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128 Guardian of Health - History and Effects of Wine. [March , were infected with the Egyptian super- adopted with the same view by Louis stition. As therefore the abstinence XV. from wine was evidently beneficial to From the preceding facts it is evident the Fyyprians, and their legislators had that the antipathy to wine, which from the wisdom to recommend what was not the earliest times has influenced a pose to be enforced by authority; so it be- tion of mankind, did not originate in sohoved Moses, solicitous as lie must have licitude for the public health or morals, been to obstruct the return of his people but rather in a certain economical prointo Egypt, to instil contrary notions into dence concerning which it is not my thein, and this he actually accomplished business to decide whether it were the For even in divine worship, in which; an- offspring of genuine wisdom or political tcrior to Psammetichus, no wine was sopbistry. Perhaps such of my readers offered by the Bgyptians, he enjoined as are fond of wine will bence deduce the use of wine, and likewise as an ac more favourable conclusions for themcompaniment to meat and burnt-offer- selves than I can admit: I must thereings, that 11e person might consider it as fore request them not to be too hasły. impure, or abhor it from a motive of re. For though the hatred to wine has rarely ligion: nay he every where speaks very originated in the injury which it has done advantageously of wine, the principal to health, still I am compelled to declare production of the Land of Promise. that practical men have abundant reason Thus though, in the earliest ages of its to condemn it on this ground. existence, wine met with wise opponents, Wine is chiefly pernicious on account it found nevertheless still wiser advo- of the intoxication which it produces. I cntes.

shall not here enter into a detail of the At Rome wine experienced a similar evils which drunkenness brings upon fate. In the time of Numa Pompilius mankind, but merely address the reader it was still very rare, and Pliny observes, in the forcible language of Dr. Armthat the ancients cultivated the vine strong:merely for the purpose of using the juice Learn temperance, friends; and hear witkof its fruit as a strengthening beverage in out disdain sickness. In the year 634, in the con- The choice of water. Thus the Coan sage suistip of Lucius Opimius, the city was Opin'd, and thus the learn'd of every school. abundantly supplied with excellent wine. We curse not wive: the vile excess we

blame; The people were instigated by it to excesses, and intoxication made them

More fruitful than th' accumulated board, riotous. Wine nevertheless continued Faster and surer swells the vital tide;

Of pain and misery. For the subtle draught unprohibited till the end of the first cen- And with more active poison than the floods tury of the Christian æra, when there was of grosser crudity convey, pervades a most abundant year for grapes, and so

'The far sëmute meanders of our frame. much tlsegreater a deficiency in the corn. Ab! sly deceiver, branded o'er and o'er, harvest. It was represented to the then Yet still believ'd! exulting o'er the wreck Emperor Domitian, that the excessive Of sober vows ! increase of the viveyards occasioned a Wine is a real and an excellent mediproportionate diminution in the quan- cine. Every medicine taken in improuty of corn-land; he therefore prohi- per quantity or at an unscasonable time bited by an edict the planting of any is poison, and no medicine can be coun new vineyards in Italy, and in other stant meat or drink to persons in bealth. provinces he even ordered the vines to These positions involve the whole of the he grubbed op.. The same policy that rules to be observed in regard to wine. created an aversion to wine in Egypt, Wine is a medicine. Paracelsus calls instigated Domitian to issue this order, it the blood of the earth, and the juice which he himself subsequently modified, of the noblest of plants; and this appelo as we are informed by Suetonius. I have lation it deserves on account of those already observed that nearly 200 years generous properties by which it warms later, this probibition was repealed by our juices, invigorating the corporeal Probus. Mankind, however, have not powers, and imparting energy to the remained ever since that time, in quiet mind. It has receiveri praise from all possession of this beverage. Charles IX ages and all physicians. Paul recomof France was induced by the same po- mended it to Timothy, but wisely. licy as Domitian to lay restrictions in “ Drink not too much water," writes the 1567 on the cultivation of the vine, in apostle, “but use a little wine (not for favour of other branches of agriculture; thy ordinary drink, nor in such quantity and still more rigorous measures were as to make thee intoxicated) for the sake

1816.) Guardian of Health.-History and Effects of Wine. 129 of thy stomach and thy frequent iiffirmi- to their lives within the space of a year; ties"--consequently by way of medicine, and he attributes most of these catastroas Pliny reports it io have been used by phes to that dullness and depression the early Romans. The physicians went which seem to be innate in all the inhastill farther, and the philosophers agreed bitants of the north. Thus it would apwith them. Avicenna, Dioscorides, Se- pear that wine is a specific for the plague, lieca, as well as Hoffman and other mo- small-pox, and even melancholy and sujderns, even considered it wholesome to cide! Some of these praises, it must be indulge occasionally with this liquor be- acknowledged, are well-founded. Wine yond the bounds of temperance; as they is a real and most excellent medicine; thought such excess, when not too often but no person has characterized it more practised, might not only be innocent justly than Fernelius. “Wine,” says he, but even sometimes salutary; yet noue

is to the buman body what manure is of them approves the constant and abun- to trees: it forces the fruit; but it indant use of wine. This is a language jures the trees.” An intelligent gardener that would not apply to any natural and is not constantly applying manure, bur regular beverage. Wine has no analogy only when he sees occasion for it.' His with our juices and is but little suited to trees are not to be entirely nourished, them; för in those who drink it for the but only occasionally strengthened by first time it induces considerable heat, manure. He must therefore apply lively images and unnatural motions. it only when they want it, in such quanPhysicians recommend it as a tonic for tity as they may require, and of such a the aged, because it restores vigour to kind as is best adapted to their respective the debilitated fibres; and to the de- natures. Such too is the whole dietetic jected, because it imparts a feeling of system to be observed in regard to wine. joy. From this fountain the poets of all There are many who drink nothing ages bave drunk inspiration. ' A similar but wine. These are people who would effect is produced by various poisons. live upon physic, which by its continual The Daphne-tree of the ancients, which, use becomes a poison. Wine differs far in all probability, was our Laureo-C'e' too widely in its nature from the usu :/ rasus, sometimes occasions death, but aliments of animals to be substituted in generally convulsions. It was sacred to their stead without injury. The more Apollo, and Pythia was obliged to eat of powerful a medicine the more hurtful it its fruit before she delivered her oracles. must be to a healthy person, in proporThe convulsions which ensued served to tion to the doses that he takes of it. For convince the spectators the more firmly this reason, the most spirituous are the of her iospiration ; and Pythia was well most pernicious of good wines, because aware of the risk she ran from the violent they are the most operative. When deaeffects of the poison, for she was always lers adulterate wines, they combine with displeased when inquisitive persons came their naturally medicinal properties to consult her, and even bid herself to others which do not belong to them, and aroid them. Hoffman termed wine a this infinitely increases the danger. panacea, a universal medicine. He re These tricks I shall take another opporcommended it for weakness of the sto- tunity of exposing. But even good wine mach, induraced and obstructed spleen is not of benefit to all alike. One speand liver, flatulence, stone and gravel, cies possesses natural advantages over fluxes, scorbutic coniplaints, failure of another depending on the climate in the senses and mental powers, depres- which it grows, on the cultivation of the sion, barrenness, and all the infirmities plant, and on ihe manner in which the of age. Pringle ascribes it partly to the wine is made; and the person may have prohibition of wine that 'the plague, such a constitution or habit of body, small-pox, and inflammatory fevers an that certain kinds even of the best wines nually commit such ravages ; and it is may be hurtful to him. On some future said to have been observed in Guienne occasion I may take a review of the that such disorders prevail only in those wines that grow in Europe, with particufears when the vintage has proved the lar reference to these different objects.

In an old French At present I shall only insist once more journal, the Germans are described as a on the general principle, that all wine melancholy people, and this disposition must be taken merely as medicine. It is ascribed to the want of wine. The must be adapted to ibe constitution of Writet says, that in a very small town each person, pure of its kind, generous 'he has known twenty persons pt an end and unadulterated. Believe 110t the Nsw MONTHLY MAGNO



least favourable.

130 Edipus Jocularis.He can't say Boh to a Goose.

[March 1, poets, who praise it without qualification life, oonsider it as one of those licences but seldom drink it; and when they in which the votaries of the Muse have extol their Bacchus as the god of joy, of ever assuined the right of indulging. love, of harmony, and the preserver of




Sunt bona, sunt quædam mediocria, sunt mala plura,
Quæ legis.

MARTIAL, THE character and manners of a peo- three or four others of the nursery, weat ple may be often correctly ascertained along with him. The scholar perceiving by an attentive examination of their po his danger, and not having time to kilt pular sayings and familiar customs. The the goose in form, found an effectual war study, therefore, of these peculiarities to gag her, that she might not make disought not to be condemned, since the coveries. "He tied a string about her investigation has not only a tendency to neck, which, having fastened to a nail enlarge the knowledge of human nature, he had without the window, as he heard but to illustrate national history, to inark the master and the rest coming up the the fluctuation of language, and to ex- stairs, he thre:y the goose out of the wiuplain the usages of antiquity. It is our dow and shut. it after ber. Search was intention to devote a page or two every made in the room, but no goose could be month to this amusing subject, which we found; and the scholar stood upon his are confident will be gratifying to the ge- innocence, and accused the countryman neral body of our readers, though in the of slander and malice; for, said he, if I course of our inquiries we shall be some- had killed the goose hier blood or feathers times obliged to relate many whimsical would appear; and if she were alive in stories, and to quote very homely phrases the room, no doubt she would bare gag. and authorities.

gled upon all this searching, and I could HE CAN'T SAY BOK TO A GOOSE. not have concealed her.” The argument The word Bo or Boh, is said by Dr. was strong, and the countryman could Johnson to signity terror; and we are not answer it, and began to think himself also told, that there was a fierce Gothic mistaken; the master also chid him for chief so called, the son of Odin, whose bringing a scandal upon his academy; name was used by the soldiers to alarm and so all went down stairs again, the their enemies; but at last it became a countryman the last. The scholar then inenacing phrase to frighten children and pulled in his goose, and having her under keep them quiet, just as the good women his arm, he called softly Bo! to the Couaof Flanders, in the reign of Queen Anne, tryman, who looking about, the scholar were accustomed to reduce their naugh- said, “ llere your dog, do you know your ty young ones to order by telling them goose ?" Upon this the countryman calthat Marlborough was coming, But of led out to his master, and desired him the proverbial saying " boh to a goose," to return, for that now he had seen his a curious account is given by Leslie in goose. The master being near the bothis Rehearsals, vol.ii. p. 73.-" A coun tom of the stairs came up again, but the tryman once upon a time found a strange scholar bad time to shut bis door will be decay arnong his geese : be mist one bad disposed of the goose as before. every other might, and could not tell what Then fresti search was made, and more had become of them; he suspected the strict, but no goose could be found. The fox, but it was one with two legs; for scholar then inveighed against the impuwatching one night, he saw a young fel. dence of the countryman for abusing the low with one of his geese under his arm. master, and bringing an affront upon the The countryman pursued, the thief Aed, seininary. The poor farnier began to and took his course up hill to a certain suspect bis senses, and to think that he private academy, bot the countryman was in some enchanted place; so down kept so close to him, that he saw him go they all went again. The second time into his chamber, which he sbut against the scholar pulled in his prize as before, him. The countryman then went imme- and said softly to the countryman, Bo ! diately and fetched the master, who with shewing him also the head of the goose.

1816.] Edipus Jocularis.--Cat in the Pan-As drunk as a Piper.


The man could not contain himself, but Feasting with Pluto and his Proserpine, aried out with an oath to the master, Night after night with all delicious CATES. that now he actually saw the goose with

Dodsley's Old Plays, v. iii. p. 227. his own eyes, and that the scholar had So in HEYWOOD's play of “ Woman ber under bis arm. This brought up the killed with kindness," Anne saysmaster a third time ; and not only the

- For from this sad hour room and the trunks, but the scholar I never will; nor eat, nor drink, nor taste bimself was searched, and his very Of any Cates that may preserve my life. Wothes stripped off; after which the mag

Ibid. v. iv. p. 139. ter said, “ Are you now satisfied, friend? In Lylie's “ Euphnes,” the principal where else shall we search?” The character says, “ Be not dainty mouthcountryman stood confounded and ed; a fine taste noteth the fond appetites knew not what to say; but was still cer- that Venus said her Adonis to have, who sain that be had seen his goose, adding, seeing him to take his chief delights in that he was sure there were not only costly CATES, &c.” p. 240. Here it evithieves there but wizards too, let them dently signifies delicacies; and indeed it chop logic with him as long as they is obvious enough that the word is no would." This so provoked the scholars, other than the last syllable of deli-cate; that they hurried him to the pump, and for the last mentioned author uses it in gave him the discipline of their school; the very same sense, when he says of so that he was dismissed like a drowned the English ladies, that they were rat to tell his wife his adventures. “ drinking often, yet moderately; cat. Shortly afterwards the same young ing of DELICATES, but yet their canfulls;" kopeful took another of the poor man's and probably from this word cute comes geese, and in walking off was met by the that of to cater and a calerer, which are owner, lo whom he sbewed the head of both English and not French terms; for the bird, saying, “ Boh! countryman ; Chaucer says will you come to my chamber?" But the Amanciple there was of the Temple, fellow sneaked off, and suffered the plun- Of which all CATOURS might take ensample, derers to carry away his prize without Nor to bin wise in buying of vitaile; cren endeavouring to stop him."

Nor whether he payid, or toke by taile,

Algate he waitid, so in his ashate,
This adage seems to be very obscure, That he was ay before in gode estate.
for what connection is there between a

AS DRUNK AS A PIPER. cat and a pan, especially as implying Why persons of this description should fergiversation, or, in common language, be so stigmatized is not very clear, unless " turning one's coat?" The word ought it be alleged that, being usually called to to be cate, the ancient term for a cake, play a distinguished part at merry meet. or other aurelette, which being usually ings, they are peculiarly liable to temptafried, and consequently turned in the tion. Be this as it may, the following pao, was aptly enough used to express story told by Sir John Reresby, in his the changing of sides or becoming es- Meinoirs, has a fair claim to the origin of tranged froin old professions and con- the proverb: “A dreadful plague raged dexions. When the cowherd's wife up- this summer, 1665, in London, and swept braided. Alfred for letting the cake at away 97,309 persons. It was usual for she fire burn, she little suspected him, people to drop down in the streets as says Speed, “ to be the man that had they went about their business; and teen served with far inore delicate that a bag-piper, being excessively overtates." Here the word is used for a cake come with liquor, fell down in the street, Simply, but in general it means any and there lay asleep in this condition, dainty or delicacy; and Littleton in his He was taken up and thrown into a cart dictionary very justly latinizes this phrase betimes next morning, and carried away by the words « cibi delicati." The with some dead bodies. Meanwhile, he Noors, says De:.n Addison, celebrate a awoke from his sleep, it being now about feast called Ashorah, at which“ they eat day's break, and rising up, began to play nothing but dates, figs, parched corn, a tune; which so surprised the fellow's and all soch natural CATES as their sub- that drove the cart, who could not see stance can procure."--Account of West distinctly, that in a fright they betook Barking, p. 214.-In Taylor's play of them to their heels, and would have it " The Hog bath lost his Pearl," Light- that they had taken up the devil in the foot says of Creesus, in the shades below, disguise of a dead man.” It should be that he is there

added, that according to an anonymous

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historian of the plague year, this man ever, is, that the proverb was in common never took the infection, though he lay use as far back as the time of Henry the so long among the dead; and which may Eighth, for it may be found in the works have given rise to the saying, that a per- of John Skelton, poet-laureat to that son so totally overcome with liquor as to monarch; and Spenser in his Faery be insensible to every thing around him Queen uses it twice: is “ as drunk as a piper.”

“ The which her sire had scrapt by hooke THOU ART A DOG IN A DOUBLET.

and crooke."-B. 5, c, 2. This phrase is commonly applied to a “ In hopes her to attaine by hooke or person who has it in bis power to injure crooke."-B. 3, c. 2. another with impunity, by being clothed But, after all, what is the meaning of this with power or possessed of property. quibbling adage? The answer is, ibat it The allusion is to the ancient practice of is to be had from the objects mentioned; boar-hunting, in which the favourite for the hook is the peasant's instrument dogs were clowed with doublets of thick to cut down any thing within his immebuff leather buttoned on the back, and so diate reach, but when that is too eleframed altogelber as to protect the ani- vated, he must have recourse to his mals from the tusks of their formidable crook, with which the losty bough inay enerny; while those that were not so de- be brought to his grasp. Thus cratt fended stood the chance of having their allures, what force cannot conquer. entrails torn out by every stroke. Some

I HAVE SHOT MY BOLT. of our best pictures of field sports, The Norman archers, says Mr. Daines painted by Rubens and others, represent Barrington, in his curious “ Inquiry into part of the pack in this attire.

the llistory of English Archery," made BY HOOK OR PY CROOK.

use of the arbolest, or cross-bow, in It has been erroneously stated, that which formerly the arrow was placed in this saying began in the reign of Charles a grvove, being termed in French a quathe First, when two learned judges pre- dril, and in English a bolt; bence the sided in the courts, whose profound saying, “I have shot my bolt." In knowledge of the law and consummate shooting at a mark or a but, ibey comintegrity, were such as to make it a pro- mooly nade use of a cask of wine or verbial observation concerning any diffi- beer, and he who could drive in the cult cause, that it must be gained by bung gained the prize, which accounts Hooke or by Crooke. The truth, how- for the sign of the “ Bolt iu Tun."


In fact, anecdotes are small characteristic narratives, which, though long neglected or

secreted, are always valuable, as being frequently more illustrative of the real dispositions of men than their actions of great publiciiy, and therefore particularly requisite in biography.-Supplement to NORTHCOTE's Life of REYNOLDS.


THOMAS BARDWELL. THIS celebrated amateur married be. In a room belonging to the Society for tween the age of 70 and 80, "and had the Encouragement of Arts, &c. is a several children. These he made the painting by this artist, from which there subject of his pencil in a study of naked is a print; the subject is Dr. Ward with cherubim in the style of Rubens. To a yroup of invalids. The print has the the study of the arts he has been heard following quaint inscription: to say be owed the happiest hours of his “ Britannia comes at the head of the life. “ Prosecute the arts," said he to a poor, and offers a purse of gold to Mr. friend, “ with the avidity and satisfac- Ward, who points to give it to Charity tion that I have, and they will prove a sitting at her feet; Time draws a curtain source of comfort and pleasure to you in anger to see it who it is that stops the when you are old." This gentleman had passage of the crowd." a brother and sister alive at the same This artist painted the wretched protime at the average ages of 80 each. The ductions called portraits in St. Andrew's best likeness of Captain Baillie is in a Hall, Norwich, and wrote The Practice caricature by Gillray, with the title of of Painting and Perspective made Easy, The Connoisseurs : it is the figure hold- 1756. ing spectacles before his eyes.

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