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And as to the use of language, the child must be addressed in its own words. The mother must herself return to the simplicity of childhood. She must not altogether put away childish things. Her sympathy in grief and in pleasure, in hope and in joy, in amusement and in learning, is quite as necessary, and perhaps more influential than her authority; and even this must be expressed without the inaccuracies of infantine language, but with all its simplicity. We cannot relish what we do not understand; it would be hard if we were expected to act upon advice or instruction given in an incomprehensible tongue: many an unfortunate child is addressed in terms which are to it wholly unintelligible. It seldom happens that the reason of children cannot be addressed; the difficulty lies not in them, but in ourselves; not in the thing, but in the mode of expressing it. We forget the many links in the long chain which connects our early perceptions with our subsequent acquirements; but in order effectually to employ our experience in the education of others, we must retrace our steps, and become young again in word, not in deed-in feeling, not in action.
Another important duty is to provide such means of amusement, that no temptation to what is called mischief may ensue. All healthy children will be occupied, and if occupation is not found for them, they will find it for themselves. The love of construction and destruction abounds in most children. Their toys then should be of a kind to facilitate the one and prevent the other. Such things as a box of bricks, or of houses, even a slate and pencil, are inexhaustible sources of amusement to those who have no garden: or for the winter season, books of prints, of birds, or animals in general, may be employed with great advantage, because they excite questions, afford the parent opportunities of giving much valuable oral instruction, and induce that love of inquiry which is the parent of knowledge. Those who possess a garden have fewer difficulties to encounter in providing amusement for their children. The spade, the wheelbarrow, or waggon, the hoop, kite, and ball, are too excellent and too well known to need recommendation here; neither need we name the doll for girls, which affords constant and varied amusement and occupation, and may be made the means of inculcating much that will be subsequently useful and admirable in a female.
These toys may also be made useful in teaching order, carefulness, and steadfastness.
The seeds of perseverance may be sown, by insisting on a child's remaining satisfied with one plaything for a reasonable space of time; and a power of abstraction may be conferred by accustoming it to fix its attention on the object before it, even when surrounded by other attractions. habit would also prevent envy or discontent. A child who is early accustomed to be satisfied with its own allotment will scarcely be discontented at a later period. A love of order may be encouraged by the habit of putting the various toys in their respective places after use; and such a habit eventually leads to systematic carefulness and economy.
We now come to a most important part of education : the teaching of the practice of virtue-the instilling a permanent love of goodness, a hatred of evil.
Children who look upon their parents as the sources of their happiness (and all parents have the power of inculcating this feeling) will reverence their words and
actions, and seek to follow their example (we presuppose the early training we have recommended to have been pursued for three or four years); they will also be delighted to please their parents, and grieved to vex tkem.
Here then affection becomes one great stimulus, and a powerful instrument.
The practice of self-control, of truth, obedience, and gentleness, should be rewarded not by gifts, but by affectionate praise and encouragement; and all contrary conduct should be reproved by disapprobation and the expression of sorrow. Rewards and punishments must occasionally be resorted to at all ages; but they should be used sparingly, and, as we have before remarked, be made to grow out of the circumstances which call them forth. The pleasure afforded by selfapprobation, and the approval of those whom we love and esteem, ought to be the greatest pleasure that a child can receive. When this is attained, the main difficulty is overcome.
We must, however, insist on the power of habit. The reasoning faculties are stronger in some children than in others, but the force of habit is great in all. Before reason assumes much influence (and it exists earlier than is generally believed) habits may be acquired; subsequently, appeals may be made to reason and affection.
If a child has been accustomed to find discomfort an unfailing consequence of misconduct, it will avoid misconduct as anxiously as it would avoid the fire after having been once burned. When it begins to reason, it will perceive the effect of misconduct in others; and here the parent has the means of strengthening a dislike of evil by illustrative tales, either read or repeated, snowing the advantages of virtue, and the disadvantages of vice. A judicious selection will have the double effect of leading the child to a love of information. But again, we must urge upon the instructor, that nothing which is beyond its comprehension, or is incapable of explanation, should be presented. Every thing vague ought to be avoided. We should teach a child (whether it be by precept or by fictitious example) to do, or not to do, particular things—such as not to practise falsehood or deceit, but to be sincere and open on all occasions : general admonitions as to virtue and vice, doing right and doing wrong, &c., have little effect.
In the employment of the influence of affection, great prudence must be exercised, lest the feeling be deadened by too much use; or, on the other hand, lest the child be habituated to submit the judging power, which in after life is the main motive of action, to the less certain guidance of sympathy and affection uncontrolled by reason: both evils, though of an opposite character, may we think arise from the injudicious use of the principle of affection. We might also caution mothers against the constant reiteration of such phrases as the following: Don't do this; be quiet ; let that alone; you are very naughty. The child soon comes to regard them as mere idle words, and often ceases even to hear them.
As implicit obedience is one of the first objects to be obtained, so no command should be given, the fulfilment of which cannot be, and is not, insisted upon. The moment that evasion is found possible, it will be prac
There is no need of violence, no necessity for force, either in language or action; nothing but quiet, firm determination, until the command be obeyed; approbation or displeasure may follow in proportion to the resistance that has been offered. We repeat, that every child must be taught the utter hopelessness of having its own way, before strict discipline can be maintained. Still we should be careful not to let our commands be of that description which may encourage obstinacy and resistance. For example, if a child has not obeyed a certain command, it may often be better to inflict a positive punishment-such as confinement, or the deprivation of some little pleasure than to make the punishment continue till the child has obeyed the command. If we make the child's punishment continue till he has done what he is ordered to do, there is danger, with some children, of a stubborn resistance. If we punish for disobedience to the command, the lesson will not be without its value; and if the punishment be repeated as often as the offence is committed, there is not much reason for doubting that the parent will finally be successful.
As there are various tempers to be contended with, so must the system vary with regard to each. Passion, obstinacy, fretfulness, sullenness, and timidity, are the chief varieties. With the first we should recommend summary punishment, and that of a somewhat harsh character: for instance, solitary confinement, or bodily restraint--such as limitation to so small a space that movement is difficult or uneasy; and the entire privation of the object which has caused the excitation for hours or days, according to the age of a child.
Obstinacy is often fostered, rather than checked, by opposition. Wherever it is possible, the parent must endeavour not to perceive the assumed ignorance or incapacity, which are the usual forms which obstinacy