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Caution against Evangelical Divines. [March 1, causes of things, both gives subsistence of Evangelical Divines. As a proof of tu, and contemplates whatever the uni- my assertion, and to put other old-faverse contains, without departing from shioned clergymen like myself on their the speculation of himself. But if with re- guard against those deeply.designing and spect to intellect, one kind is more par. insidious characters, I will briefly relate tial, and another more total, it is evident the recent conduct of one of them in the that there is not the same intellectual parish of which I am the officiating miperfection of all things, but that where nister. A clergyman of the Calvinistic intelligibles have a total and undistri- cast, and who has much more zeal than buted subsistence, there the showledge knowledge, and certainly not less bigotry is more total and indivisible, and where than charity, residing in my neighbourthe number of forms proceeds into mile hood, lately called on one of my paritude and extension, there the knowledge rishioners, who is a common friend to is both one and multiform. Herice, this him and myself; and after expatiating a being admitted, we cannot wonder on good deal on religious topics, especially hearing the Orphic verses, in which the on the truth of his own principles, and theologist says-

the excellence of those who profess Αυτη δε Ζηνος και εν ομμασι πατρος ανακτος them, came at last to—what should you Ναιουσ' αθανατοι τε θεοι, θνητοι τ' ανθρωποι suppose, Mr. Editor? why, surely not to

Οσσα τε ην γεγαασα, και υστερον οσσα εμελλον. any encomium on myself as a pastor, but There in the sight of Jove, the parent king,

to-what I never could have believed Th’immortal gods and mortal men reside,

had pot come to me from the very perWith all that ever was, and shall hereafter be. son to whom it was addressed, viz. an urFor the artificer of the universe is full of gent persuasion that this person would intelligibles, and possesses the causes of leave my church for a meeting-house. I all things separated from each other: have said that these men are insidious, so that he generates men, and all other and I am warranted in saying so; for things, according to their characteristic this very clergyman at this moment, as peculiarities, and not so far as each is far as outward appearances go, might be divine, in the same manner as the divi- taken for one of my most cord al friends. nity prior to him, the intelligible father But to pass over the bearing of this conPhanes."

duct towards myself as an individual, I The admirable dogma in this most

would ask any man if he can deny that beautiful extract, “ that knowledge subo it is a most convincing proof, that the sists act «rding to the nature of that church of England is cherishing in her which knows, and not according to the bosom the most poisonous serpents, and nature of that which is known," was

that she is in no small danger of getting originally derived from lamblichus, as is her death by their stinys. But how can evident from the commentary of Am- this clergyman reconcile such conduct monius on Aristotle's Treatise on Inter- with his ordination vow? When he was pretation. (See note to p. 162 of my

made a priest, he solemnly promised" to translation of the Organon.) Boethiu's be ready with all faithful diligence to bain the 5th book of his Treatise De Con- nish and drive away all erroneous and solatione, elegantly illustrates this strange doctrines." Now, all dissenters dogma. The passage I allude to begins certainly bold opinions which he, as a with the words—« Omne enim quod clergyman of the church of England, cognoscitur, non secundum sui vim, sed ought to consider both“ strange and ersecundum cognoscentium potius compre

roneous;" for if they did not hold tenets henditur facultatem.” The sources how.. different from us, there could be no cause ever from whence he derived this doc- for their separation. This divine professes trine, appear to have been unknown to to be a most zealous friend to the church all his editors and commentators; for of which he is a minister, a sincere bethey are not noticed by any of them.

liever in her doctrines, and a great adTuos. TAYLOR.

mirer of her discipline. I hope you will Manor-place, Walworth.

permit me to record, in your excellent

Magazine, the foregoing true statement MR. EDITOR,

of his conduct as a lasting proof of the THE observation that “ a pretended sincerity of his friendship, the reality of friend is more dangerous than an open

his belief, and the warmth of his attachenemy," was never made with greater ment. With great esteem for you, Mr. truth and propriety than when applied to Editor, I am certainly those clergymen of the church of Eng

No CALVINIST CLERGYMAN. land who arrogate to themselves the title December 2, 1815,

1816.) Mr. Woodforde on Commerce and the Act of Navigation. 119 VR. EDITOR,

chant, by the extension of the boundaHISTORIANŚ and political econo- ries of a tlien circumscribed narigation. mists, both of ancient aod modern times, A contemplative mind, in tracing the ever dwell with pride and admiration on almost imperceptible progress of British those periods of society which have been shipping, is suddenly seized with adiniradistinguished for the introduction and tion at the more rapid untoldings of cathe sabsequent establishment of com- pacity for trade and commerce in the merce. In a philosophical view, the bright era of Charles the Second's reign. sources of true and real greatness of em- In this view, we have the solid faith, propires have been thence derived. It is bity, and integrity of the merchant; we through the progress of civilization that have before us those master principles of a nation becomes pre-eminent, only in conduct, which through every age bave proportion to the energies and capacities maintained an unsullied honour and of her commercial character, thereby dignity, have, in their just operation, opening new avenues to wealth, guided elevated England to the enviable name by a well-protected maritime adventure, of modern Carthage, leaving upon the under the legislative authority of boun- mind the full conviction of that imties and special immunities. The pure mutable truth, that national prosperity and exalted spirit of English freedom, is best promoted by national integrity. planted in the earliest period of her his- Unqualified and unphilosophical in the tory, has paved the way to an unrivalled extreine was the expression of the late elevation of trade and commerce. Our usurper of the French empire in calling Statute Books do not contain an act of a nation like our own, made omnipotent more importance than the 12th Charles by commerce, a nation of slopkeepers. the Second, commonly called an Act for With the commerce of our country, every the encouraging and increasing of Ship- other honourable distinction among inen ping and Navigation. It is hereafter in- has kept pace : its noble spirit has fostended to go into the nature of the tered the elegant productions of art, chewhole of the enactments of this cele- rished the ardoar of philosophy, and probrated act, as well as into the grounds tected and patronized men whose high of its several suspensions, their utility, literary excellence has spread renown on and expediency.

the British name over the whole habitReverting to the period of the passing able world. The wealth of nations thus of the Act of Navigation, we are neces- sought and obtained, is the truest dignity sarily called upon to consider the then of man, and may emphatically be called State of British commerce, and the diffi- the dignity of commerce. culties which were connected with its

R. D. WOODFORDE, increase and preservation, to

Dec. 23, 1815. Customs, London. which became the great object of legislative wisdom. In order, therefore, to MR. EDITOR, call forth and establish an adventurous THE object of this paper is to prove spirit, laws were enacted with great en- that London surpasses Paris in the numcouragements to British shipping, at the ber and merit of its buildings public same time containing prohibitions and and private, considered with a view penalties with a view to prevent the fo- to architectural beauty. This opinion reign shipping already commencing the will perhaps appear paradoxical to the career of carriers by sea. Hence we

inhabitants of both capitals, for I have must date the origin of the Act of Navi- found them in general thoroughly pergation, and ever after consider it as the suaded to the contrary of what I here adMagna Charta of our commercial pur

The Parisians, brought up in suits and ascendancy. It was therefore the idea, that next to Italy, France, and esential that the act should embody the Paris in particular, pussesses the finest fost salutary principles of general laws, specimens of architecture, because they kell digested in terms, to oppose thé are wholly built of stone, could not help continued violations and encroachments believing that their metropolis is far suwhich were daily shewing their danger. perior in this point to the British capious effects through a systematic increase tal, where some of the public edifices ing carrying-trade by foreigners. The and many private houses, are of brick infuence of these provisions and encou- and stone, or of brick only. The French, ragements at once excited emulation and the inhabitants of Paris who have of late adventure, and were well adapted to ad- years visited London, have rerained this tâncé the views of the English mer, idea, because it is difficult to give up an



120 M. Quatremère de Roissy on London & Paris. [March 1, opinion that we have once formed, and myself. I know how many people are because the French are very apt to take a to be found in England, who have enrapid, and cousequently a superficial lightened their understanding, and view of things. Two circunstances af- formed their taste by an examination of ford some excuse for them; the metro- the master-pieces of architecture in the polis has received such considerable ac- native country of the arts. Should these cessions on all sides, that it is become respectable judges discover in this paper difficult to see, much less to examine the language of an amateur of architecevery thing with due attention; and the ture and a sense of beauty, I owe them English, the people of London them. to the man who is unrivalled in France selves, very generally admit that their for his knowledge in the arts of design, capital, which they are nevertheless and for exquisite taste in regard to the proud of, is inferior to Paris in regard to beauties of antiquity.* monuments of architecture and hand- I have undertaken to adduce proofs in some edifices. For my part, though not support of my opinion: the best way of long since I held the saine language as the fulfilling this engagement will be to repeople of London and Paris, I now pro- view the buildings on either side, and to sess a totally contrary opinion.

compare them in regard to their princiI shall not therefore be suspected of pal qualities. I shall not enter inio deimproper partiality in being the first to tails, except in regard to such structures assert, that London surpasses Paris in as are least known to the public. Rethe number and merit of its public and specting those in the Gothic style I shall private edifices. Being in London in say but a few words, and merely remark 1314, when the weather was fine, and I that the Cathedrul of Westminster is far. had abundance of leisure, I determined superior to the Cathedral of Paris in the to explore it with more attention than I boldness and lightness of its interior, had done in preceding visits, which in- and still more for its exterior structure, deed had been but very short. My cu- since the erection of its two new towers. riosity was principally directed to the I must observe here, once for all, that I productions of the arts of design. I saw shall consider the public buildings and on this occasion more than I had ever be other edifices chiefly with regard to their fore seen; but yet not enough. From exterior, as being the most striking to that time, however, I began to cherish a the eye, and ceuding more immediately suspicion which led me to the opinion to embellish the respective capitals. that I now entertain, and that I owe to a series of observations made during my At Paris there is nothing in this class present residence in London. I am not worth mentioning, except the church of afraid that after I have stated my rea- Val de Grace, the new church of St. sons, I shall be accused by my country- Genevieve (lately the Pantheon), the men of Anglomania. It should be re- churches of St. Sulpice, St. Gervais for marked to the honour of the English, its portico, St. Philip du Roule, St. that it is chiefly by their public edifices Roch, and St. Thomas

Aquinas.erected within these few years, that they Against these buildings London can prohave given to their capital an importance duce St. Paul's, so vast, so majestic, the and a splendour worthy of so rich and exterior decorations of which (a point powerful an empire. I shall not be that more especially concerns any subcharged with ignorance of the state of ject) are so grand and so rich, while the French metropolis, in regard to the chose of the Pantheon of Paris, with the point in question, when it is known that exception of its portico and dome, are I was born there about the middle of the

so cold and so poor; the church of St. last century, that it has always been the Mary le Strand, the architecture of place of my residence, which I have whose exterior bespeaks the richness of never left, except for the purpose of decoration and the elegant style which some short journies, and that I was there prevail within: the churches of St. Mara very few nionths ago.

tin's in the Fields and St. George's, HanWhaifier idea

may be formed of the over-square, remarkable for their beautiwriter of this paper, he is determined to

ful porticos of the Corinthian order: the advance nothing without proof. I shall little church of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, therefore take the liberty of entering the plan, proportions, and decoration of into some detai's when I think them necessary to elucidate ine “ubicct. It is * M. Quatiemere de Quincy, Intendantto persons of taste and study, for both General of the Arts and of the Public Moruare requisite, that I particularly address mens in France.


1816.] M. Quatremère De Roissy on London and Paris. 121 which, cannot be too highly admired : in its proportions, in which elegance and and lastly, the new church of Mary-le- good taste are combined with the most bone, built of stone and brick, which will apparent solidity. Upon a rustic subperhaps surpass all the others in beauty basement, wrought in arcades, rises a of architecture, and in the luxury of its story in stone, with seven quadrangular external decoration, especially on the windows inserted within circular openprincipal front, which is to be embel- ings. This story is terminated by an enlished with a Corinthian portico. Though tablature, on the middle of which are this edifice is not finished on the outside, four columns of the Ionic order, surI cannot help thinking that sound criti- mounted by a handsome pediment. These cism may already censure the extension columns stand in front of a second story, of its front beyond the body of the build- arranged like the first, excepting the ing, which forms an oblong square, and middle window, which is larger, and the two appendages like small wings, more highly decorated. This second which correspond with it at the extremi- story displays in every part all the eleties. In my opinion, a circular form with gance and ornaments of the Ionic order. a colopade, would make a better finish. This edifice, contemporaneous with the Other churches, which I cannot euume- Horse Guards, seems to me to be the rate within the compass of this commu- production of the same architect. I have sication, make a handsome appearance entered into these descriptive details of with their porticos, cowers, and steeples, this little structure, becquse I believe and are ornaments to the city. London that very few of the English themselves seems to me to rival Paris in its religious have paid due attention to its merits.edifices, though the churches of the latter Somerset-House is a real palace; its are in general more extensive, but mostly square court is, in my opinion, in a better built at a time when bad taste was pre- style of architecture than the court 8t dominant.

the Louvre. The least striking part of PALACES.

this noble edifice is the front next to the In this class Paris has the Louore, the Strand. It seems, though good in itself, Tuilleries, the Lurembourg, the Palais not to correspond in beauty with the Royal, the Palais Bourbon, the Elisée rest, to be inferior in the siyle of the Bourbon, and the Palais du Temple. architecture and general arrangement. The three first, as grand structures, with This front, it is true, though not of older very beautiful parts, are far superior to date than the middle of the last century, those edifices in London which can be is already black with age, and appears denominated palaces : but the buildings soinewhat injured by the inclemency of which I shall' mention are perhaps not the atmosphere. I shall say nothing of inferior in regard to the merit of their its immense front next to the Thames, architecture. The Banquetting-house, because that is not yet finished. This Whitehall, the Horse Guards, Somerset- palace in its present state, is not so exHouse, Buckinghum-House, Curleton- iensive, but possess higher architectural House, and the Mansion-House, are edi- merit than the Luxembourg. Buckingfices which, in my opinion, inay te House and Carleton-House are likewise termed palaces. The detached relic of inferior in extent to the Palais Royal the royal and fatal palace of White- and Palais Bourbon, but they have more ball is admired by all who admire the unity and regularity. The portico of peristyle of the Louvre. The Horse Carleton-House is preferable to that of Guards, which I class with the palaces, the Palais Bourbon. The Mansion-House bas much of the appearance of one, es- must be mentioned for its

fine portico

of pecially on the front that looks into the Corinthian order, and its beautiful St. James's Park, from its extent, and lateral façades. My conclusion is that from the style and good taste of its solid Paris seems to eclipse her rival in paconstruction. In my opinion it is rather laces. heavy, and the petiy cupola or lantern

THEATRES AND PRISONS. wbich crowds it, is not free froin censure. London has two edifices erected withThere is notbing happy either in its form in these few years at a great expense for or in its details. A building close to it, dramatic exhibitions. Covent-Garden bordering the Park on the left as you Theatre has a more striking exterior for enter, known by the name of the Trea- its great extent entirely of stone, or at sury, which I mention here only on ac- least apparently so, and for its decoracount of its contiguity, is not merely ex. tion. In front' is a Doric portico in all empt from reproach, but deserves the the primitive simplicity of that order. bighest praise; it is a structure perfect This edifice, though otherwise imposing, New MONTALY Mag.-No, 26.



122 M. Quatremère De Roissy on London and Paris. [March 1, may be charged with a want of what is HOSPITALS, NILITARY AND CIVIL. termed character. The basso-relievos Here it is that the humanity and geneand the statues which seem to indicate rosity of the English are most conspicuthe destination of the structure, produce ous. I shall say nothing of the magnifibut little effect, because they do not cor- cent hospital at Greenwich, because it respond in magnitude and importance does not come within my plan; but shall with the whole. Why should not an notice the two establishments at Chelarchitect who is employed to build a sea, because Chelsea belongs to London theatre, give to the exierior that cir- as inuch as Chaillot to Paris. The Hose cular form which it usually has witbin? pitul for disabled soldiers at Chelsea is a This form alone, independently of appro. vast building of brick and stone. The priate decoration, would distinguish such principal entranca is adorned with four a structure from every other, and pro- columns of the Doric order, and a pediclaim the purpose for which it is de- ment. Beyond a fine vestibule, opening signed. Drury-lanc Theatre, equally so on the one hand into the chapel, and on kid and extensive with the other, has still the other into the refectory, is a portico, less to indicate that it is the temple of likewise of four Doric columns, onder Thalia and Melpomene. Its principal which you pass into a spacious quadranfront, with its four pilasters and its five gutar court-yard, two sides of which are windows above as many arcades, ap- bordered by the wings that run from the pears very naked and very cold. At any bądy of the building. In the uniddle of Fate, these two edifices, situated nearly each of these wings is a portico of Doric in the centre of the metropolis, are orna- pilasters, with a pediment. These wings, ments to it.

terminated by a kind of pavilion, exhibit Paris has nothing to set against these on their side elevation a façade, ruutwo structures, though it contains a great thing in a parallel line with the other, number of theatres. The same obser- but with this difference, that the portico vation applies to its prisons, which, to in the center, of four Doric pilasters, say no worse of them, are insignificant. projects so as to correspond with the

Newgate* is the finest building of the iwo pavilions at the extremities. This kind that has ever heen erected, for that extensive pile has two rows of windows may certainly be called fine which has a above those of the ground floor. The great character. This character is found roots are high. The style of the whole in the solidity of its construction in free- is simple, but very noble. Secondary stone, in the roughness of its rustic work, buildings, part of which face the grand and in the absence of external win- external line with the principal entrance, dows. What enhances the merit of form sınall masses in a very good taste, this building, which is divided into that combine and harmonize with the five parts, is the employment of the principal struoture. This edifice is said forms of elegant architecture; it is even to have been crected afier the designs of ornauyental on account of its quadrangu- the architect of St. Paul's. I cannot łar niches, likewise in rustic, with a pe- quit it without observing, that the statue aliment-a decoration well calculated to of King William, nearis of colossal dibreak the uniformity of two still larger mensions, is placed upon a base which masses without apertures. On a line seems disproportionate. with this prison there is another, which Near this hospital stands a vast buildserves as a kind of counterpart to it, and ing called the Royal Military Asylum, is worthy of notice; it is built in the for the education of soldiers' children oi same style, and is not deficient in cha- both sexes. It is vew, and constructeri 'racter. This edifice is crowned with of brick and stone. Upon a sub-basepediments.

ment rises a line divided into five parts, and having a range of nineteen windows,

the first row of which are in semi-circu* It is singular that no engraving of this lar arches, with entablatures. The main edifice is to be found in London. There is body of the building has thirteen win

one at Paris executed under the direction of dows with dressinys.° in front is a porM. Quatremère de Quincy, from the design tico with four Doric columns, and a peof a French artist.

[The writer, whose remarks seem to indi- diment of the height of the edifice, the cate an acquaintance with Matton's Pictu- roof of which is low. On each side of resque Tour through London and Westmin- this main body, but thrown baok, is a ster, will find in that scarce and expensive gallery of three arcades, with a balaswork a very fine print, description, and criti- trade above. Each of these galleries cism of the building. -EDITOR.]

conumunicates with a parilion on a line

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