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takes in children. If they refuse to repeat a thing, say it over and over again yourself calmly, as if you were only anxious to remove their ignorance; if they refuse to do a thing, if it be practicable to move their limbs gently into the necessary action, do so, and let the matter end, never alluding to it at any subsequent period. If both these methods be unavailing, or not practicable, tie the hand behind the back, or attach it by a string to a hook in the wall, so as not to inflict pain, but merely so as to occasion inconvenience until the obstinate fit is over. But the child must never know that it is stubborn ; nor must it ever perceive that it has the power to disturb the serenity of its guardian.
Fretfulness generally proceeds from physical causes, and eventually becomes habitual. The evil is more easy to prevent than to remedy: a little extra attention to the amusements of the child so afflicted (for a great affliction it is) will do much. An increase of tenderness (we do not by this mean false indulgence), accompanied by a firm determination not to grant the object which is longed for, are perhaps the best checks.
Sullenness can only be repressed by the privation of all society, all sympathy, and all amusement. The delinquent must be practically taught, that, when under the influence of such feelings, he is unfit for communication with his fellows, and unworthy of their regard, Timidity is perhaps more a defect of character than of temper; and, what seems an anomaly, is generally accompanied by vanity. Shy men are usually conceited: it proceeds from a false view of one's self, and of others-of both persons and things. Encouragement must here be blended with particular attention to the reasoning faculties.
The influence of body over mind is too apparent to need comment, and yet how seldom is this fact considered and acted upon. Locke has wisely insisted upon the necessity of the formation of healthy habits, in order to ensure the success of education Regularity is most essential, as far as regards the hours allotted to sleep and nourishment. The want of sufficient sleep during the day, especially in very young children, induces, besides many bodily defects, a restlessness and fretfulness which are unquestionably moral evils. Hunger or satiety will produce the same results. Undue exposure to cold destroys the energies of a child, and exposure to heat weakens them: a proper temperature is of great importance. We insist upon these points here, because it is undeniable that they involve both the moral and intellectual education of the child. Exercises which call forth the free action of the limbs, also induce free action of the mental faculties. The animated laugh, the merry phrase, the childish imitation, are best heard and seen in the midst of active and healthful sport: sons restrict children in these matters, because they fear they may induce boisterous and vulgar habits of speech and manner. But this again depends upon the parent's superintendence. Mirth does not mean noise : exercise does not infer coarse actions. Nature shows incessant motion to be the means by which infants attain all their bodily and even their perceptive powers, and while youth lasts it cannot be unduly restrained without injury. Fresh air and exercise, judicious diet, and regular hours, are the best prescription which a mother can act upon to secure the bodily and mental health of her offspring.
When once a Jove of virtuous conduct has been instilled, and made habitual, the intellectual education
may begin; but it is not to be commenced with books, nor by the alphabet. Before knowledge can be beneficially acquired, its value must be felt, and a desire of attainment must be inspired and manifested. This is not a difficult task, but it can only be fulfilled by those who have studied the capabilities and the powers of the intellect which is to be cultivated.
The forms of expression employed by children are those which they best comprehend, and in these, as we have before observed, they must be addressed. Great truths may be illustrated by small words. A fact is not the less valuable or interesting because it is clothed in simple language; on the contrary, it can only be really valued when it is understood. Before children have attained their fourth year, some peculiar mental organization is developed, requiring direction, restraint, or encouragement. Upon a false or correct estimate of this organization will depend the moral and intellectual welfare of the individual. In some characters, imagination is predominant; in others, quick perception; and in a few, for this perhaps is the rarest, the reasoning powers are most active.
Great imagination frequently exists with no power of language; and children are distinguished by this mingled excellence and defect equally with adults. Because they cannot express their thoughts intelligibly, they are judged to have no ideas at all, or condemned as stupid. A patient investigation will discover the injustice of the sentence; and in such cases the child's deficiencies should be remedied, care taken to increase his stock of words, and to habituate him to a clear and correct expression of his ideas. The same excess of imagination gives rise to that dreaming state which assumes the ap
pearance of laziness, (and the effects are equally injurious ;) the imagination is indeed busy, but it is active to no end; the other faculties are lying dormant, and their want of exercise will finally become incapacity. These imaginative minds often affix their own definitions to words, inducing such erroneous conceptions, and such distortions of facts, that a child has not unfre. quently been deemed idiotic; whereas, upon a minute examination of the various trains of thought, the misconceptions have evidently arisen from a vivid imagination acting upon misinterpreted expressions occasioned by the similarity of sounds, or by some association. For instance, a conversation has passed in the presence of a child, in which anecdotes or events are related, parts of which only are intelligible to him; to these parts he affixes his own meaning; this affords ample food for an active imagination, and when at some future time a term or name previously heard is used, the child associates with it the former facts, the original train of ideas return, and he appears to be talking of something totally irrelevant, when, in fact, the connexion is intimate, and the deduction fair, according to the premises he had made for himself. Such minds delight in improbabilities and tales of wonder: the marvellous to them is more attractive than truth; and if they be not checked, the judgment is sacrificed, and the reasoning powers almost destroyed. Nothing tends to the fostering of this quality of the mind more than ordinary prints. An excess of imagination is either the cause or effect (most probably the former) of mental indolence; and where it prevails, the child will prefer gazing on a print, to informing itself of the reality of the subject, which the print illustrates. In an inquiring mind, an engraving will create a desire to know more; and when the facts
are acquired, the defects or improbabilities of the illustration will be detected. An imaginative mind takes all upon trust: it does not wish to inquire, it believes. Good engravings, by which term we mean correct representations, judiciously employed, are of great assistance in education; but children's books often contain illustrations which absolutely contradict the impression that the words convey, and create incorrect ideas and associations which it is impossible wholly to eradicate.
In contradistinction to this superabundance of imagination, there are minds which cannot be urged beyond mere matter of fact. With them, words are limited not so much to one meaning, as to one application; yet they are not deficient in curiosity, and probably delight in inquiry, but the fact once acquired lies sterile: it produces no results further than that it is so; the modifications of circumstances are neither foreseen nor understood. These two distinct manifestations are often greatly misinterpreted: the one is considered a fool, the other very clever-neither opinion being correct.
In order to analyze the nature of youthful intellect, the child must be observed during its sports, and when uninfluenced by restraint. The preceptor must condescend to become its playfellow. It by no means follows that, in so doing, he loses his influence, for companions generally have greater power than instructors : hence the importance of discretion in the choice of companions; and the conclusion is obvious, that children should remain in that sacred asylum “home," until they can distinguish between good and evil, and have moral and intellectual strength to cling to the one and resist the other. The vulgar, ignorant, obstinate, passionate, or vicious playfellow of an hour will implant more evil than days, nay years of care can