student. In the study of the Greek as is found practicable with a view to language, which is the most difficult prevent, in some measure, the great and perhaps of all, surely much advantage sudden changes in the air that take might be gained, and very much labour place in under-ground works.
spared, by putting into the hands of a The roof of the air-courses ought also young student a Greek author wbose to be cut at certain places into a Gothic style was clear and intelligible, whose form. In executing this, inuch depends matter was useful and interesting, and on a skilful choice of those places, as it language pure and elegant. is in them that it is proposed to inter: Through the medium of your valuable cept the inflamınable gas as it moves and highly respectable magazine, allow along, by placing a lamp of a particular me to recommend to the young classical construction (difficult to describe without scholar, the historical writings of Polyo a figure) near the roof, at each of these nus. The subjects of which he treats Gothic-formed places, with a view to in- are highly interesting ; his language is Aame the carburated hydrogen, as it perspicuous and elegant, and exceedgenerates and becomes inflammable, by ingly well adapted to the knowledge and a mixture of atmospheric air. These capacity of the unexperienced student. lamps are to be so constructed that the Possessing these peculiar advantages, its current of air, however strong, will not very limited use in our celebrated clas. blow them out, and are to be so tormed sical schools, is somewhat extraordinary as to push up their own wicks, by which and unaccountable. As far as my owa means they may be made to burn 24 experience goes, I am authorized in hours, or more, after being left to them. stating that no Greek historian can be selves.
read by the young student with more These lamps are not only to be distri- lively interest and advantage. buted in the air passages of the going In the preface to the grammar of Mes works, but also in the air passages of sieurs de Port Royal, this author is the wastes immediately connected with strongly recommended as being the most the works.
suitable bistorian to be put into the A slender wick will be quite sufficient, hands of youth. The subjects treated and therefore each lamp will consume of by Polyænus, say they, are " written but a small quantity of oil, the ex- with extraordinary ease, clearness, and pence of which, I trust, will not be put purity." in competition with the lives of the To this recommendation, allow me, workers,
Sir, to add that of Harwood: “ I cannot It is further proposed, that one man forbear,” says this learned writer, " et shall take the charge of the whole lamps, pressing a wish that this entertaining which should be kept burning day and author, whose language is very easy and night. He will have to renew their elegant, were introduced into our schools, wicks once in twenty-four hours, and or that those who begin to learn the supply them with oil; and also to at. Greek language would read Polyænus ; tend and see that the air passages be they would meet with few difficulties, kept at all times clear and open. and be highly entertained and inThis inan may ascertain if any of his proved."
H, B. lamps have fired inflammable gas during bis absence, by suspending a small tuft MR. EDITOR, of flax or tow to the roof on each side OBSERVING, that you some time of each lamp, at the distance of a few since noticed in your provincial intelinches, in a line with the current of the ligence* a very valuable literary endorair and fame of the lamps.
ment at Manchester, and as it is not In the execution of this scheme, very probable that many of your readers much will depend on the ventilation of can be acquainted with the object, if the work, and the arrangement of the even the existence, of an institution of so lamps.
I am, &c. ALEX, SCOTT. local a nature, I send you a very intelliOrmiston, near Tranent, N.B.
gent account of this important establish Alarch, 1816.
New Monthly Mag. Vol. II., foi-Sept. p.182.
1816.) Account of Cheetham's Library, Manchester.
309 ment, published three or four years ago, public. For Mr. Cheetham founded in a catalogue of Mr. Dulau's. The ac bis expressly for the public ; and it is count deserves a more permanent preser- accordingly opened to the public every vation than it is likely to find in the morning, except saints' days; and every fugitive record of a mere shop catalogue, evening except Thursday and Saturday. and on these accounts. I trust you will A month's vacation, however, is allowed at think it worthy of a place in the pages Christmas, and another at Midsummer, of your literary recorder. SCRUTATOR. when of course the library is shut. Wbile Berkshire, March 6, 1816.
Open, a person deputed by the librarian A short account of the Manchester Li. is constantly in attendance, for the pur
pose of handing down and cleaning any Every lover of venerable antiquity, books that may be wanted. These and of literature in general, will learn may be consulted and studied, either in with pleasure that there is at Manches. the library or in the adjoining readingter, a inost valuable library, consisting of room, where the public are accommothe choicest books in every department dated with every convenience necessary of science. It was founded and richly for the purpose, such as pens and ink, endowed by Mr. HUMPHREY CHEETHAM, and in winter and cold weather also who died in 1653, and who directed his with fire. trustees to purchase for the use of the · The number of volumes is said to library, and the residence of 40 poor amount to 18,000. It is not a little reboys, for whose education and main- markable that the college seems perfect tenance he also provided, the old college in all its parts, as it was at the dissolution which was originally built in the reign of the religious houses; and that it and of Henry V. for the wardens and fel- the adjoining collegiate church are built lows of the adjoining collegiate church, on the site of a Roman camp, and in an at the expense of Thomas Lord Delawar. angle formed by the two rivers Irk and - The college was accordingly purchased Irwell, whose streams unite under the and the trustees of this noble charity were lofty and craggy rock, on which the old incorporated by a charter, granted by college is erected.* Charles II. in 1665: and no labor or ex P. S. I cannot help expressing a wish pence seems to have been spared to an- that any of your correspondents who have swer the beneficent purposes of the it in their power to communicate intelligence founder. The property which was left of institutions in England, similar to the by him for the use and augmentation of foregoing, would contribute the particulars the library, and for the board &c. of of them through the pages of your widely the librarian amounts at present to nearly
circulated journal. 7001. per annum.
[In this wish of our esteemed correspondent Some idea of this library may be
we most cordially coincide.-EDITOR.] forned from the following enumeration of the different heads, under which the MR. EDITOR, books are arranged in the catalogue ON examining the passage in the Mowhich was drawn up and published by the saic history of Cain, to which C. E. B. Rev. John Ratcliff, the late librarian refers in your Magazine for February, in 1791.
it is obvious that our present authorized Biblia Polyglotta.
version is not correct, “ We read, that (in variis linguis).
the Lord set a mark upon Caio, lest any Concordantia.
finding him should kill him." But the Interpretes Christiani et Rabbinici.
Hebrew nix (oth) translated a mark. S.S. Patres (Græci et Latini).
should have been rendered a sign or Bibliothecæ patrum et auctor.
token; thus the rainbow was appointed Scriptor, eccles, collectiones.
nix (leoth) for a sign that the earth Concilia.
should no more be destroyed by the wa Jus canonicum.
ters of the Flood; and, withoat doing any Libri Liturgici.
violence to the original, the words of Scriptores scholastici. dogmatici.
Moses may be thus translated; And the Theologia miscellanea.
Lord appointed unto Cain a token, that Tractatus de controv, catholica. any finding him should not kill him.-Historia ecclesiastica.
“ The Vulgate," observes the learned Acta Martyrum, &c.
and laborious Mr. BOOTHROYD, "has Other libraries in England, especially misled most modern translators, renderat Oxford and Cambridge, may possess ing, “Posuitque Dominus in Cain sigWe same and even greater treasure: but num:' nis never signifies a mark for they are not equally the property of the See his Hebrew Bible, in loco.
304 Answer to a Query suggested by the Mosaic History of Cain. (May 1, brand: it denotes a sign, token, or won- For such the vigour of primeval man, derful etent. Although D1 signifies Through number'd centuries his period ran, to place or set, it is often used in the And the first parents saw their hardy race, sense of ins; and such is its significa- O'er the green wilds of habitable space, tion wherever connected with mixe."
By tribes and kindreds scatter'd wide and far, This interpretation is at once rational Bencath the track of every varying star.** and consistent. To have set a mark It is, therefore, improperly assumed that, upon Cain, lest any finding him should when Cain became “the fugitive of care kill him, could never be the act of Infi- and guilt," there were “ only his aged nite Wisdom; such a mark, instead of parents existing." And should the want contributing to his safety, would only of scripture evidence be urged as an obhave rendered his crime the more noto. jection to these calculations, it ought to rious; and by exposing him to the indigo be remembered, that a complete bistory nation of his species, would have been of mankind was never intended by the likely to bring upon him the very evil author of the Pentateuch. His object he had reason to fear. It is, therefore, was to give such an account of the Holy the opinion of some, that, in order tó Seed as might preserve the line of prevent despair, and alleviate the dis- CHRIST through successive ages, exhibit tress of a penitent, something miracu. the predictions and pronises respecting lous was effected, whereby he obtained him, and uufold the plan of human res assurance that his life should be pre- demption, as it was gradually made served. But there is more reason to known from the earliest periods of suppose that some object in nature was time. Being divinely inspired to write fixed upon as a sign, to remind him of such things as were suited to the beginthat protection which God had gracious- ning and progress of revelation, he ly ordained in his behalf.
would be naturally led to omit whatever With respect to the question, “ What was not necessary to his purpose; need bad Cain to fear?" I observe, that inserting such incidental circumstances about this period the inhabitants of the only, as were either adapted to illosworld were probably very numerous. trate the perfections of God, or were According to the consputation of Arch- some way connected with the main bishop Usher, the death of Abel took design. Hence we are not to look for place in the year of the world 128. those minute particulars in the writings * Now if we suppose that Adam and of Moses, which are naturally expected Eve had no other sons than Cain and in other histories. Abel in the year of the world 128, their Considering well the design of Scripdescendants would make a considerable ture, as a divine revelation, it is easy to figure on the earth. Supposing them to conceive why, at the expatriation of Cain, have been married in the nineteenth year " we find no mention of any female beof the world, they might easily have had sides Eve." But that there were others cach eight children, some males and “then existing," appears from a plain some females, in the twenty-fifth year. statement of the fact, in the very same In the fiftieth year there might proceed chapter. When Cain therefore resided from them in a direct line 64 persons; in the Land of Nod," he had a wife"; in the seventy-fourth year there would but if C. E. B. imagines that we have be 572; in the ninety-eighth year 4096; any intimation of his entering into the in the one hundred and twenty-second married state at that time, he has evithey would amount to 32,768 : if to these dently made a mistake, of which he will we add the other children descended be immediately convinced, by re-examinfrom Cavu and Abel, their children, and ing that part of the sacred liistory:-TO their children's children, we shall have the question," how came hie by hrs wife ?" in the aforesaid one hundred and twenty- we can only answer, that by complying eight years, four hundred and twenty- with the peculiar necessity of those early one thousand one hundred and sixty-four times, be was united to a daughter of men, without reckoning the women either Eve, whose birth it was not necessary old or young."* Such an amazing in- for Moses to mention. Such a union ia crease of inankind is firely illustrated the fainily of Adam, involved no improby one of our sweetest poets, when al- priety; but as one great design of marluding to this period in ihe Mosaic his- riage is the promotion of friendship, and çory of the world :
a combination of interests, for the geAges meanwhile, as ages row are told, neral advantage of society, the union of O'er the young world in long succession roll'd: Montgomery's World before the Flood,
*See Commentary and Notes on the canto 1, Bible by Dr. Adam Clarke,
1816.) On Premiuins with Articled Clerks-On Literary Criticism. 305 near relations was afterwards forbidden; permitting them to transact bis busiand perhaps the divine law was chiefly iness, therehy saving him the expense of founded on those considerations which paying salaries to others, which lie regard mankind in their social capacity. inight be forced to do if unprovided with But enough has been said in answer to articled clerks.
SPECTATOR. the query proposed in your Magazine; London, March 29, 1816. and I have only to add my best wishes that it may long continue the medium of
ON LITERARY CRITICISM. useful information, and free discussion, IN considering this subject, I shall not Haverfordwest.
J. B. designedly introduce any remarks on the
fine arts, nor yet on what is termed MR. EDITOR,
“philosophical criticisin," but confine I TAKE the liberty of addressing you myself solely to that which respects li on behalf of all such as shall hereafter terature, and shall first mention the neapply to be articled to a solicitor, in cessary inental qualifications of a literary order to their admission into the pro- critic, then very briefly show how the fession of the law. These, I conceive, works of an author ought to be reviewed, labour under a heavy species of taxa- and, lastly, point out some of the princi- * tion, which seems to have only for its pal uses of literary criticism. object the enriching the solicitor at the To be a proper critic on new publicaespence of those I have mentioned, tions in modern times, requires, 1. An without his being entitled in any such extensive knowledge of books. Besides species of profit. I do not allude to the being well acquainied with the standard stamp duties imposed on clerks, both on old books, a critical censor ought to be their being articled and their subse well read in those which have been pubquent admission (which are perhaps ne- lished witiin the last thirty years, and cessary to render the profession respect- especially such of them as are on the able), but to the usage of the solicitor suliject which he is reviewing. For ins requiring a very high premium (venerally purpose his memory must be good, and 300 guineas) on taking an articleu clerk. either his own library should be large, It would seem that the time and ser or he should have access to some library vices of the clerk were a sufficient com- which is so.--2. Still in languages. pensation for the duty undertaken by the Such as are appointed to review books master of instructing him in the myste- written either wholly or in part, in the ries of the profession; and surely as the living or dead languages, must have a requiring a premium is entirely optional, gramınatical knowledge of them. Much and the profession itself is accordingly skill in mathematics is also necessary in not rendered more respectable by the those who take that department in a lie payment of it, nor is the clerk entitled terary journal, as well as an acquaintto any additional advantages by so do- ance with medicine, in such as have ing, it might be supposed that a con that part assigned them; and in every scientious solicitor would be unwilling to department a critical knowledge of the add to the already great expense of ad- English language is indispensable.---3. A mission, and accordingly relinquish a habit of close and correct 'thinking. measure which is entirely partial, and on Without this, even recondite learning that account more obnoxious to the suf- and extensive reading will not be suffiferers by it. But it is well known that cient; but when the subject, passing a solicitor will, on the contrary (where under review, is surveyed in all polits there is no connexion between the par- of view, and the thinking upon it close, ties), make the above demand, and correct, and discriminative, it is not althereby, perhaps, compel one desirous ways necessary that the reviewer should to be brought up to the profession, and be a profound scholar. As in new theowhose talents might render him pecu- logical publications, a critical censor of liarly adapted to it (if unable or unwil that department should not only be well ling to comply with the demand), either acquainted with the Bible and ecclesias-to article himself to one of interior prac- tical history, but know all the peculiaritice, or abandon the profession altige ties of doctrinal and experimental divi. ther. I shall be glad if any of your nity, and be of a candid disposition, readers will furnish an argument why a without any sectarian bias.--4. A cool, solicitor (who may have two clerks at a and discriminate judgment. Some meny time) should receive for every five years of deep learning and fine taste have of his practice, the enormous suin of strong passions, which otien are 600 guineas, as a premium, in fact, for much indulged, that they do not see, or New MONTHLY Mao.-No. 28,