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1816.] Inconsistency of one of the London Missionary Societies. 221

Since I have made some critical ob- sionary Suciety, foriner about 1796 or servations in the course of this survey, sooner, the Church Mi,sionary Socieiy, I shall take the liberty of subjoining two and the Biptist Missionary Society.

There is very little diference in the The bandsomost of the entrances 10 two former, as to their views of relia London, is indisputably by Westmin- yious truth; each promotes its own ster-bridge, Parliament-street, White- opinions of church government and of ball, and Charing Cross, where the in- birptisin: but the latter maintains what quis.tive stranger meets with the first the society calls " Fundamental Prinstatue that falls under bis potice upon ciple.” They say “our design is not to bis arrival. But in what a state is the send Presbyterianisin, Independency, spot which immediately surrounds it? Episcopacy (about which there may be The approach is, as it were, interdicted difference of opinion among serious perby cares, or by materials which inces- sons), but the glorious gospel of the santly blockade it, and by fill of the blessed God to the bleathen : and that it most disgusing kind that covers the shall be left (as it ought to be left) to the pavement. A very simple method to minds of the persons, whom God may gire to this little place, and the monu- call into the fellowship of his Son, from ment which adorns it, that importance among them, to assum- for themselves,

luich they ought to have, would be to such forin of church government, as to prevent carts from taking their station them shall appear most agreeable to the ibere; it would then be easy to keep it word of God." in a due state of cleanliness. This in- To the latter part of this "fundamendeed becomes absolutely necessary at a

tal principle" no one can object, to time wlien improvements, repairs, and leaving the choice of that form of church embellishments, are going forward at government, the heathen converts may once in every part of the capital. see fit to chuse, to bis own election :

The court before the principal en- though it seems hy this admission, that trance to St. Paul's, without being large, the society suppose the converts will possesses an air of grandeur. A colossal form themselves into a Christian society statue or a group of figures cannot be called'a church; and it is to be supposed otherwise than judiciously placed there; some form of church order and governit cannot fail to attract notice. But the ment will be fixed, as near as the coneye is shocked if it perceives that such

gines or believes to be revealed statues are mutilated in the face ; if, for in the Scriptures. Whether the society lustance, the nose is broken off. Such thinks the missionary should state all is precisely the state in which the statue the view's Christians maintain on this of Queen Anne, as well as the figures point, or relate only to the poor bcathat

accompany her pedestal, now ap- then the inissionary's own views ou tic pear. The remedy is easy: let this subject, the declaration of the sciety group be removed, and let the chisel of does not point out: Flaxman produce a demi-colossal statue But a difficulty rises as to the former in marble of the same queen; or if part of the “ Fundamental Principle," preferred, it might be of bronze, or which per baps may want clearing, that merely of stove.

is, why so little stress, in fact, why so QUATREMERE DE Roissy. much indifference is shewn to a prefra London, Jan. 1816.

rence being given to unij form of churcis

government? as little, as if none MR. EDITOR,

commanded in the scriptures. Some llaving noticed the admission into form of worship is practised by Chris your useful miscellany, of accounts from tians of all denominations in Europe, thie Missionaries in Africa, &c. for pro- how comes it about that none whatever moting Christianity, I have long wished is worthy of recommendation in the dark to have some difficulties solved, that regions of Africa and the South Seas? have passed my mind when reading the At home the directors and members

Fundamental Principleof the Mise of this society profess Presbyterianism, sionary Society; which I hope, some of Independency, 'Episcopacy, &c. &c. your intelligent correspondents will be they belong io societies called churches able to clear, not onl: to my satisface of these denominations; but ubrvad how tion, but to that of others, who enter- different !-they do not wish to promote tain similar doubts with myself.

what they themselves believe to be coniThere are, I am informed, three inis- sistent with the scripture revelation. If sionary, societies in London; the Mis- Presbyterians and 'Independents think



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Inconsistency of one of the Lordon Missionury Societies. (April 1, no form of church government is ordered tive energy of the legislative authorities by Christ, why not unite with the esta- of England, and Queen Elizabeth, the blished religion of the country? But does sovereign of the land, brought the not the glorious gospel of " the blessed Church of England into being like Adam, God" require its professors to worship full grown, with all ber soul and body; him by some torin or mode of worship? but she has also her garments, her gites, When a Presbyterian, Independent, or and her ornaments; many other things Espiscopalian, sits down to the holy we can say against this creature of the communion with the church to which he

state -- but pray, gentlemei), do not belongs, does he not believe it a com- frown." mand of Christ? by this act, does lie not “ We are dissatisfied with the multiacknowledge the form of church go- plicity of offices and diguities among the vernment professed by the meinbers of clergy. This multitude of names and that community? and are the commands tilles does not savour of the simplicity of Christ of little or no obligation? of the gospel-how odd would a list of

When our Saviour said to bis disciples, these various names appear to a cod. - Go ye therefore and teach all nations, verted pagan! Supposing he heard a baptising them in the name of the Fa- humble missionary calling himself a mither, the Son, and the Holy Ghost;" he vister of Christ, and naturally supposed added these remarkable words, “teach- this to be its form in every country in mg them to observe all things what. Christendom, what would the poor pasvever I have commanded you."

gan exclaim, · Peter I know, and Pael In the Alissionary Chronicle for June, I know, but who are ye?' On the 1814, the Society admits, as the “ Fun- whole, so uuscriptáral are the ideas of oamental Principle" declares, there may the Church of England in the four orbe difference of opinion among sprious dinances of baptism, confirmation, parts persons on this subject; by this acknow- of the service for the visitation of the Ledgment, the directors think it a mat- sick, and burial service, so erroneous the ier of some importance; but wishing to doctrines she hols, we should think unite Christians in one common bond every dissenting minister justified for reof woion for promoting " the blessed fusing to officiate at her altars, and every gospel of the Son of God," they so far dissenting layman justified in separating please the popular fecling as to relax a fiom her communioil so conducire lo seriptural obligation, thereby introduce the progress of impiety, infidelity, Gad ug among the heathen, laxity on a Atheism. point of great consequence in the for- Discipline," we consider, say Messrs. mation of a Christian church.

Logue and Bennett, “as of high importIt has always appeared to unce" (I suppose they meun some formor strange incongruity in Presbyterians mode of church order and government) and Independents mixing with Episco- in the Church of Christ, therefore we Malians in promoting Christianity among express our dissatistaction of a church die lieaiben: for the Dissenters think ahere there is nonethe ordination is $) chitteretitly from churchmen on the dreadiul." nature of a Christian church, that if " Alier enumerating," say these mieither of thera are in the best consistent nisters of' “ the every blessed gospel of with their own sentiments, they cannot the Son of God," (in ibe promotin of as honest men agree on this subject. whic'i they are uniting in love, peace,

In a llisiory of Disseniers, lately and hur mug with churchinen to send to published by two Lindependent ministers, the II: the world) so many su lijecis and very active members of this Mis- of complaint ayitinst the Church of Engbionary Society, Messrs. BUGUE and land, nie musi acid, we strongly object BENNETT, is the following very singular to the harshi, rigid, severe, and ulierly

nguage, used by the l as reasons for unaccommodating spirit of this Church insent from the churcii of England : we cau bear it no longer; and although

* As we acknowledge no liead of the we huve united in love, unity, peace, church but Jesus Christ, we cannot ac- and humony with churchmen in prunotcupid with the Church of England, ing puie Christianity in the Missiouary which owns the king for her head ---how Suciety, allough we have had every can it be called the Church of England, indulgence as reasonable men to expect or uny other church at all? seeing it was under the Toleration Act, yet who are introduced and established only hy au- you, who dare treat us in so rude a nagthority of mere laynen, The Church ner, by frequently calling us fanatics and of Einland, in nearly her present state, enibusiasts, people dangerous to the was brougle intu existence by the crea. church, and disaffected to the goverua


Rev. Mr. Cormouls on Gravity.

223 ment? Although we feel ourselves re- horses had taken fright on the top of a lesed by our dissent, yet we cannot but hill, and ran down at the rate of sixteen condemn the conduct of a church (with miles per hour or more at the time, which it is true we hare nothing to do), The man was servant to the Rev. Phi. but which lays on the shoulders of her lip Wren of Ipsley, Warwickshire. sons such heavy burdens grievous to be Secondly, All bodies moving through borne."

the air, by force of engines, as of guns, After reading, Mr. Editor, these se- oc bows; or by natural action, as birds vere quotations lately published froin the in their flight, lose part of their down pens of the President of the Missionary ward pressure, or the attraction between College at Gosport, and the Tutor of the earth and them, in ratios from a part the Independent Academy at Rotherham, to the whole, and not unfrequently acI can scarce believe love, harmony, and quire a state of actual repulsion to the unity can subsist in a society formed of earth. persons so differently minded. No Epis- Thirdly, Antigravitative effects take copalian Missionaries can ever be sent place in bodies subjected to various exout, after such declared hostilities : this periments in electricity and magnetism, induces me to think, that the pure galvanic effects, and chemical attraca Christianity Messrs. Boyue and Bennett tions, which latter, though not strictly mention, is Independency, and that only; i gravitational, will be found referable to for it seems impussible, after these de- the operation of the gravitation princiclarations, that Messrs. Bennett and ple. Indeed both gravity, and the magBogue, and the members of the Society netic power, will be found to be chemiwho are churchmen, can ever ayree on cal attractions between bodies and their the establishment of an Episcopalian two principles, which are ascertainable church among the Heathen: it would to be invisible, but detectable gaseous seem the “ Fundamental Principle” is a fluids universal in the solar systein*. mere mask.

Fourtkly, The mutability of gravity is How to reconcile these difficulties, is frequent and striking in many circumthe reason of my troubling you, Sir, with stances upon and within the earth, in these lines. I shall be bappy to hear air, and in water. Whirlwinds elevate the sentiments of any of your corre- budies from the earth, which are afterspondents concerning them, and am, wards transported by the wind to great A CONSISTENT PROTESTANT DISSENTER, distances. There is in this effect an ap

Who admires peace with all mnen, but pearance as if something first put these unity only with those in promoting elevated bodies in a state of repulsion Christianity, ako agree, and not with

to the earth, and, by adhering to them those who differ, Blurch 4, 1816.

in an atmospheric form, continued them in a state of suspended attraction wit,

by supplying them with that principle Me. EDITOR.

which usually causes their attraction. GRAVITY, contrary to the received This is indeed the fact, which projectile doctrines of its immutable nature, is experiments will fully develope. In never found steady to any defined law; water-spouts a relative effect takes place but wben a body is at rest on some base, on their elevated pillar. Volcanoes alse pendant from some sustainer, or falling give a tenporary exemption from gravity perpendicularly to some point of the

to their ashes, and sometiines to very earth below it; for,

large and heavy frustrums of stone and Firstly, All bodies in progressive mo- Vacuum is not requisite to the swittest tion, even in contact with the earth, motions, Meteors move in the medium vary their pressure upon it in ratios ac- from whose surcharge they are derived, and cording to their speed; their weighit is

as swift as the earth in her qibit. The air less as their speed increases. Experiments does not resist birds as it does bullets, nor sufficient in number and accuracy to

water fish, as it does ships. The striking found the law of the decrease upon; of an arrow; water, by resistance, stops

of a pike or dolphin is with the swiftness have not yet been made in this case, but and snaps the car that is snatched with hale will be completed before long. How- their speed agaist it, The mutual adaptation ever in swift motions it is very conside- of mediums and bodies, will be found the Table, as the following fact will serve to

organic means in nature of most of its moshew, Both the wheels of one side of a tions. The firmest solids do not stop sume waggon, whose weight and load were subtile principles. The magnetic and granear four toas, passed over the breast vitation Auirts will pass brass or diamond of a maa with very little injury; the very freely,


Rev. Mr. Cormouls on Gravity. (April 1, marble, which they eject : this occurs by Instances froin the Powers of Birds application of the same principle in at- against the received Luw of Gravity. mosphere. to them which is operant in Every creature that flies, and every the whirlwind, as will appear. Tide also creature that springs, that is, almost runs counter to the immutability of gra- the whole of animaled nature,-bear vity, nor does it preserve the usual level testiniony against the immutable nature which fluid assumes when at liberty; of gravity. The most prominent and which is a proof that it is infinenced by striking instance among the featbered some compulsive principle: indeed it is race is the soaring kite. It often sails in referable to the elevating cause of the a ring of so0 yards in circunference, by Water-spout, and the experimental proofs means of one percussion of its wings, are similar. The true phenomena of the and that of not more than an ounce in tide bear very little resemblance to those force, and sometimes a yreater distance of their present definition: but I shall between the two percussions. One has only briefly observe, that of its compli- been seen to fly in a straight line against cate phenomena (the co-existent oppo- the wind, and in an ascending line 100, site streams in many pairs, up great tide ray, even 300 yards without a single perrivers) the business seems to be to collect cussion in that distance. But to establish a certain redundant principle from the the first position, let the common case of earth and air, and deliver it to the ocean; the bird's oing be considered. The bird's and that one and the prominent use of weight may be about two pounds; conseihe tide in the terrestrial machinery, is quently be exhibits the effect of two to act as a balance-wheel does in a pounds' weight sustained in air, and prowatch, and make the earth's daily rota- jected 300 yards at a rate of from eight to rion and the consequent chronometry ten yards per second with a single stroke regular, which it does by absorbing this of an ounce of repercussive power, and redundance, which occurs when the moon across and against as well as with the is in certain positions with respect to the wind, that may be blowing at the rate earıb.

of three or four yards per second at the Earthquakes exbibit mavy anti-gra- time. vitative phenomena: both living crea- A fan, of the expanse of a kite's two tures and inert subjects are sometimes wings, moved against the air as slowly elevated from the earth by a flatus of and for about five inches only, the exsubtile principle, that is breathed out at tent of the bird's stroke, does not give the time of ferræ motus, and sometimes half an ounce repercussive force: but without any shake. Indeed an earth- the bird's stroke shall have an ounce quake is sometimes attended with the allowed it, and still it will plainly apunited phenomena of the wbirlwind, the pear that mechanic means have the volcano, and tide; for, in fact, it is no- smallest possible share in the bird's susthing else than a disturbance of that tainment and motion. For suppose fifteen principle which is common to each--the men, therty yards apart, to form a ring strata of the earth's substance are in no of 300 yards, and throw a metal ball of order compatible with the common law two pounds weight to each other, so as of gravity, and the earth herself (con- to pass round as swiitly as the kite ties: trary to prevalent opinion) is demonstra- it will be found that the exertions made bly a bollow sphere, less iban 200 miles to send the ball will demand fifteen in thickness here, and the cavity is full throws, each equal to at least the lift of of gravitation principle, very little twenty pounds, two feet and a balf high, changed from the state in which it exists which together make 300 pounds lifted in air. Both these circumstances admit two !eet and a half high ; but as the of as firm demonstration as the earthi's kite's wing-percussion is only five inches rotundity itsell:-no doctrine of gravity against two feet and a halt of lift, that can have a pretension to-truth whici must be divided by the kite's wing-motion, docs not comprehend the above anoma- five inches, the quotient of which is six ; Jies as well as its general action. The whichi again, tu shew the mechanic propresent received, is wrong even in the portional force of each party, (the kile regular facts of its powers, admits of no and men, must be multiplier to the 300 anomalies, and thereby puts them out of pounds aihen the defect of mechanic inquiry. But all is comprehended and means of the kite's power of flight will consistent under the principle which will be as 1 ounce to 1800 pounds, or, in ve developed, and which claims the no- ounces, 28,799 parts deficient in 28,800; tice of all the votaries of true natural for all the mechanic force the bird uses to knowledge.

carry his weight 300 yards is one ounce.

1816.) Tauscher's Tours in the Southern parts of Russia in Asia. 225 This is a convincing instance against the the south might be viewed in all its liixconstant tenor of gravitation, and of uriance, it was necessary to be within there being some principle which modi- reach of its scene immediately on the fies and probably causes it. Other birds departure of the snow. Towards the also exhibit instances, which judiciously middle of March, therefore, M. Tauscher, considered, shew that some principle or in company with M. Herrman, the son power in nature can even do more than of the professor of philology, quitted simply suspend the weight of bodies, Moscow, and after a tedious journey, can really elevate them from the earth. arrived in the beginning of April at

Rooks and pigeons mostly come to Orenburg. Having been furnished with their nests in a long descending line, the requisite instructions and aids by continued to a point from three to five Prince Wolchonskoi, he proceeded along feet lower than their nests, and from the Uralian line, running in a southerly three to five yards distant; then to direction below Orenburg, to its chief ascend, throw their wings backward, the town Uralsk (formerly Jaizkoi Gorodok) whole force and direction of which mo. and thence to Inderskoi, or Gorskoi Kretion is mechanically opposite to their post, whence his excursion to the lake, ascent and should produce descent; on the other side of the river, would neyet they proceed slowly and steadily cessarily commence. Finding,” says apward to the point they aiın at. Here he," on our way from Orenburg to Ina total reverse of gravity is evident to derskoi Krepost, several spring plants alevery discerning observer, and a princi- ready shot up and in full bloom, we ple for that effect demanded. But I were in great hopes we should not be shall conclude this part of the subject behind-hand with the more southerly, with just observing, that the flights and consequently earlier vegetation of of birds and all these extraordinary the Indersee. The numerous flights of anomalies against gravity (as defective birds of passage, principally ducks and science leads to suppose thèm), are the snipes, which darkened the banks of the regular genuine consequences of a princi- Ural and lesser streams by thousands, as ple that causes gravity in common, which they winged their passage from the southprojectile experiments duly made will ern to the northern provinces, afforded fully develope, which inanimate na us an interesting spectacle. We grature and the heaviest substances confirm dually collected thirteen or fourteen by various circumstances, and with which different species of ducks, among which the whole circle of natural phenomena were several peculiar to Russia, that have connected with gravity will accord in been described by Pallas and Gmelin.” the heavens no less than on earth.

Our traveller being unfortunately atT. CORMOULS. tacked by a violent fever at Inderskoi, Tanworth, Warwickshire.

and kept prisoner by it for some weeks,

he dispatched his companion to the lake, Sketch of Professor Tauscher's Tours whence he returned with a harvest of

in the Southern parts of Russia in extremely valuable plants ; to which he Asia.

subsequently made an addition, by col(Continued from p. 104). lecting subjects in the environs of In. AS the Bukharian embassy, from all derskoi on this side of the Ural. M. accounts, appeared likely to take place Tauscher had fully regained his health about the autumn of the succeeding year by the 21st of May, when he set out (1811), and at that time, therefore, our with a strong Russian escort to explore traveller would be required to join it at the lake himself. Of this curious and Orenburg, he obtained Count Razumow- interesting excursion, he promises a very sky's concurrence, to employ the inter- particular description hereafter; merely vening time in naturing his knowledge observing on this occasion, that the exof the productions of the Steppes, by pectations raised by Pallas's report, of paying a visit to the Inderskoi, a salt the treasures which this district conlake on the other side of the Ural, eight tained in the vegetable kingdom, were hondred versts below Orenburg. This most completely gratified. He spent extraordinary spot had not been explored two days on the banks of the Indersee, by any European since Pallas's visit to it returned to this side of the Ural, sent off forty years before, nor bad his discovery the large botanical and zoological colbeen followed up, extended, or confirmed lections which himself and his compaby any subsequent researches.

nion had formed, to Gorenki and MosThat the beautiful vernal vegetation of cow, and prepared for a tour to another New MONTHLY MAG. No, 87.


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