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1816.) Remarks on the Tendency of the New System of Education, 113 woman, in those lower walks of life consists in beneficence to bis fellows, his where such a corrective is nost wanted, public duty in attachment to the constithat ground of eminence whence the tution and ibe laws. It is a remark of influence of its rirtues might be most Aristotle,* " that the most effectual widely diffnis 1-those virtues whose means for the preservation of a constipure and tranquil lustre can spread a tution, though one universally disretone of sotiness on the harshest features garded, is the education of children acof our valure.

cording to the principles of the governIf, how rer, it should be objected, ment.” Now the principle of the British that this argunent would go to the exclu- government is monarchical ;t monarchia sion of males fran all instruction, I am cal—that is, in the sense assigned by desirous that it should be considered Montesquieui as distinct from despotic. rather as a defence of the old system. But I asi, how that child is to be trained than an attack on the new one; and to a contenied acquiescence in some conceding the utiity of the end, I shall fixed authority, who has been accustomproceed to examine the adequacy of ed from his school years to a positive the means.

alternation of rank---who has to-day Though the second specified advan- commanded the boy who was his master tage may at the first view be somewhat yesterday—and who has been taught that imposing, yet if we judge of it by its it is mere personal merit, of which in converse it will cease to appear so de- after-life he will consider himself as the sirable; for where a multitude of scholars proper judge, that can give a just title hade but one master, the great object of to civil pre-eminence? education, which is to form the morals as And let us contrast the mutual lieartwell as the mind, must be neglected; burnings and jealousies that must arise unless indeed the inaster be enabled, by from this contest for power, with the a judicious adınixture of Dr.Spurzheim's effects of the old systen, when the chiisystem, to gain that instinctive knowo dren were under the parental guidance ledge of character which his pupils pos- of their village teacher, wbose claim to sess of grammar; and to teach his pigmy their submission was never questioned, monitors the same dexterity of touch in as being founded osten in venerable age exploring a skull, that they now use in as much as in superior knowledge. tracing an alphabet. I would, however, Standing in equal awe of the same auask with seriousness, how it is possible thority, they were bound together by the that a single master, environed with the sympathy of sinilar bopes and fears into tumult and noise of those multitudinous a brotherhood of peacefulness and affecschools, can ever become acquainted tion; and being thus early inured to a with the characters of 2, 3, or 400 chile settled command, they grew up in those dren? I would ask, how, without this feelings of contentment and loyal súborknowledge of their character, he can dination which preserve integrity to the ever regulate and mould their passions whole body of society by insuring the into principles of virtuous and settled happiness of each member. conduct, when he may be inconsciously The weighty authorities of Plutarch adding incentives to the ardent, or check- anong the ancients, and of Locke and ing the phlegmatic or desponding? Cowper among the moderos, will I know

It is no answer to this difficulty to be be adduced to recommend the second told that the monitors supply the want

alteration the method of discipline. of adult preceptors in this detail of edu- But still their testimony is scarcely apa cation; for that is a feature of the new plicable, their objections being directed system which I think the most deformed against thie former system only when and inconsistent; and I shall now con used as the means of diere literary teachsider it as forming part of the third pro- ing, and not for the regulation of moral fessed improvement, that of the change conduct; or when employed beyond the in the old methods of discipline.

age of childhood. And in opposition to This change is twofold; the delega. any array of authority, I would rest on tion of authority from the master to the the decided judgment of Johnson, who scholar, and the use of what is called the in the knowledge of human nature must sense of shame as the only means of pua never yield to any competitor. Locke, nishment.

The end of education, as truly de * Tionit : V. XEO: 9. fined by Milron, is to enable a man to + See the decision on the prosecution of discharge justly and skilfully his public Reeves for libel. and private duties; and his private duty Esp. de Lois, liv, ii. c. 1. New AloxTHLY MAG.-NO, 26.

Vol. I.


114 On the Tweddell Collections and the Rev. Mr. Carlyle. [March 1, on the contrary, though powerful beyond I should have expressed less at length, other men in the speculations of abstract But what, alas! can any insulated opiscience, was perhaps from this very nion effect, when we daily see the an. cause unfitted for the consideration of nouncements of this national institution subjects so mixed and fluctuating as the with all its array of patrons aud presidents, characters and passions of men. Little, -ofprinces, dukes, senators, and bishops, therefore, is the practical use of his sys- who are specified with a pompous mitems of education or government; and nuteness, like a host of witnesses brought this, which we might have conjectured up for some suspicious character. To from reason, has been fully established ascertain, however, how much this by fact, in the failure of his constitution princely superintendence surpasses the for the state of Carolina. And from obsolete one of the landlord or clergyCowper's known aversion to public man of the parish, I would recommend schools, it would require some hardihood the reader to consult the account* given to produce his authority in support of by an ingenious foreigner of a recent the general system, whatever might be risit to the very shrine and sanctuary of his sentiments on one particular point. this benevolent system, to the Central

I will maintain, however, against any Borough School, - and let him contrast declamation, that there was more true its cumult and confusion with what he kindness and leniency in the old method himself has witnessed of the peacefulof coercion than in the present one; for, ness, good order, and useful discipline, to omit that speculation so beautifully of that dark age when the rights of chil. couched on by Burke,* of the identity or dren were not fully understood. equivalence of all our feelings of pain,

PHILARCHÆUS. whether mental or bodily,-how bitter, I ask, must be the punishment of shame MR. EDITOR, and ridicule to a child of generous sen- HAVING in common I presume with timents? and where such sentiments most of your readers, taken a deep innever existed, or have been blunted terest in the discussions in your magazine by repetition, the punishment itself is nu- relative to the Tweddell MSS., I could gatory. Instead of the little culprit find- not help feeling highly gratified by coling comfort from the chastisement of his lecting from a recent lettert that a va master in the affection of his school- luable portfolio of costumes entrusted mates, they are converted, by a very re- (as is there stated) several years ago by finement of cruelty, into the executors Lord Elgin to his father-in-law, Mr. of his sentence; it is their scoffs and Nesbit, and the late Chancellor Carlyle, taunts that form the measure of his suf- in order to be forwarded to the represenfering. What trespass in the power of tatives of Mr.T., which, for some reason an infant to commit, cun merit that lone- hitherto unexplained, was never done, liness and dejection of spirit which such is now deposited in such safe custody as unkindness must produce? what can to promise the reasonable hope of its recompensate for those feelings of hatred, storation at length to his

surviving family. resentment, and alienation, that must Yet at the same time I cannot help, retake place of the gladness and cordiality marking one implication contained in of childhood?

the letter to which I have alluded as raSeverity in education should, I think, ther extraordinary, which is, that these be always declined, and rewards, where drawings, if so consigned to the joint it is practicable, should be more largely care of Mr. Carlyle, should not have used than punishments; not, however, long since reached their destination, as the selfish rewards of modern invention, that gentleman, from residing as vicar at -orders of merit, tin medals, and painted Newcastle, so within the reach of the ribbons, but those unphilosophical ones nearest relatives and friends of Mr. T. of ancient use, by which the happy must of course be supposed to have had child, when sharing with his friends, en. frequent and excellent opportunities of hanced his own pleasure in gaining their communicating the circumstance to the esteem--the only distinction which in family. From a personal acquaintance aster-life he will be able to acquire, and with this elegant and accomplished schothe only one worth acquiring.

lar, and a thorough knowledge of bis Such, Sir, are the grounds of my ob- . Journal of a Residence in England, &c. jection to the present system of educa- vol. ii. p. 130. tion, which, if I bad not felt so strongly, + This letter will be found in a succeed

ing page of our present Number, under the Sublimc and Beautiful, part iv. 3. head of LITERARY INTELLIGENCE,- Editor.

Mr. Taylor on the Philosophy of Plato:

115 upright and honourable mind, I am by us who are rational and intellectual strongly tempted to suspect that the natures, and who essentially possess "explanatory statement”' now given to something divine; but it is still more the public cannot be correct as far as dire to deprive divine natures of knowMr. C. was concerned, and that at least ledge; since the former pertains to those a very unfair use has been made of that who do not convert themselves to divilearned professor's naine in this still in- nity, but the latter to those who in pede explicable transaction.

the all-pervading goodness of the gods. Jan. 25, 1816. SCRUTATOR. And the former pertains to those who

P. S. Owing to an accidental omission err respecting our esserce, but the latthe inquiry of your correspondent H-N, ter to those who convert theinselves er(No. xxiii. p. 401) has only just fallen roneously about a divine cause. But the under my notice, otherwise I should have expression still more dire (SESVOTERI") is not sooner informed him that Mr. Ecton's used as signifying a more strenuous work is entituled “ A State of the Pro- doubt, in the same manner as we are acceedings of the Corporation of the Go- customed to call those dire (desvor) who ternors of the Bounty of Queen Anne." vanquish by the power of language, but There has not, I believe, been any

recent as a thing worthy of greater dread and edition of this useful work, and it is now caution to the intelligent.

For it disupposed to have become extremely vulses the union of things, and dissociates scarce.

divinity, apart from the world. It also The points of information requested defines divine porver as not pervading to by another correspondent in a note in all things, and circumscribes intellectual the same Number, p. 392, may be found knowledge as not all-perfect. It likein ample detail in Bucon's Liber Regis, wise subverts all the fabrication of the at the heads of each respective diocese. universe, the order imparted to the But I beg to observe that this gentleman world from separate canses, and the is mistaken in his idea that the dignita- goodness which fills all things from one ries are more numerous than stated in will, in a manner adapted to the nature the official “ diocese returns," as the of unity. Nor less dire than any one of various corporate members of the dif- these is the confusion of pieiy. For ferent cathedrals and other collegiate what communion is there between gods establishments have no title to that de- and men, if the former are deprived of signation.

the knowledge of our concerns ? All sup

plications therefore of divinity, all saMR. EDITOR,

cred institutions, all oaths adducing the AS nothing can show in a clearer point gods as a witness, and the untaught conof view the sanctity of the philosophy of ceptions implanted in our souls concernPlato than his notions of Providence, I ing divinity, will perish. What gitt also send you the following developement of will be left of the gods to men, if they them by Proclus, who for the magnificent do not previously comprehend in themexuberance of his diction, and the fecun- selves the desert of the recipients, if they dity and scientific aecuracy of his con- do not possess a knowledge of all that we ceptions, is unquestionably the cory- do, of all we suffer, and of all that we phæus of all the Platonists. It is a think, though we do not carry it into. iranslation of an extract from his Com- effecç? With great propriety, therefore, mentary on the Parmenides of Plato, a are such assertions called dire. For if it work which, to the disgrace of Europe, is is unholy to change any legitimately distill only extant in manuscript.

vine institutions, how can such an inno“ The Athenian guest in the laws 'vation as this be unattended with dread? clearly evinces that there is a Providence, But that Plato rejects this hypothesis, when his discourse shews that the gods which makes divinity to be ignorant of know and possess a power which governs our concerns, is evident from these all things. But Parmenides at the very things, since it is one of his dogmas, beginning of the discussion concerning that divinity knows and produces all Providence, evinces the absurdity of things. Since however some of those doubting divine knowledge and dominion. posterior to bim have vehemendy endeaFor to assert that the conclusion of this voured to subvert such like assertions, doubt is still more dire than the former, let us speak concerning them as much as (i. e. that divinity is not known by us,) may be sufficient for our present pursufficiently shows that he rejects the

ar pose. guments which subvert Providence. For Some of those then posterior to Plato, it is dire to say that divinity is not known on seeing the unstable condition of subó


Mr. Taylor on the Philosophy of Plato. [March 1, lunary things, were fearful that they were which is external, represent him as pernot under the direction of Providence vading through the whole of a sensible and a divine nature; for such events as nature, as passing into contact with the are said to take place through fortune, objects of his government, impelling the apparent inequality respecting lives, every thing, and being locally present and ile disordered niotion of material with all things; for say they, he would natures, induced them greatly to suspect not otherwise be able to exert a provithat they were not under the govern- dential energy in a becoming manner, ment of Providence. Besides, the per- and impart good to every thing according suasion that divinity is not busily ein- to its desert. ployed in the evolution of all-various Others again affirm that divinity has a reasons, and that lie does not depart from knowledge of himself, but that he has no his own blessedness, induced them to occasion to understand sensibles in order frame an hypothesis so lawless and dire. to provide for them, since by his very For they were of opinion, that the pas- essence he produced all things, and sion of our soul and the perturbation adorns whatever he has produced, withwhich it sustains by descending to the out having any knowledge of his progovernment of bodies, must happen to ductions. They add, that this is by divinity, if he converted biniself to the no means wonderful, since nature opeprovidential inspection of things. Far- rates witbout knowledge, and unattendilier still, from considering that different ed with phantasy; but that divinity difobjects of knowledge are known by dif- fers from nature in this, that be has a ferent gnostic powers; as for instance, knowledge of himself, though not of the sensibles by sense, objects of opinion by things which are fabricated by him. And opinion, things scientific by science, and such are the assertions of those who were intelligibles by intellect, and at the same persuaded that divinity is not separated time neither placing sense, nor opinion, froin murdane natures, and of those nor science in divinity, but only an in who deprived him of the kuowledge of tellect immaterial and pure; hence they inferior concerns, and of a knowledge asserted that divinity had no knowledge operating in union with providence. of any other things than the objects of With respect to these philosophers, intellect. (And this was the opinion of we say, that they speak truly and yet the more early Peripatetics.) For say not truly on this subject. For if provi. they, if matter is external to him, it is dence has a subsistence, neither can necessary that he should be pure from there be any thing disordered, nor can apprehensions which are converted divinity be husly employed, nor can he to matter ; but being purified from these, know sensibles through passive senses : it follows that he must bave no knowledge but these philosophers, in consequence of material natures. Hence the patrows of not knowing the exempe power and of this doctrine deprived him of a know uniform knowledge of divinity, appear to ledge of, and providential exertions deviate from the truth. For thus we inabout, sensibles ; not through any imbe- terrogate them; does not every thing cility of nature, but through a transcen- energize in a becoming manner when i. dency of gnostic energy, just as those energizes according to its own power wbose eyes are filled with light, are said and nature ? as for instance, does not to be incapable of perceiving mundane nature, in conformity to the order of its objects, at the same time that this inca- essence, energize physically, intellect inpacity is nothing more than transcen- tellectually, and soul psychica!ly, or acdency of yision. They likewise add, cording to the nature of soul? And when that there are many things which it is the same thing is generated by many and beautiful not to know. Thus to the different causes, does not each of these enthiastic (or those who are divinely produce according to its own power, and inspired) it is beautiful to be ignorant not according to the nature of the thing of whatever would destroy the deific produced? or shall we say, that each energy; and to the scientific, not to produces after the same manner, and know that woich would defile the indu- that, for example, the sun and man geþitable perception of science.

nerate man, according to the same niode But others (as the Stoics) ascribe in- of operation, and not according to the deed to divinity a knowledge of sensi- natural ability of each, viz. the one parbles, in order that they may not take tially, imperfectly, and with a busy enaway his providence, but at the same ergy, but the other without anxious atçime convert his apprehension to that tention, by its very essence, and totally?

Mr. Taylor on the Philosophy of Plato.

117 Bat to assert this would be absurd; these, and to apprehend in what they for a divine operates in a manner very differ from each other, unless we condifferent from a mortal nature.

tained a certain indivisible nature, If, therefore, every thing which ener which has a subsistence above the comgizes, energizes according to its owo na mon sense, and which prior to opinion, cure and order, some things divinely and desire and will, knows all that these supernaturally, others naturally, and . know and desire, according to an indiothers in a different manner, it is evident visible mode of apprehension. that every gnostic being knows according If this be the case, it is by no means to its own nature, and that it does not proper to dishelieve in the indivisible follow that because the thing known is knowledge of divinity, which knows senone and the same, on this account, the sibles without possessing sense, and dipatures which know, energize in con visible natures without possessing a diviformity to the essence of the things sible energy, and which without being known. Thus sense, opinion, and our present to things in place, knows them intellect, koow that which is white, but prior to all local presence, and imparts sot in the same manner; for sense can to every thing that which every thing is not know what the essence is of a thing capable of receiving. The unstable white, vor can opinion obtain a know- essence, therefore, of apparent natures is ledge of its proper objects in the same not known by him in an unstable, but in manner as intellect; since opinion knows a definite manner; nor does he know only that a thing is, but intellect knows that which is subject to all-various muthe cause of its existence. Knowledge tations dubiously, but in a manner pertherefore subsists according to the na- petually the same; for by knowing himture of that which knows, and not ac- self, he knows every thing of which he is cording to the nature of that which is the cause, possessing a knowledge tranknown. What wonder is it then that scendantly more accurate than that divinity should know all things in such a which is co-ordinate to the objects of manner as is accommodated to his na- knowledge; since a causal knowledge of ture, viz. divisible things, indivisibly every thing is superior to every orber kind things muluplied, uniformnly, things gen of knowledge. Divinity therefore knows rated, according to an eternal intelli. without busily attending to the objects gence, such things as are partial, totally; of his intellection, because he abides in and that with a knowledge of this kind, himself, and by alone knowing himself he should possess a power productive knows all things. Nor is he indicent of of all things, or in other words, thar by sense, or opinion, or science, in order to knowing all things with simple and united know sensible natures; for it is himself intellecrions, he should impart to every that produces all these, and that in the thing being, and a progression into be- unfathomable depths of the intellection ing? For the auditory sense knows au of himself, comprehends an united knowdibles in a manner different from the ledge of them, according to cause, and in common sense; and prior to, and dif one simplicity of perception. Just as if ferent from, these, reason knows audibles, some one having built a ship should place together with other particulars which in it men of his own formation, and in sense is not able to apprehend. And consequence of possessing a various art again, of desire which tends to one should add a sea to the ship, produce thing, of anger which aspires after ano- certain winds, and afterwards launch the ther thing, and of proairesis, or delibe- ship into the new created main. Let us rate choice, there is one particular life, suppose too, that he causes these to have moving the soul towards all these, which an existence by merely conceiving them are inutually motive of each other. It to exist, so that by imaging all this to is through this life that we say, I desire, take place, he gives an external subsistI am angry, and I deliberately choose this ence to his inward pliantasnis, it is evi. thing or that; for this life verges to all dent that in this case be will comain the these powers, and lives in conjunction cause of every thing which happens to with them, as being a power which is im- the ship through the winds on the sea, pelled to every object of desire. But and that by contemplating his own conprior both to reason and this one life, is ceptions, vithout being inc., ent of oatthe one of the soul, which often says, I ward conversion, he will of itse same perceive, I reason, I desire, and I deli- time both fabricare and know these exberate, which follows all these energies ternal particula s. Thus, and in a far and energizes together with them. For greater degree, that divine intellect, the we should not be able to know all artificer of the universe, possessing the

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