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1816.) Anecdote of a Lioness-Clarke's Improved Night-soil. 211 MR, EDITOR,

Magazine to state the following particuTHE inclosed communication comes lars.* from a gentleman who witnessed the ex I had been disappointed three times traordinary fact. Should it seem to re- successively in the present season, by qoire confirmation, he begs leave to refer not having a crop of turnips upon a field you to Exeter 'Change.

that had previously been manured in the A lioness only eight days old was pur- usual manner: the plants were destroyed chased in 1815, at the Cape of Good by the fly immediately as they appeared Hope, by Capt. Waddington, of the City above ground: it was notwithstanding a of Edinburgh East Indiaman. The ani- desirable object to obtain a turnip crop, mal was fed with milk and bread, and and to that end I made a fourth trial, After suffered to roll about on the floor of sowing the whole of the land as usual, Capt. W.'s bed-room. A terrier bitch, I dressed two acres of it with two hogskept in the same house. had littered a

heads of Clarke's compressed nightfew days previously to the purchase, and soil, of which I had recently heard, as her pups had been destroyed. A servant a likely means to secure a crop; I also accidentally going into the bed-room dressed a part of the field with the best found the bitch suckling the whelp. As- fleshings I could procure; thus dividing tonished at the spectacle, he soon com

the field under three sorts of dressings, manicated the circumstance to the fami- namely: ly, and crowds flocked into the house to 1st, One part' dressed in the usual way; witness so extraordinary a sight. It was 2d, The part dressed with fleshings; resolved not to separate the new compa- 3d, Two acres dressed with Clarke's comnions; they were placed in a large ken pressed night-soil. nel in the yard ; and the bitch conceived The results from those dressings were : a maternal attachment to the whelp,

Of the part dressed in the usual way, which the latter seemed to return with nearly the whole of the crop was for the great affection. A commodious cage be- fourth time taken off the land by the fly, iny made for them, they were conveyed and it was obliged to be sowed again. on board the ship, which proceeded to

On the part dressed with Aeshing's the England. During the voyage their friend- turnips have stood but in a very weakly ship increased daily; the lioness grew

state. prodigiously, but appeared unconscious On that part of the field which was of her superior strength, or unwilling to dressed with the compressed night-soil, use it to the detriment of ber foster- the fly did not appear to have touched mother. The latter having acquired the the turnips, which came up very luxuascendant, preserved it: at her ineals she riantly, and continue uncommonly strong invariably satisfied herself before she per- and healthy. mitted the lioness to taste a morsel; and

I must own, that in setting out to make if the latter became refractory, she would the foregoing experiments, I did not enbite her severely, and drive her into a terçain much hope of success, and concorner of the deo: in short, she kept her sequently. I was surprised at the striking completely under control.

difference in their results : forasmuch as Capt. Waddington shortly after his the parts dressed, either with the comarrival in England disposed of the lioness mon yard manure or the Aeshings, apo and her foster-mother to Mr. Cross, the peared almost like a fallow, while the spirited proprietor of the menagerie at part dressed with compressed night-soil Exeter 'Change, where the two friends was covered with strong plants. are to be seen, inhabiting the same cage,

I have been for many years a farmer, and exhibiting a most extraordinary in- and have tried manures of various kinds, stance of affection between two feniales! but have not met with any thing that Chapter Coffee-house,

appears to possess the fertilizing princiFeb. 25, 1816.

ple in so great a degree as the compressed night-soil; I therefore frel it a duty to

communicate to agriculturists these exMR. EDITOR,

periments; from which it results, that a WHEN an improvement has taken crop of turnips (so valuable to the farmer) place in any branch of science, I con may be obtained, even in the driest seaceive that it is the duty of individuals to * We earnestly recommend the example make the same public, for the benefit of of our intelligent and liberal-minded correthe community, I therefore avail myself spondent to the imitation of our readers of of the medium of your valuable Monthly all professiops EDITOR.

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212 Rev. Mr. Campbell's Experiments with a Corked Bottle. (April 1 sons; and I must take occasion to repeat easy to account for a quart of water a most important feature that the fly passing so instantaneously through so does not appear to have touched the tur- small a space: the porousness of the nips where the compressed night-soil was glass seems to be the only consideration vsed. I am, &c. Solomon BAXTER. By which we can account for the fact." Potterals Farm, North Aims.

Mr. C. further adds, that he does not

know whether the same experiment as MR. EDITOR,

the second was ever tried before, and I AM induced to transcribe the follow. positively asserts that no water was in ing account of an experiment from the the bottle before it was let down; that Rev. Mr. CAMPBELL'S Journey through the cork was as large as for the first exSouth Africa, hoping thereby to gain some periment; that it was not split by piercmore satisfactory conclusion than that ing it with the needle; that every part given by the author from some of your of it was pitched over, and particularly scientific correspondents. It will be found round the neck of the bottle; that it was in the 42d chapter of the above-mentioned minutely examined by Mr. Beck, a paswork, and was performed on board the senger, as well as himself and Capt. KilVenus brig by Mr. C. and Capt. Kilgour. gour, and that both were so satisfied that

“ Having heard or read, that if a every thing was correctly done, they did corked bottle were sunk 50 or 60 fathoms not deem it necessary to make a third in the occan, however tight the cork trial. Now, Sir, in this, it is iny opinion, might be, the pressure without would they were culpable, as in what appears. drive the cork into the inside of the bot- to me so novel and interesting an expetle; on mentioning this to the captain, riment, they ought to bave been doubly he readily consented to make the expe- satisfied at least that it was not the effect riment, which proved the accuracy of of accident, before they attempted to the assertion,” 'In a subjoined note is hazard an opinion as to the probable the following account of the method of cause of it. But if we are to conclude making the experiment.

that the water was admitted tbrough the “ We drove a cork very light into an pores of the glass, surely the great presempty bottle. The coik was so large sure must have acted as a repulsive that not more than one-half of it could power to the attraction of cohesion of be driven into the neck of the bottle. the particles of glass; for it certainly We then tied a ord round the cork, not happen in its ordinary state which we also fastened round the neck that a quart of water could penetrate so of the bottle, to prevent the cork sink- “ instantaneously" as the bottle is said ing down, and put a coat of pitch upon to have been filled, we being given to the whole. By means of lead we sunk understand that it was no longer in the it in tlie water. When it was let down water than was sufficient to sink it the to about the depth of fifty fathoms, the fisty fathoms; indeed, Sir, this altogether captain said he was sure the bottle bad appears in so singular a light to nie, that I instantaneously filled; on which he drew feel desirous to have it explained. Perit up, when we found the cork driven haps this aris's from my very partial down into the inside, and of course the acquaintance with scientific works; and bottle was full of water.

there may be many who will experience “ We prepared a second bottle exactly no difficulty in gratifying one of your in the same way, only with the addition most constant readers. of a sail-needle being passed through the Feb. 29, 1816. W, M. RETLAS. upper part of the cork, and rested on the inouth of the bottle, and all com- MR. EDITOR, pletely pitched over. When about fifty THE following Leonine verses are infathoms down, the captain called out, as scribed at the head of each month in the before, that he felt by the sudden in- calendar prefixed to an ancient missal crease of weight that the bottle was filled, preserved in the library of Swaffham on which it was drawn up. We were church, in Norfolk. If they afford as not a little surprised to find the cork in much amusement to your readers as to the same position, and no part of the your correspondent, his purpose will be pitch broken, yet the bottle was full of fully answered in transmitting them to water. None of us could conjecture you; but more especially if they should how the water got in; there was no part lead the way to a dissertation in your of the pitch even that would admit the pages on the rery curious subject of the point of a needle. Supposing the pitch origin of these dies fasti et nefasti. Yours, and cork both porous, it does not appear


Tuos, Goose,


Missal at Swaffhan-State of Arundel Church.


JANUARY. “ Prima dies mensis et septima truncat ut ensis."
FEBRUARY. " Quarta subit mortem, prosternat tertia fortem.”
MARCH 6. Primus mandentem disrumpit quarta bibentem."
APRIL “ Denus et undenus est mortis vulnere plenus."
MAY. " Tertius occidit et septem ora relidiţ."
JUNÉ. « Denus pallescit quindenus fædera nescit."
JULY. « Terdenus mactat Julii denus labefactat."
AUGOST. " Prima necat fortem perdidit secunda cohortem,"
SEPTEMBER. “ Tertia Septembris et denus fert mala membris."
OCTOBER. " Tertius et denus tibi sit morsus alienus."
NOVEMBER, “ Scorpius est quintus et tertius est vite tinctus."
DECEMBER. Septimus exanguis vivorum ternus ut anguis."


revive it from time to time till the abuse YOUR correspondent, who so pro- is remedied, if from no nobler motive, perly exposed to the notice of the public, at least from a sense of sbame in those in your pages, the scandalous state of who have connived at it. neglect in which he found the church of A, in Sussex, was perhaps not aware MR. EDITOR, at the time of the probability that the FORSTER, in his Observations on the author of that neglect would so soon be Brumal Retreat of the Swallow, when summoned before a higher tribunal than discussing the question of its torpidity that of the Bishop of Chichester. Al in winter, expresses a hope that any one though I should be sorry to see your in possession of curious facts relative to respectable Magazine encumbered with this extraordinary bird, will communiunprofitable controversy, yet as I think cate them to the public through the meits principles, as well as its execution, diuin of some of the periodical journals. likely to introduce it to the occasional I beg leave then, through the means of notice of some at least of the episcopal the New Monthly Magazine, to make bench, I was not sorry that you had known the following, which may attract given insertion to the communication of the attention of the curious, and by most ARCHIDIACON Us, as a probable means will be deemed interesting. of placing before that right reverend Several years ago, in the county of body the feelings of (I will venture to Devon, in the neighbourhood of Plysay) a very large portion of the commu- mouth, on the coast, a great number of nity on what cannot but appear to them that species of swallow called the swift a flagrant breach of duty somewhere. Shirundo apus) from some cause unThat any one of our bishops (whose cha- known, did not take their depa ture at racters are generally allowed to deserve the usual season of the year; they hothe veneration of the church) should vered over the town and neighbourhood connive at such conduct in a duke as for several weeks, to appearance iu much would draw down their censures with distress, and when thc weather became due severity on the head of you or me, stormy and the air chill, retreated to I am not willing myself to believe, and holes in walls, old thatch, &c. much less willing should I be that such siderable quantity took shelter in the an opinion should be extensively enter bells of the church steeple, where they tained; nay, I am willing to hope, and I hung together in clusters, and in this have expected to find in your work, that state they suffered themselves to be some explanation might be given, which taken: though not inanimate, they were might tend to extenuate the degree of weak, and on the verge of torpidity. The blame that certainly attaches, not only to novelty of the circumstance attracted those who have caused, but to those who the attention of the boys of the neighhave for so many years permitted so dis- bourhood, and even "chuldren of larger gusting a violation of decorum.

growth,” who searched for thein in all The successor of the nobleman above directions, and in their hands many hunalluded to, does not, I believe, even pro- dreds perished. Attemi ts were inade to fess to be a member of our church, and preserve some of these birds; hut the therefore still less is fairly to be expected most experienced failed in getting them from him, unless enforced by the proper to swallow insects, or any other food put authority. As the natter is now before into their mouths. They soon revived the public, I do hope that such of your from their half torpid sale on being readers as feel’any interest for the rem warmed by the heat of the hand, or any Speciability of the establishment, will other means; but when set free, they



214 Retreat of Swallows-On Relieving the Agricultural Interest. (April 1, few no longer than to find another bid. fording more information on this intering place, where they soon relaxed into estiog subject.

ROBERTUS. their former state of insensibility. There Carlisle, Feb. 24, 1816. 1 is no doubt but the major part of these birds perished with cold during the suc MR. EDITOR, ceeding winter. Being many years ago, AT a time when it appears to be the I have forgotten the precise time of general opinion that something must be year, but I recollect perfectly, that it done to relieve the distress of the agriwas considerably after the usual period culturist, I may presume to offer my of departure, as this circunstance formed opinion on a subject of such universal the subject of conversation. Every spe- importance; I shall venture to say, that cies of the swallow visits Devonshire, an- nothing will effectually relieve the real nually, in very great numbers, to which farmers, but lowering their rents to the they are particularly attracted, I prea same rate they were at in time of peace. sume, by the serenity of the climate, and In most cases rents are doubled, and in the facilities they meet with in the con- many trebled, in consequence of the very struction of their nests. I have never great demand for farming produce durobserved them so numerous in any other ing a long war; and I can see no reapart of the kingdom.

son why rents, tythes, &c: should not In the work above alluded to, Forster return to their former level with the observes, " The result of my observa- produce of the land. This being done, tions on this subject has convinced me, the farmer wants no other assistance that the swallow is a migratory bird, an

from Parliainent than an abatement in nually revisiting the same countries in the war taxes that bear upon agricultore. common with other birds of passage; The interests of the manufacturer, the and that the bulk of each species betake tradesman, and the farmer, are so blendthemselves to warmer climate ed together, that they cannot be sepa when they disappear in autumn. There rated without manifest injury to the is sufficient evidence on record to esta- whole; and the mode I have pointed blish the migration of birds of this genus; out, appears to me the only way to at the same time that, from the inaccu- ensure to all classes of society an equal rate observation of the witnesses, it is share of the blessings of peace. It is difficult in most cases, to determine the interest of the landbolders to lower exactly the species alluded to. But immediately the rents to their tenants, while it is pretty certain that the greatest notwithstanding they are held by leases; amber of swallows migrate, it is not for no landlord can expect his estate to impossible that many individuals of each improve in the hands of a sinking tenant, of the species may be concealed during and holding him on must be his certain winter near their summer haunts. Na- ruin, and the land being run out, spust ture may bave provided the swallow with be let for less at the end of his term. If this power of accommodating itself to the Corn-Bill had raised the prine of accidental circumstances; and have ena corn to 80s. a quarter, it would hate bled it when batched late, or otherwise been no advantage to the real farmer; prevenied froin joining the annual emi- it might have enabled him to pay his gration, to sleep in security through the present high rents a little longer at the season, when it could not obtain its pro- expence of the community. per food abroad; and to be rerived Your correspondent OMEGA, in your again, on the return of warm weather, Magazine for January, has proposed * and of food. On the other hand, as remedy for all agricultural evils, by din there exists no proof of the vernal re- viding the lands into small farms not animation of the torpid swallows, it is exceeding, twenty acres each, and the possible that their torpidity, perhaps rent not to be more than 20l. or 30%".. merely induced by cold and hunger, If he will have the goodness to try the may, unless they be roused by accident experiment on a small scale, suppose: before it has gone on too long, be. a 20 acres only, he will find that on a mon fatal period, to their existence. The cases derate calculation, it will cost (10 erece of the discovery and revival of such a house, barn building, &c. and to entorpid swallows, are surely interesting; close it). at least 4001., the interest of and future investigations may, perhaps, which, together with repairs, will not throw some light on the destiny of those leave much for the landlord. He ada left undisturbed."

vises the tenants to be chosen, honest Perbaps, Mr. Editor, many of your industrious men. Now one industrious numerous readers will be capable of af man will do all the work on a farm of

1816.] Anti-British Sentiments of the Editor of the Old Mon. Mag. 215 20 acres; and what is to be done with other occasion, his perverse political those employed at present as labourers? sentiments, for the sake of indulging How are the markets to be supplied with in an attack upon the press of his own heef, mutton, lamb, and veal, as farms country, too gross to be suffered to pass of 20 acres each can furnish none of unnoticed. It is contained in a note these?-a very small quantity of corn, to the article to which I have just resome eggs, poultry, and roasting pigs, ferred, and is as follows: will be all the marketable commodities. “ Writers and editors in America and in

It is no difficult matter to prove that other countries, complain justly of that the tenant will be no better off than the wicked spirit of writers in England, which landlord, but I must not intrude myself seeks to create and perpetuate national ani

mosities; justice, however, to the intelli any longer upon you or your readers. Hereford.

J. L. gent part of our country, compels us to ex

plain, that the writers in question are no

legitimate part of the English public, but MR. EDITOR, YOU have had but too frequent oc- flourish best in times of public calamity,

sordid agents of unprincipled ministers, who casion to expose the perverse spirit that and are happy only in the degree in which pervades a miscellany to which your own they see others miserable. The practice is has proved a most successful opponent. also part of a series of political frauds, Its editor, now that Buonaparte's sun is designed to reconcile to political impositions set in endless night, and he sees no the great and small vulgar, who in every chance of the realization of his wish country constitute the majority of the poputhat the ex-emperor would make him lation; for he will not grumble who allows one of his kinglings*, seems to have himself to be persuaded, that whatever be transferred his adoration to the Trans- the extent and variety of his sufferings, he is atlantic Hemisphere, and to have be- better off than all other people. This princome as enthusiastic an admirer of the ciple is illustrated at length in Machiavel, United States of America, as he lately who is still the standard of truth and virtue showed bimself of imperial France. This, among European statesmen ; though its inhowever, cannot excite any wonder ; There is besides another and a better apo

fluence happily has not reached Amorica as a disciple of Paine, rebels and usurp. logy for our national literati

, namely, that ers have a much stronger claiin to his

many of the writers in question are not veneration, than institutions sanctioned Englishmen, but anglicised Germans, who by a series of ages, and legitimate so- are preferred for such dirty work; and have vereignty, confirmed by the unanimous ing obtained the controul of several of our voice of a whole people, and transmitted public journals, propagate through their through a long line of illustrious mo- medium, doctrines of servility and passive narchs.

obedience, and other sentiments which are • I have been led to these reflections alien to the ancient and honoured feelings by the perusal of a passage in the last of Englishmen.” number of the Old Monthly Magazine,

So far Sir RICHARD PHILLIPS.-Hein which, under the title of COLLECTIONś good soul !--actuated by the disposition FROM AMERICAN LITERATURE, is intro- of his pacific idol the Great NAPOLEON, duced an article on Americanisms. The would have us, in the true spirit of Chriga writer, who displays considerable hu- tian charity, to love those that hate us, mour, seems in his defence of Ameri- to do good to those who despitefully canisms, to forget that these peculiari. use and persecute us, and to embrace as ties are just as foreign to the language brethren, men whose' hands are extended upon which they are ingrafted, as what to pierce us to the heart. It is truly he terms the “almost irresistible York- edifying to witness the unbounded phishire, Somersetshire, and Leicestershire lanthropy with which this citizen of 'tlię dialects." This question, as it must be

world proffers the fraternal bug to all manifest to every reader, has pothing

the avowed enemies of his own country, to do with politics, yet here the knightly and with what industry he bestirs hima collector mixes up, as he does on every

self to stifle the “national aniiposities" On ehe return of Buonaparte from which tend to their prejudice, Let us Elba, the modest Knight, in the warmth of

now see bow admirably be applies the his exultation, was heard to observe : “ He same principle to his fellow suljects-hoped the time was come at last, that Na- how zealously he exerts his influence polcon would find a kingdom for him some- to extinguish all heart-burnings among where or other." This apecdote was re- them, and to 'unite them, of whatever lated to me by the person to whom the denomination they may be, into one words were addressed.

harmonious and affectionate family. That

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