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the inhabitants of the parish, the parents of the children, &c. During these discourses the seminarists are made acquainted with the principal treatises and books on these matters, many of which are given to them to read.

To induce the seminarists to increase their knowledge, and to complete their views respecting the best method of educating and instructing children, they are requested to read books on such subjects, and are allowed access to the library of the institution, which contains a pretty complete collection of books on pædagogical subjects, and is placed under the care of one of the teachers. A kind of control is established at the seminary for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not the books have been read by the seminarists, and in what manner and with what effect. Every seminarist before he leaves the institution is bound to deliver to the committee of examination a catalogue of the books treating of pædagogic or methodic which he has read, and an abstract of each of them, which ought to be short, but in some manner complete. This practice, as may readily be conceived, is attended with very good effects in keeping up the industry and attention of the seminarists.

When the theoretical instruction of the seminarists in the art of teaching has been nearly completed, the practical part begins. According to the laws of Prussia, a school is attached to every seminary, in which a sufficient opportunity is afforded to the future teachers of elementary schools of exercising themselves in the application of what they have been taught. In the larger seminaries such schools are divided into two or even three classes; but at Königsberg it contains only one class with three divisions. This arrangement is rather

to be attributed to the want of sufficient accommodation in the building ; but instead of being considered a disadvantageous circumstance, it is rather thought advantageous, and for this reason : by far the greatest number of the elementary schools in the province of Königsberg, for which the seminarists in this institution are exclusively designed, have only one teacher. Now it is evident that among these children, who frequently amount to fifty and more, there must exist such a difference in age, knowledge, and mental faculties, that, if possible, they should be divided into three or more classes. But still they are to be instructed by one teacher. It is therefore very advantageous that such a teacher should have learnt by experience how he has to manage the matter, in order to be able to teach properly a school consisting of three divisions.

In the seminary-school the young teachers begin their practical exercises with teaching a division in the presence and under the direction of one of the teachers, and they continue to do this for some time, till the director of the seminary is convinced that their progress in the art of teaching has been considerable. He then places a whole division under their independent exertions for a fixed period, and observes their skill and the progress

of the children. At the end of every semestre an examination takes place, in which the seminarists alone examine, before a committee, the divisions which have been confided to their instruction.

To support and excite the industry and emulation of the seminarists, a conference between them and the teachers of the seminary is held once a month, in which their scanty experience is supplied by the more extensive experience of the director and of the teachers. The


discussion which takes place in such conferences relates especially to the instruction itself, to the discipline, the treatment of the class or division, to particular children and their perverse inclinations, and the most proper means of correcting them. In these conferences the director of the institution encourages the open and independent declaration of their opinions by the seminarists.

The senior seminarists are by turn charged with keeping the lists of the absentees and the other school lists; they are likewise to receive the children when they enter the school before the beginning of the instruction, to examine those who are not cleanly, to superintend them during the play hours, to observe them when they leave the school to go home, &c. a proper attention to these points they are fitted for the due exercise of their future vocation.

After a stay of three years in the institution, the seminarist is dismissed to be employed as teacher in an elementary or middling school. But before his dismission he must again submit to an examination, and to rather a rigorous one. This examination is threefold. It consists of some written compositions, of a display of his skill in teaching, and of a personal examination by the committee.

The compositions are made in the presence of one of the teachers, and consist—l, of a catechetical essay on a given passage of the Bible, or a section of the Catechism-2, another essay on some branch of pædagogic or methodic-3, of a composition on general instruction in some scientific subject-4, of the solution of some mathematical problems--5, of a composition of sacre music for the organ, with prelude, interlude, and post

lude, as well as another to be sung by three or four voices. The seminarists must prove the skill which they have attained in the art of teaching, by catechising a division of the school in the presence of the committee on some of the tenets of the Protestant religion, and afterwards by some lessons on other subjects. The subjects of this part of the examination are announced to the seminarists the day before, that they may have time to prepare themselves for this display of their skill and talents.

The personal examination comprehends all the branches of knowledge in which they have been instructed during their stay in the institution. They must show,

1. That they have a complete knowledge of the religious tenets and of the moral principles of their persuasion, and that they are able to discourse on any of these subjects with perspicuity and precision.

2. They must be fully acquainted with the memorable events contained in the Bible, and understand how to explain any one of them in a comprehensive way to children.

3. They must have acquired the knowledge of the language, so as to know how the sounds, syllables, and simple words are formed, how the derivative and compound words are made, and lastly how the termination of words are changed, sentences formed, and a whole composition arranged. They must show that they know how to apply this knowledge to every peculiar


4. They must have an historical knowledge of the different methods of teaching the several branches of knowledge, and how to apply them; more especially

they must know the different methods used in teaching to read, to draw, and to perform the common rules of arithmetic.

5. They must be able to play the ordinary pieces o sacred music by heart, and the more difficult and those which do not occur frequently with the assistance of written music.

6. They must be well versed in all kinds of calculations, both on paper and mentally, and they must prove that they know the reasons on which each operation rests, and that they are able to explain them with perspicuity.

7. If the seminarists wish to be employed in the townschools, they must be acquainted with the fundamental principles of geometry, as well as with the elements of algebra.

8. They must show a knowledge of the more practical parts of botany, zoology, and mineralogy; for instance, they must be well acquainted with the poisonous and medical plants, and with the trees growing in their country, and their different uses in domestic economy or the mechanical arts.

9. What they must know in natural philosophy, listory and geography, has been indicated before.

10. Those who wish to be employed as organists must be able to play every piece of sacred music with the pedal bass figured only, and the simple melody given on an organ with pedal, and to compose preludes, interludes, and postludes; besides they must be so far acquainted with the theory of music as to be able to compose the accompaniment of every given tune for the organ, or to arrange it for three or four voices.

After the examination, written testimonials are deli

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