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On the supposed Antiquity of the Globe.

[March 1, ON THE SUPPOSED ANTIQUITY OF TUE We readily admit that the “ strata of GLOBE,

sea shell: fish," to which he refers, must (Concluded from p. 26.)

certainly" prove that the ocean once coHaving thus followed INVESTIGATOR vered the land with most of the ranges of through “ the evidence of Astronomy mountains.” And if,“ in different places, and History,” examined bis“ facts," and strata of river'shell-fish are found be paid some regard to the “ great age” of tween those of sea shell-fsh,"-instead his " existing monuments,” let us now of taking it for granted " that the sea hear how he proceeds to NATURAL Hıs- has more than once covered the land,

From this.source he selects the and that, after the first recession of its supposed “transforination of immense waters, rivers had there scooped out forests into masses of coal"—“ prodigi- their channels,”-it is more natural to ous strata of sea shell-fish, found partly account for such kind of fossils from the Leneath plains, and partly petrified and effects of the General Deluge. They imbedded in mountain crags"" strata were either brought into those situations of lava, which once issued from the bo- in which they are usually found, when som of volcanoes, piled upon que ano- various bodies were mingled in general ther, and separated by vegetable mould confusion by the violence of the waters; and the remains of 'plauts"_“ islands or they might be owing to fish-spawn, or of madrepores"--and“ plants which animulcula, introduced amongst the laycan only grow in the East Indies found ers of stone and earth, which afterwards in the deepest excavations that have became what we now tind then, in the been inade in Europe from which he ordinary course of nature.

“ It is neinfers, that the globe inust be inany thou- cessary,” says Mr. Ray, “ that at least sand years older than " monks and Le- those which are found in the viscera and pites" generally believe it to be. On glands of animals be thus formed; and the transformation of forests into coal," if these, why not those found in the there are some who agree with your earth?"-As to the time necessary for correspondent in the sume hypothesis. petrifaction, in many cases connected Ic is thought that, before the 'Deluge, with marine fossils, the DROPPING WELL every hill and valley must have been at Knaresborough affords ainple proof clothed with luxuriant vegetation; and that various substances inay be turned that, when the moment of destruction into stone in the course of as many arrived, the lofty forests, with which months as your correspondent would nearly the whole of the earth is sup- probably number centuries for that purposed to have been covered, were at pose. once torn up and carried away by the On those “ strata of lava" to which force of the tremendous torrent--the he refers, we may venture to assert, that trees of the mountains laid on those of if “ men of science" were at all accurate the vallies and together buried by the in their “ researches at the foot of subsequent subversion of the mountains; Mount Vesuvius," they would have found that, instead of mouldering into an use- no just reason to conclude, “ that this less mass, these are again made, after volcano has existed upwards of 8,000 the lapse of a considerable period, to years." Surely each stratum of lava contribute in anuther mode to the com- would not require a

a long series of forts and enjoyments of man." But that ages to grow cold!" And those “ these forests were previously “burned" vered with soil, fit for the growth of is so very improbable, that we cannot plants," cannot be so very numerous 29 entertain the idea without supposing a to furnish such demonstrations as they deluge of fire as well as of water. Of pretend to establish; at least, before we the former we have do evidence, while rely with implicit confidence on their the latter is supported both by divine assertions, we ought to have the process testimony and the tradition of different of these “ calculations” fairly laid benations. This origin of coal, however, fore us, that we may judge in some mea. is only hypothetical; and if

your corre- sure of what they have“ demonstrated" spondent can furnish evidence that coal our respect for revelation being such is “ of more ancient date than the build. as is not to be removed by conjecture ing of Babylon," it inay perhaps deserve and groundless assertion. The existence to be rejected; though he will find it of "volcanoes in the neighbourhood of difficult to prove that the process of Rome, near Albano, Nemi, and other transformation, in such cases, requires so places,” may be reasonably doubted; many centuries as he seems to imagine. Parkinson's Organic Remains of a For

* Sce Ray's Physico-Theological Disco mer World, p. 275.

veries, dis, ii. chap. 4.


On the supposed Antiquity of the Globe.

109 for if “ so early as the destruction of tion,--supposing the river in rainy seaTroy, when Æneas lauded there, those sous to reach its summit. And as to the parts were cultivated,” they are beyond plants which can ooly grow in the East the reach of authentic history. “ The Indies," Botany is said to meet with in more we search," says the learned Jacob excavations made in Europe, enougli bas Bryant, in a work written to prove that been said on the subject of fossils to Troy never existed, “ into the very an account for their existence in those situacient records of Rome or Greece, the tions, without sopposing any " change greater darkness aud uncertainty ensue. which“ must belong to epochs more None of thein can stand the test of close remote than the 8,000 years of the moexamination. Upon a minute inspection numents of Ellora." all becomes dark and doubtful, and otten All that your correspondent has atinconsistent; hut when we encounter tempted to deduce !roin NATURAL H19the Sucred Volume, even in parts of far TORY and COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, has higher antiquity, the deeper we go, the also been refuted by the foregoing obe greater treasure we find. The various servations. The i bones of various parts are so consistent, that they affyrd species of quadrupeds which no longer mutual illustration; and the more ear- exist upon the earth, and of which no nestly we look, the greater light accrues, inention is made by the ancients,” are and consequently, the greater satisfac- unquestionably antediluviun. Their bem tion. So it has always appeared to me, ing, in some cases, " found a hundred who have looked diligently and exa

feet below the surface of the ground," mined; and I trust I have not been mise prores them to have been buried there taken.” But if tubulous history fail to by the Flood. Such as the " skeleton establish the existence of volcanoesjn found in Paraguay," and still preserved places which were “cultivated" long “in the cabinet of natural history as before the destruction of Troy, and thus Madrid," are either the bones of mirine enable your correspondent to infer that animals not yet known to us, or such bigh antiquity of the globe he wishes to as became extinct at the Deluge; for establish, we are told that, " to judge though “ two of every kind" are said to from the decay of blocks of granite ex have entered the ark, we know that the posed to the air, the earth must be phraseology of Scripture admits of being 60,000 years old and upwards !" On restrained to every kind Divine Wisdom * this principle, then, it may perhaps be thought fit to preserve; or even to those equally reasonable to judge, from de which needed an asylum with Noah and cayed marbles in our churches, that these his family. edifices have existed the same length “ The Arts," as we have already seeu, of time!-- From such “ arguments” the gre not more unfriendly to the Bible cause of Truth has nothing to fear. than “the sciences;" for they have no

No great difficulty need occur to an such “report to confirin" as your cor: inpartial spind in accounting for “islands respondent would have them. Thougla of madrepores," if such there are," for “ M. Chevalier convinced himself that which sovereigns now contend." If whole the first working of the mines in the islands are composed of them, which island of Elba dated back upwards of must be highly problematical, they might 41,520 years," no wonder that “this be brought together at once by the assertion has not passed uncontradicted. Flood, and, like other portions of mat- and since “ M. Saalbat, by a more exact cer, speedily consolidated. The same calculation,” fixes the period at nearly may be said of “the hill upon wirich 1,000 years since the Creation, there Tivoli stands;" for who can be so ab- need be no dispute on the subject, pro: surd as to imagine that it was formed vided he can believe thein to have sure by the river Teverone, which being “im- vived the Deluge ; for we have no reason pregnated with argillaceous and calca- to imagine that so long a period as he reous earth, in a series of years deposits specifies would be required for the aclayers of this matter about as thick as quisition of such arts as might be neces: the back of a knife"--and that “three sary before mines could be wrought. years” are to be reckoned “ for each The calculation, therefore, which you: quarter of an inch" in the gradual foro correspondent builds on that supposition mation of it? On the contrary, this falls to the ground. “ Times more re. hill, which is said to have“ an elevation mote than the beginning of the Samariof about 200 feet," is more likely to have tan computation,” never existeil; and been made less by the violence of the hence we have reason to believe that water, than to have received any addi- “ the schools of divinity" will never re


Equality in Death-General Lending Libraries. (March 1, nounce the established opinion. Their Libraries. The design of that active having received the doctrine of the and inteligent divine was assuredly of a earth's inotion, which once they rejected, very laudable nature, and deserves to be is no reason why they shouid embrace more generally known, and more munian imaginary antiquity which would at ficently supported. It is a truly lamentonce subvert the foundation of Theo- able fact, that many of the benefices of bogy. The one was founded on evidence this kingdom are so slenderly endowed they could not resist; the other is with that the incumbent is barely able to proolit any solid foundation at all.

cure the necessary sustenance for his. It may, perhaps, be well to advise family, much less to purchase those Investigator to lay aside his “ French books which are requisite for the extensuvans" of the infidel school, and seri- sion of his knowledge, and the illustraously examine Bishop Watson's Apology tion of his doctrine. Yet perhaps the for the Bible-Simpson's Plea for Reli- plan of Dr. Bray may be extended with gion—The Letters of Dr. Olinthus Gre- increased advantage beyond the precincts pory--and Hall on Modern Infidelity;

of the parsonage. works that may, through divine grace,

We are now arrived at the second . bring him to a better inind, and inducé gravd epoch of national refinement. In him to employ his pen in a more useful, the reign of Elizabeth this country first manner, if ever he should write again, disdained the humble walk it had lutherto Mankind are sufficiently inclined to nego maintained in the world of science, and, lect the doctrines and precepts of reli- fired with emulation at the popular lecgion, without any atteippt to confirm tures of Erasmus, the cultivation of them in that which is evil. And cer- classic literature became a favourite tainly, in the estimation of the wise and study, while the frequency at that period good, that man is no friend to society, of scholastic endownients bespeaks the or true lover of his country, who endea- tostering ardour with which it was pure, vours to shake people's faith in our com- sued. nion Christianity.

J. B. The acquirenient of classic learning Haverfordwest.

inust, however, necessarily be confined

to the higlver walks of society; and it MR. EDITOR,

remained for the present age, lvy the inALLOW me to follow up the excel- stitution of " schools for all," to pour lent and truly Christian-like reflexions the rich tide of instruction to the utmost made by your correspondent Mr. Webb, limits of the land. Would not the estain page 487 of your last volume, on the blishment of “ libraries for all" be a house appointed for us all, after we have noble and gratifying appendix to the paid the debt of nature, by quoting from present extended state of national eduinemory the following very apposite cation? How worthy of the age, and French lines composed on the above how bonourable to the character of the awful subject :

comery! Rére d'un Malade riche.

This enlargement of the plan might

be effected without departing froin the Je rêvois cette nuit que de mal consumé, principal feature of Dr. Bray's design. Côte à côte d'un pauvre on m'avait inhumé; 'The fired parochinl librury might still Moi qui ne pus souffrir cet honteux voisinage, be ap,i opriated solely to the irse of the En mort de qualité je lui tins ce langage ;

minister of the parishi, while the lending Retire toi coquin! vas pourrir loin d'ici! Il s'appartient bien de m'approcher ainsi !

library might be extended not only ti) Coquin ; ce me dit l'autre d'une arrogance of his parishioners as might be desirous

nciylıbouring clergymen, but also 10 such extreme! Vas chercher tes coquins ailleurs-coquin of partahng of the benefit of the institoi-même :

tution, or be dermed worthy of such ki, tous sont egaux, je ne te dois plus rien, privilege; the permission of the minise" Je suis sur mon fumier, comme toi sur le to be a vecessary qualification, tien.

he being the custos or guardian of Neicington, Surrey,

T. T.R. the village treasures. Perhaps also the Jan. 23, 1816.

contribution of trifling periodical

sulo by those who useil the library, MR. EDITOR,

Inight be advisable, such contribution in I NOTICED with pleasure the re- go in aid of additional purchases of commendation of your correspondent books. The advantages attendant on H. N. in the last vumber of your mis such an institution would be incalculatle cellany, respecting Dr. Bray's Associa. in many, a remote villaye, where the dirt tion for making Provision for Parochial ficulty experienced by the less opulent



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Protestant College in Lower Canada.

111 classes in procuring mental aliment pre our public institutions, and is of course sents an almost insuperable obstacle to scen by the Rulers of this bighly-favoured the

progress of hunan knowledge; and land in church and state, I wish to be I make no doubt but a plan embracing inforned by those who may he able this object, and properly digested into satisfactorily to state, why the inunifijudicious regulations, would meet with cent legacy of 10,0001." sterling bepublic support.

queathed by the late Mr. M.Gill, of As an argument for the extension of Montreal, fór founding a Pro!estant colthe use of the books to others besides lege in Lower Canada, has not been the resident minister, permit me to no- applied to that beneficial purpose ? and lice the treatment of a library in my why the great annual revenue arising immediate neighbourhood, similarly con froin the late Jesuits' estates in that prostituted with those of Dr. Bray: About vince are not, as directed, applied to the the year 1721, Samuel Reynurdson, esq. education of its youths? It amounts to an inhabitant of the parish of Hilling- several thousands per annum; and sevedon, bequeathed the whole of his printed ral years have clapsed since the commis. books, consisting of works in divinity, sioners or committee were appointed to natural history, and medicine, with some receive the same. At the present movoyages and travels, and a large number ment, and under the circumstances of of historical and poetical publications, the late treaty at Gbent, and the exerfor the use of the Vicar of Hillingdon tions made by the Americans to overare bis successors; at the same time run the British provinces on thar contileaving a sum of money for building a nent,--the Prince Regent's government book-room, and for purchasing addi- ought not to lose a moment in giving tional books. On reading the other day their most serious attention to everything the topographical account of Middlesex connected with Canada and the adjoinin that very pleasing work, the Beauties ing colonies; and I do not think you can of England and Wales, I was grieved at render a more acceptable service to your the statement it contained of the inju- country at this time, than by calling rious treatment this munificent bequest its attention to the importance of Briexperienced, which is amply, though tem- tish North America, as connected with perately, expatiated on by the author of the trade, navigation, and manufactures, ikist work.' As an inhabitant of that of Great Britain. The fisheries on the portion of Middlesex, I made a point of coasts of these colonies should be imexamining into the allegedl abuse of this mediately attended to, and every prolibrary. I found indeed, as that writer tection and encouragement held out to asers, that the books “are in the vestry induce people to engage in them. Amongso Ha confused and neglected state;" to these, protection from the impress by which may be added, that they are statule should be given to the scamen thrown on the floor of that rooin, ex and boys employed in the fishing and posed to the dust, and to all the destruc- coasting vessels of British North Amelive effects of such a contemptuous and rica. Your readers at the outports take degrading situation? Such total neglect a lively interest in the connexion with would never have been suffered had the these colonies, and will, I know, deern parishioners participated with the vicar your attention to the subject il public in the benefit of perusal. This is, how favour.

I sincerely hope, an unique in The work On Colonial Policy, consistance; a hope that I feel more confi- dered with relation to her North Ameridence in indulging, from the acknow can Provinces and the Il’est India Pose ledged information and diligence of the sessions, (mentioned in your last number, clergy of the established church. p. 66,) is by far the best treatise I have



Should these desultory remarks be recently seen on the subject, and should
considered worthy of occupying a place be read by every one interested in their
instructive pages,

I trust they prosperity. It is evidently the producmay suggest to some more able advocate tion of an individual of great experience the advantages likely to arise from open- and correct local knowledge; and, with ing the sources of knowledge to all who the exception of a few ill-natured redesire its attainment.

L. T. marks on the conduct of the King's reveUrbridge, Jan. 21, 1816.

nue officers in the provinces, is in every

other respect deserving of great credit YR. EDITOR,

ard attention. AS your valuable publication is now

An English SHIP-OWNER. to be found in most of the libraries of Feb. 3, 1816.


112 Remarks on the tendency of the New System of Education. (March 1, NR. CDITOR,

that humbler one which Shenstone's poor I AM aware that any remarks which school-inistress wielded. may now be offered upon the British We might oppose perhaps to the first system of education, must be liable to advantage promised by this system, a all those prejudices and disadvantages maxim, valuable at least from its antiwhich attend a discussion where the quity, that " whatever is lightly acquired sentiments of the majority have been is lightly lost;" we might urge perhaps, already ascertained: for we either feel in the words of Reynolds, * " that in this weary of listening to arguments where art, as in others, there are many teachers nn new conclusion is to be gained, or who profess to shew the nearest way to when ourselves are implicated in the excellence, and many expedients have support of any opinion, we view all op- been invented by wbich the toil of study position to it with jealousy and distrust. might be saved; but let no man be seI hope, however, from those principles duced by specious promises, excellence of manly and liberal discussion on which is never granted to man but as the your journal has ever been conducted, reward of labour.". Still, however, these ihat any comments which I may make are points which I feel willing to conon the new system of education may cede, and shall insist upon the inexpe.' be' more fortunate in their reception; diency of such general instruction, even and I feel confident io this hope, as the if it should be allowed to be effectual. inquiry shall on my part be carried on Uuder the old horn-book system, some with the greatest moderation and the more inonths, perhaps years, might be most unfeigned openness to conviction; required before the scholar could read for next to the pleasure of preventing his Testament, and in consequence of error in othiers, l esteem thai of being this, as I shall gladly aclmit, the extent corrected in' it myself.

of instruction was marrowed; so that The inquiry as to the merits of what as the industry of boys, even in their is now called the British system of edu- earliest years, could be made in some cation, inay either regard the expediency degree available to the assistance of of general instruction; the distinctive their father, it often happened in the properties of the methods of Bell and families of labourers and husbandmen Lancaster; or the tendency of those that the female children alone attended principles and that practice in wliich their parisli teacher; and the result of they both coincide. It is to this latter this I hold to have been far from prejuobject that niy present remarks shall be dicial. It was adding another grace to chiefly addressed; for the first question the charms of that character, and adois of too extended a nature to be fully ther attraction to its influence, which considered here, and the second cannot properly to cherish and adınire is the perhaps be adequately discussed without privilege of the civilized man above the descending to personalities, which I wish savage, and of the christian above the ist especially to avoid.

henthen; it was confiding a power to The advantages then held out by the one whose nature would scarcely suffer advocates of this system, may be classed its abuse - whose simplicity and purity under the three hends, of the facility of moral taste would prevent her seeking of leurniny, the numbers that may knowledge in its defiled or turbid sources, educaled by one master, and the amelio- but would guide her, like the woman of rution of ihe method of discipline. The Samaria, to drink only from the well of edeapness of the plan proceeds from its life; it was giving to her whose exclu. first two peculiarities, and its benevo- sive duty it is to watch over the helpjence from the last; and'really from the lessness of infancy, the power of blendveliemence of pathos which some of its ing with the tenderness of maternal love advocates assuine when descanting on the instruction of religious counsel; it its merks, one might almost imagine that was enabling her at the bed of sickness, she genius of our parish schools, like the that scene of woman's most endearing imputed tyranny of Governor Hastings, offices,—to administer words of comfort had been striding over the fields of Eng- and admonition, that might infuse s land " with a bloody sceptre in one balm of healing to deeper ills than those band, and picking a pocket with the of mere bodily disease. Thus it was other;" but, alas! when these hyper- then that the former system, though it boles of oratory are reduced, we find straightened somewhat the sphere of in. that the pocket was plundered of but a struction, yet yave to the characier of few pence in the year, and that the bloody sceptre inust be exchanged for

• Reynolds' ad lectute,

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