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the most salutary, can, we are persuaded, be best determined by the united wisdom and experience of the assembled instructors of the country. The present is a most propitious opportunity for the discussion of the entire subject. That this may be but the commencement of a long-continued series of numerous, of useful, and of harmonious “ gatherings of ourselves together” is our ardent wish; and that they may result in the rapid improvement of each and of every establishment in which we are engaged, and in the wide diffusion of the blessings of universal education, is our most fervent petition.



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From the Quarterly Journal of Education, No. XX.


In No. XII. of the Journal of Education a general ac-
count has been given of the principles and views which
directed the Prussian government in establishing and
arranging the seminaries for teachers of the lower classes.
We shall here show their application, by giving the par-
ticulars of one of these institutions; and for this purpose
we have chosen the seminary established in the Orpha-
notrophy of Königsberg, in Eastern Prussia.
We have made choice of this institution for several

First, it is not one of the largest, nor one of the smallest; the number of seminarists amounting last year to forty-three. Secondly, it occupies a conspicuous position in the history of public education in Prussia, being the place in which a number of successive experiments have been made, of which the present system of education is the result. Lastly, its internal arrangement is more complete than that of many other institutions of this description, a school being annexed to it in which those who intend to enter the seninary receive preparatory instruction. We shall therefore prefix a short historical notice of its foundation and progress,

The Orphanotrophy at Königsberg was founded by Frederick III., Duke of Prussia, the same day on which he declared his dukedom to be a kingdom, and caused himself to be crowned king, under the name of Frederick the First. This event took place on the 18th of January, 1701. According to the statutes of the foundation, twenty-four orphans were to receive an education in this institution. This number was in course . of time increased to upwards of fifty, and then again reduced to thirty. The boys admitted were, according to the intention of the founder, not to receive exclusively a classical education; but as at that time the education of the middle and lower classes had been very little attended to, a middle course, something between mere spelling and a classical instruction, was hardly known. But the funds, which were provided by the founder, and increased by his successors, were abundantly sufficient for the maintenance of two classical teachers. Accordingly it happened that the original intention of the founder was soon departed from, and the whole system of instruction was modelled on that of a grammar-school. In this form it existed for more than a century, an eined a certain degree of repute, a considerable number of learned and useful men having received their education in it between 1701 and 1809.

In 1809, however, the institution underwent a total change. After the unsuccessful war with France, which was terminated by the peace of Tilsit, the Prussian government, intending to raise the energy of the nation by an internal impulse, began to direct their attention to the education of the lower classes. Pestalozzi had many years before begun his useful labours, and his fame was then at its height. The Prussian government

thought that their object would be best attained by transplanting his method of instructing the lower classes into the kingdoin, and diffusing it through all the elementary schools. With this view one normal school was thought necessary, and perhaps sufficient; and among all the then existing institutions, the Orphanotrophy at Königsberg was selected as the most suitable for the establishment of such a normal school.

As the normal school then established in the Orphanotrophy was the first active step which government took for the improvement of the instruction of the lower classes, it may perhaps be interesting to know some particulars respecting its arrangement. According to the plan of the government, an indefinite number of boys were to receive their education here after the method of Pestalozzi; and those of them who showed talent and inclination for teaching others were to be employed as teachers, so that in this respect the institution might be considered as a seminary of teachers for the lower classes. But at the same time it was to serve as a means of perfecting the method of Pestalozzi, and of diffusing it through all the Prussian territories. For the latter purpose the rectors and vicars, who all through Prussia are charged with the direction and superintendence of the middling and elementary schools, were invited to attend the instruction given in the institution; and the head and director was to deliver lectures to them on the principles of the method of Pestalozzi, and on the subjects which were to be taught in the lower schools. Lastly, it was intended that the most able of the teachers who had been employed in this institution, and had made themselves thoroughly acquainted with

its methods, should establish similar institutions in the other provinces of the kingdom.

Mr. Zeller was charged with the execution of this extensive plan, who, from his enthusiasm, zeal, activity, and knowledge of the method of Pestalozzi, seemed to be perfectly qualified for the great task of reform ; and undoubtedly he would have performed the task, had he possessed a sufficient knowledge of human nature. But his efforts not being directed by this most essential knowledge, his zeal and activity were rather detrimental to the cause which he had undertaken.

He changed everything in the then existing forms of education : most of these changes were mere trifles ; and some of them quite puerile. Some very important branches of instruction he abolished or entirely neglected, substituting for them others of little or no importance. Thus in the course of the first year it became evident that the expectations of government with respect to this institution were completely frustrated. The efforts of government for the improvement of the education of the lower classes would thus have proved entirely abortive, and perhaps this great object would have been abandoned in despair, but for one circumstance. The rectors and vicars, as well as the teachers of the upper schools, had been invited by government to attend the instruction of the normal school and the lectures of Mr. Zeller for a month, and accordingly 102 clergymen and 81 teachers had availed themselves of this offer. The minds of all these persons had been excited and roused by this opportunity, and without adhering strictly to what they had seen or heard, many of them, who were men of considerable talent and knowledge, used their own good

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