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disappears, and it is impossible that any good can be done after. Whether what we have stated is an imaginary case, we appeal to some who may read this article. A prudent governor, either of boys or men, will be cautious never to put himself in a situation in which he runs the risk of losing the natural respect paid to superiors in age and station.
If space allowed, we should insist still further on this topic, believing that as a general rule blows will be inAlicted under the influence of passion, and that they do raise in the minds of boys a feeling of resentment, which are very sufficient reasons for not inflicting blows at all. As to a system of blows, which shall be the best possible system of blows, well regulated, strictly defined, enforced with all due solemnity, in number and degree varying with the offence, at certain intervals after all chance of passion in the master is over, and never felt by the boy to be undeserved-why all this supposes the efficacy and necessity of the blow to be entirely done away with, for it resolves itself into the ultimate principle of all school government and of all good society, the approbation and good opinion of those who are wiser and better than ourselves. When the matter is brought to this point--the offence committed, no anger or passion exhibited on the part of the master, but a firm resolution to punish, and no one to say that punishment is not deserved—when the matter is brought. to this point, and the time for the punishment is come, will a blow add to the efficacy of the punishment ? Suppose the punishment to be the disapprobation of the master, expressed either in private or public, as the case may be, accompanied with such personal restraint, or temporary separation from the other pupils as may be judged proper, will a blow add to the severity or efficacy of this punishment, or take from it? We believe that the expressed disapprobation of the master, if the boys value his approbation or disapprobation, will inflict more pain, and pain of a kind to work good, than any blows in any way administered. If we have not said enough on the subject of beating, we refer our readers to Locke, in his · Essay on Education,' in whose remarks they will find all, or nearly all, that need te said about it, which is here omitted, because it cannot be said better. Locke allows of beating, though unwillingly, in one case,
We have not touched on the effects which a practice of flogging, particularly under a passionate master, must have on the boys with respect to their intercourse with one another. A little reflection will show that the effects must be bad.
Young persons, as a general rule, readily imitate the conduct of those around them; they do as their elders do, think as they think, and in all respects repeat what they see and hear. This circumstance, this fundamental law of our moral organization, like all other general laws, may produce good or ill. Among the poor, the bad example of many parents, their ignorance, their want of cleanly and decent habits, their intemperance, and other vices, are a great obstacle to a reform in this part of society, because bad habits are in a perpetual course of transmission from one generation to another. The same remark applies to many rich parents: their extravagant and irregular way of living, their slayish devotion to established modes whatever they may be, their profound submission to all above, and their intolerable arrogance to those whom they suppose beneath them,
-all these things work on the youthful mind, and produce a copy as bad as the original. On the other hand, when parents, whether of high or low condition, whether rich or poor, set their children an ex-, ample of industry, of temperance, of sympathy for the wise and good, whatever may be their rank and station; such an example, as a general rule, of itself, and without further teaching, makes, or powerfully tends to make, an upright, fearless, and truly honourable character. A master of a school is said, in popular phrase, to stand in the place of a parent, and if a master of a school were what all should be, and what some few are, he would not merely be said to be, but he would be, a parent, and more than a parent.
His superior information, his earnestness in the discharge of his duty, his unvarying kind treatment of those who merit his regard, and his unwearied exertions both in and out of school-hours, could not fail to strike the boys as being something even more than a parent does for his children, certainly more than what most parents are either able to do or willing to attempt to do. whose intellectual character is based on sound knowledge (and this is an essential element in all moral character), whose natural tastes being simple lead him to seek the society of children, whose pleasures are derived from giving pleasure to others-such a man would, by his mere example, produce effects on his pupils as beneficial as they would be lasting. The man whose manners are coarse, whose language is harsh and abusive, whose reasons lie in the strength of his arm, and whose government is that of physical force, sets an example to his boys that they will infallibly imitate; and accordingly we do find in some schools where flog
ging prevails, where the master calls his pupils hard names, and rules by creating fear, that the same principles are followed out by the boys, whose conduct towards one another is indecent, brutal, and cruel. Such an effect, produced by the bad example of a master who governs by fear and flogging, is not an imaginary thing, but a reality.
Among the numerous causes which have rendered flogging necessary as a means of government, there is one which is of very extensive influence. Many masters, as already said, become masters by chance: they have no love for their profession; they enter upon it from necessity. They are not well acquainted with the branches of knowledge which they profess to teach, nor are they acquainted with good methods of teaching. The consequence is, that the instruction is irksome to the master; dull, monotonous, and tiresome to the pupil. Continual blunders and listlessness provoke the master; and he discharges his irritation by giving blows, a kind of relief, under the circumstances, almost necessary. It might be better for the master to allay his uneasy feelings by running round the school-ground, or taking a few jumps, or venting his irritation on a figure of a boy stuffed with straw; but the real boy, the cause of his irritation, is before him, and the blow, or the abusive word, is directed to him. It is a lamentable thing that children whose curiosity is so active, whose desire to learn is so ardent and so pure, should be made so careless, so lazy, and so provoking, merely through the ignorance of their teachers : but this flows naturally from a system in which children are taught so little that interests them, and that little, after all, in a way the least attractive, and consequently, the least efficient. If the different branches of knowledge were taught in that order and in that manner which are best calculated to develop the faculties, the pupil would, as a general rulę, be as willing to learn as the most zealous master could be to teach, Blows, so far from being required, would be altogether incompatible with such a system ; the master would have pleasure in teaching, the boys would have still more pleasure in learning. Even the little boys would not require to be beaten for their faults : they would be ashamed of them as soon as they were committed. Of all the defences of flogging, that which goes on the notion of getting rid of a great deal of it, of not inflicting it on the big boy, but restricting it to the faults of the little boys, is the most pitiable and irrational. The younger the boy is (provided he has not been spoiled before he comes to sehool), the more active is his curiosity, the more eager is he to learn, the more disposed is he to feel the value of kind treatment when he knows that he merits it, and the more deeply does he feel the temporary loss of his parent's or master's esteem. This feeling exists most strongly in infants; it diminishes as they grow older, for it is not a result of reason, but a sympathy, of which the teacher ought to know how to avail himself, As the child grows older, this sympathy weakens, and it is our business to see that reason occupies the vacant place.
The author of the Letter (p. 282) has some observations on the principle of pain, a word that we have just used, which seem to call for a few remarks. There is no disputing some of the positions laid down by him in the Letter (p. 282), but how they all bear on the question before us, as explained by our correspondent, we do not