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1816.} M. Quatremère De Roissy on London and Paris. , 123 with them, but of the same height as the iron railing, the gates of which in partibody of the building. These pavilions cular are of superior workmanship, and have two rows of three windows above in excellent taste. As this structure is those io arcades. Such is the general quite new, and deserves the notice of arrangement. From the top of the first strangers, I have thought it right to deentablature of each of these pavilions scribe it at some length. I shall be very springe an arched line with an architrave brief respecting Guy's Hospital, a moin brick ; that in the centre with stone nument of the humanity and muuifiarchitrave is alone open, and leads into cence of a private tradesman of London. the interior courts, round which run the It is ancieot, very extensive, and geneKreat masses of the edifice : over this rally of elegant construction. That part arch is a trophy in stone. The inscrip- of it which principally concerns our subtion in bronze letters is upon the frieze of ject is the building that overlooks the the entablature.
court. It is composed of a front of Iwo An hospital which exceeds in magni- wings. The centre of this fuçade is of tude that of Chelsea, or any other yet stone, with columns and pilasters of the erected in Europe for the saine purpose, lonic order, pediment, statues in piches, is the New Bethlem of brick and stone. and basso-relievos; the whole in the It bas a range of fifty-five windows in best taste and style. This piece of archifront. This line is divided into five tecture dates from about the beginning parts: that in the middle is subdivided of the eighteenth century, a brilliant into three, the centre one of which, be- epoch for the arts. The two sides of the ing rather higher than the rest, has two façade, and the iwo returning wings, are rows of windows and a door, with a pore modern; their construction of brick and tico of six columns, surmounted by a pe stone is very elegant. In the middle of diment level with the general laight of the court stands a bronze statue of the the building, which has a flat roof. At founder, modest and simple as himself. the top is a receding attic of three win- The pedestal is adorned with bassodows with pilasters, and the whole is relievos of good workmanship.--Now frowned with a small cupola. The two that I am so near St. Thomas's Hospital, other parts of this main body, forming a I shall mention an admirable statue in line with it, hare three ranges of win- bronze, erected in one of the courts of dows upon a sub-baseinent of stone, that hospital to its founder, King Eide baving archics with mouldings. This ward VI. It is a great pity that a perprincipal body has eleven windows in formance of so much merit should noi be front; it balustrade runs all along it at kept in better condition. An edifice the height of the entablature on each side much more extensive, and which nsight of the pediment. On either side of this even be called immense, is the Foundprincipal body, but somewhat receding, ling Hospital. The principal front, comi: a range of three stories, the uppermost posed of several divisions, overlooks a of which is the sinallest, of fifteen win vast court; it is brick and stone, The dows, upo!) a continued sub-basement of centre, wrought into arcades forming a "stone, with semicircular arches. These portico, is surmounted with a pedinent, *iwo long divisions are wholly of brick; and particularly worthy of notice. The the windows quite simple, with iron bars. great lateral front which looks into the Here are the abodes of mistortune, and square, is not without beauty. bare the edifice assures a kind of cha If it were necessary for my present racter. At the extrenity of each of purpose to say more, I might adduce these lines stands a building or pavilion many other editices founded in London of the same teight, but somewhat in ad- for affliction, poverty, and misfortune, vance, in a live with the main body, con- which, erected under the guidance of taimog seven windows, with stone archi- talents and taste, are rendered by their traves. At the top it is faced with stone, exterior so many ornaments
to the and rusticated to correspond with the capital. centre building. These three parts (the Against the two institutions of Chelcentre and the extremities) bave no sea, Paris has to place two of the same more ornaments than are necessary to class, the Royal Hospital of Invalids contrast with the rest of the edifice, and (which might be more properly comgive to the whole a truly majestic ap- pared with Greenwich Hospital), and the pearance. Behind this vast building are Royal Military School. The foriner is others in a good style, but of these I imposing from the magnitude of its dishall say nothing. In front of the main mensions, but is not a handsome edifice. body of the edifice is placed a strong The interior court with its porticoes and
124 M. Quatremère De Roissy on London and Paris. [March 1, the dome alone deserve commendation. Inn Square, is a considerable edifice, The principal building of the Military with a range of seven windows. In front School is in a good taste, but not to be is a portico with six large columns of compared with the Military Asylum the Ionic order, with an entablature aud described above.
cornice, and blocking-course, upon which As Paris has but these two military are placed figures and other emblematihospitals, which cannot even be ranked cal ornaments. A receding attic story above those of London, and no civil hos- has likewise seven windows. This edipitals worthy of mention on account office would appear rather heavy if it were their achitecture, the British capital must not so lofty. The East India House be allowed the decided superiority in ought, I think, to be ranked among the tbis particular.
public buildings; but in wbatever class OTITER PUBLIC EDIFICES.
ihis small structure be placed, it is imIo this class Paris has some buildings possible to speak of it without admirathat it has reason to be proud of; it hastion of its plan, its proportions, and the its Mint | Hotel des Monnoyes), an edi- elegant richness of its Ionic decoration, fice that strikes by the beauty of its form which indeed may be said to give it a and the richness of its decoration. It peculiar character. I reckon it among has the School of Medicine, in the Greek the three most elegant buildings in Lonstyle of architecture. Alter these, but don; the two others are the Treasury at a very great distance, come the Bank and Lord Spencer's house, which I shall of France, the Palace of Justice, and come to presently. the Palace of the Chamber of Deputies. The sketch which I have given of the
London can produce as many public public buildings of London would be inbuildings besides those of other kinds complete, were I not to notice its three already enumerated. At the head of principal bridges, including the Neza them I place the Treasury, which I have Strand Bridge, and the great pillar called described above. The others are the the Alonument. Those three bridges, Admiralty, a structure in the best style constructed in an excellent style, haré of architecture, chiefly remarkable for its grandeur and as much decoration as outer and inner porticoes ;* the Bank, comports with that species of architecture, the exterior front of which, and the Paris, with its pumerous bridges, has whole of the buildings surrounding the nothing to oppose to these; but it pose first court, display numerous beauties sesses a peculiar, nay unique monument, and taste; and since I am in this place, which I must mention here, that may I cannot omit mentioning with commen- be exact and impartial. This monudation the two masses of building which ment is the Gate of St. Denis, which, border Bank-street: above a sub-base- with the peristyle of the Louvre, eclipses ment, and
upon a low wall, runs a range all the other productions of architecture of small Doric columns with entabla- in Paris. Here every thing is grandture; this disposition is in the best taste, the beight, and the proportions in the and of the highest elegance; the con- mass and in the opening of the archstruction of the upper part, of brick and the richness of the decoration, the beaustone, is equally good. The British Mu- ty and chastity of the ornaments, the inseum, of brick and stone, built by a scription on the frieze, &c. A more maFrench architect in the 17th century, jestic whole of the kind does not exist. has in the whole together a kind of dig. The Monument is equally beautiful, nity and grandeur, but not what consti- equally perfect in itself; but it is a structutes a handsome edifice the applica- ture of less importance. tion of the principal members of archi (To be concluded in our next.) tecture. The principal entrance ought at least to have a portico adorned with MR. EDITOR, coluinns or pilasters, and a pediment,
I BEG leave, through the medium of and any other entablature than what we your valuable miscellany, to introduce a actually find there. This decoration would question, to wbicb, I doubt not, some of correspond with that of the court, which your correspondents will be able to fur. has a portico with columns, and lateral nish an answer, which would be very gates with pilasters. The College of Sur. gratifying to me as well as to many of geons, the chief ornament of Lincoln's. your country readers.
In some works I find the iguis fatuus The whole line of buildings facing the described as a meteor, chiefly seen in · Banquetting-House, Whitehall, is in the dark nights, frequenting meadow, marshes grand style of elegant architecture,
and other moist places known among the
1916.) Ignis Fatuus-History and Effects of Wine. 125 people by the names of Will with a Wisp, profusion. The Land of Canaan was and Jack with a Lantern. We are further situated in the midst of regions aboundcold, that it seems to arise from an exhala- ingin wine, and was itself full of vineLion,which, being kindled in the air, reflects yards. Rabshekah, king of Assyria, callo 8 sort of thin filame in the dark, without it (II Kings, xviii. 32.) a land of wine any sensible heat, and that it is found and vineyards, and of the oil of the olives; Aying along rivers, hedges, &c., because and Reland mentions as a circumstance is there meets with a stream of air to di- universally known, that the wine of Aso, rect it. In other books, I have found the calon, and that of Gaza and Sarepta, above account of the ignis fatuus contra- were in high repute among the most disdicted. The light produced is there said tant nations. Among the presents which to proceed from the lantern fly, whose Jacob sent to his son Joseph in Egypt, body is very brilliant, and the , une was a kind of honey, which the learned der side of its wings glazed; these when Professor Michaelis of Göttingen has extended, serve as a reflector. A gen- demonstrated not to have been the comcleman asserted that he followed one mon honey made by bees, which Egypt for several hours, which would Ay against itself produced in great abundance, and the wind, mount over hedges, houses, which is still produced there, but a mass &c.—This was not the effect of the wind. of bruised grapes, which was called ho
The question is, whether this light is ney by the Arabs on account of its produced by a vapour or a fly, and whe- sweetness. This mass was probably a ther it is calculated to do any mischief? sort of grape cheese, similar to that Correct notions on this subject would made of figs. Hence, in I. Samuel, xxv, greatly tend to remove the fears of igno- 18, and xxx. 12, the mass of figs is menrant country people.
T.C. tioned immediately before or after the London, Jan. 23, 1816.
mass of raisins; so many clusters of rai
sins and so many cakes of figs. The THE GUARDIAN OF HEALTH single town of Hebron sends annually, No. VI.
according to Shaw, three hundred camels HISTORY AND EFFECTS OF WINE. laden with this grape-mass to Egypt; THE regions of the East are undoubt- and hence we may infer how much of odly the native country of the vine. this comninodity the flourishing land of Greece has from the most ancient times Canaan, which was covered with vinehad wines of its own, which are still yards, inust formerly have exported. very famous. But it is easy to prove Every reader knows that a bunch of that it was brought thither from some grapes, brought from the promised ether place. Might it not have been in- land, was carried by two men to he troduced by the Egyptians? The Greeks shown to the Israelites.
We must not only carried on a great traffic with not thence conclude that it was either them, but also received from thein their so large or so heavy as to require the arts and sciences. The vine, however, strength of two persons. It is more procould not have come from that quarter. bable that they suspended it from a pole, Egypt itself was not a wine country. which was borne by them both, that the Herodotus relates that the Egyptians grapes might not be bruised by the way. drank a beverage made with barley, to At the same time this bunch must have supply the want of wine; and Mail- been of uncommon size and beauty, belet assures us, that though this coun- cause it was exhibited to the people as a try possessed vines of the most generous proof of the extraordinary fertility of and productive species, still one vast the Land of Promise. Travellers have plain could not have grown them in such mentioned bunches of ten or twelve abondance as to afford wine sufficient pounds weight produced in that counfor the large population. The vine affects try; at least the monks assured the Chehilly countries; and Egypt, which has valier D'Arvieux that such is the case. been inbabited froin so remote a period, The grapes of Damascus, which come to has so vineyards; on the contrary, all us in their dried state as raisins, cunfirm accounts agree in stating that the grape is the assertions respecting the superior scarcely known there, and that nothing growth of those parts; and no person but trellises for pines is to be found, acquainted with history will entertain and these only at some of the convents. any doubt on the subject. If Egypt, however, was destitute of this If we, therefore, take it for granted production, the neighbouring countries that Assyria was the native country of of Asia and Palestine, in particular were the vine, we shall have no difficulty in capable of furnishing it in the greater coneeiving how it spread after the De
126 Guardian of Health-History and Effects of Wine. [March 1, luge over Asia Minor, and subsequently Massa and Falernæ. In less than a cento Greece. Bochart proves that Cadmus tury, however, these so celebrated wine introduced the worship of Bacchus into lost their character, either through negthe latter, and quotes passages of the lect or the avarice of those by whom ancient writers, who report that the Ty- they were raised. rians asserted that they had given the Macrobius informs us that the Gauls vine to the Greeks. The same celebrated did not learn the art of cultivating the scholar maintains along with many more, vine till Rome had arrived at the period that the Saturn of the Pagans was no of high prosperity. A Helvetian, as we other than the patriarch Noah. Now are told by Pliny, gave them some Plutarch ascribes the discovery of the wine brought by him from Rome to vine to Saturn. Every reader knows why taste. Its five favoar induced them to we attribute the same discovery to Noah, march to Rome and besiege the city: and the mischance that befel him from but they were defeated by Camillus, who drinking to excess of the juice of the forced them to retire to their native grape. M. Agricola advances acute ar- forests. What they bad in vain sough guments to prove that the famous Dio. in Italy was offered ihem 270 years afternysus, or Bacchus of the ancients, was wards in their own country, when Fabius our Moses; and as Bacchus is said to Maximus proceeded with a Roman army have been the discoverer of wine, every to Gaul to return their visit. lle kept circumstance seems to agree most exact- extending his conquests in Provence, Jy in pointing to the Promised Land as Languedoc, and Dauphiné; and thus the native country of the vine, whence the Gauls learned from the Romans the the Greeks must have received it, be- art of cultivating the vine. Others are cause they themselves in their fabulous of opinion that the Greeks, when they inythology, place the discoverers of the founded the eity of Marseilles, about generous beverage yielded by its fruit in 500 years before Christ, introduced the this happy region.
vine into Gaul. If, however, this might In Greece the vine found a soil and a have been the case in regard to Gallia cliinate perfectly adapted to its growth. Narbonensis, still the Celtic part of Gaul Bythinia, as we are told by De la Mare, was ignorant of this art on the arrival of has always had extensive vineyards near the Romans. Beer was the usual beve Scutari and other places, whence excel. rage at Paris till the time of Julian. In lent wines are sent to Constantinople. a Greek epigram he ridicules the Gauls The same may be said of Lydia, Pamphy- because their Bacchus did not smell of lia, and many other parts of Asia. The nectar, hut like a goat, and was only kne, pale, yellow wine of the island of a god of cats and barley. This governor Lesbos gives celebrity, even to the pre- of Gaul was himself obliged to be consent day, to this its native country, on tent with beer; and it was fortunate for der the name of Metelino. The islands the country that he disliked it, as this of Chios, Samos, Cos, Rhodes, and Cy- circumstance promoted the introiluction prus, have likewise their vineyards in of the rive. ihe same profusion, and of as high repute In the time of Probus, who again as formerly; and Rome extolled the allowed the culture of the vinc, which wines of Greece, and particularly of had been circumscribed not a little since Chios, with as much enthusiasm as we Domitian had from political motives for. ourselves, when the generous host gave bidden it, and bis successors had contibis honoured guests just a taste, by way pued this prohibition for nearly two liunof treat, at the conclusion of the most dred years, we find it introduced into splendid entertainments. Rollin says Gaul, Spain, and Hungary, nay, éren in that tliis custom continued to prevail at the neighbourhood of Tokay; and ifiis Rome till the time of the childhood of same Probus is said also to have caused Lucullus.
vines to be planted on the banks of the From Greece the vine travelled to Rhine and of the Moselle. These are Italy, where the Romans had it soon the northernmost points of Europe for after the building of their city, though the growth of wine; those in a higher at first it was but rare. It was not till Jatitude produce but a degenerate kind. about 600 years after the foundation of If we traverse the wine countries, we Rome that the colture of the vine ex- shall find the wines of superior flavour, tended to all parts of Italy. Cato, who but of less spirit and strength, the nearer was then living, was the first that laid we approach to the coldest regions ; in down rules for its cultivation. Horace the warinest, on the contrary, the wine tras particularly extolled the wines of bas not so fine a favour, but more spirit.
1816.) Guardian of Health-His.ory and Effects of Wine. 127 Owing to the heat, the latter is rough, perceived that Egypt did not produce strick, and disposed to acidity; in the wine nearly sufficient for its population, former the fruit seldom attains due ina- to abstain from that beverage altogether qurity. It is observed that the best wines rather than to purchase it of foreigners. are met with between the 40th and 50th To reconcile the people to this severe degrees of north latitude.
law, it was pretended that wine was de Having thus given the reader a brief dicated to Typhon, that it was even the outline of the history of the vine, it inay blood and gall of that deity, and consebe justly expected that I should say quently to be avoided by every friend.co something concerning the fate of wine virtue and wisdom. As on the other itself. From its very origin it found hand their country produced a supera lovers and admirers, who freely indulged bundance of barley, they invented a in all the excesses into which it was calc beer, or as Herodotus terms it, a bare culated to lead them. Every luxury ley-wine, which they drank instead of stands in a similar predicament; but in grape-wine. If the inhabitants of the the fate of wine there has been some- northern regions, with whom the vine will thing peculiar. No sooner was this ex- not thrive had adhered to this useful bilarating drink discovered, chan chere policy, they would not send such increappeared people who made in some dible sums of money abroad for wines, measure a profession of hating it. These and would consequently be much richer. persecutions render its history remark. It is inconceivable what wealth Britain able. Let us inquire from what source poured for a long series of years even they flowed.
into the lap of her mortal enemy for The Abbé Pluche, M. de la Mare, nay wines, and what she still continues ille even some of the fathers of the church, pay for the brandies of France. By are of opinion that the vine was known prohibitions and punishments nothing is Anterior is the Deluge, but that Noah, to be effected : but under the pretext of after the Flood, took care to plant it morality and philosophy, the rulers of anew, and expressed the juice from its Egypt accomplished all their purposes. fruit.. Jablonsky, conceives that the Of the antipatby to wine founded on Hortifying remembrance of Noah's in- policy, delusion and superstition, we find ebriety excited in the Egyptiåns that traces in the books of Moses, and even batred to wine of which we find the so early as the history of the patriarch clearest traces. Professor Michaelis, Joseph. Those who abstained from wine bowever, has been more fortunate in his bad nevertheless no objection to cat inqniries into the cause of this ancient grapes. This circumstance is adduced antipathy, which he attributes to the by St. Augustine as a singular absurdicy Native porerty of Egypt in vines. This in the Manichæans. “ What can be poverty the Egyptians turned into a les- more inconsistent,” says he, than to son of wisdom, stigmatizing the drinking consider wine as the gall of the prince of wine as impious, and dedicating it to of darkness, and yet to eat grapes:"Typhon. Jablonsky himself has proved Does not this agree with what we read that the philosophic antipathy to wine of Pharaoh, u ho did not drink genuine in wbich certain heretics, the Gnostics, wine, but who had only the grapes pressSeverians, Encratites, and others, agree ed into his cup? The chief butler of the with the extremities of the East, the Egyptian monarch in relating his dream Bramins and the followers of Muham- says :- I took the grapes and pressed med, had its origin in Egypt many them into his cup, and gave the cup into centuries before their dames were heard Pharaoh's hand." Of course this kind af
, and according to the testimony of wine was given to such only as bad as of Diodorus Siculus, was prevalent in antipathy to wine properly so called, but Arabia long before the time of Muham- thought it no harin to eat the grapes or med himself. This historian relates that drink their juice. This very distinction the Nabathæans bad a law which for- between the juice of the grape aod ferbade them cither to drink wine or to live mented wine solves the difficulty, how in bouses which exactly corresponds with Muhammed who prohibited wine, could what the prophet Jeremiah says concern- nevertheless, regard the plant which ing the Rechabites, who were of Arabian yiells it as the gift of God. "Wine itself origin.
he considers as an invention of Satan, The solicitude of the Egyptians to pro- who is said to have first instructed men mote the interests of their country and in the art of preparing innocent grapes nation by means of philosophy and reli- the páguarov apgooúmns, which name war von, probably induced thein, wben they given to wine by the Essenians, who