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in which they are most wanted, and may be most serviceable, and which are most suitable to their ranks. But if there be anything in the management of them which some particular persons think should be altered, and others are of a contrary opinion, these things must be referred to the judgment of the public, and the determination of the public complied with. Such compliance is an essential principle of all charitable associations, for without it they could not subsist at all; and by charitable associations multitudes are put in mind to do good, who otherwise would not have thought of it; and infinitely more good may be done than possibly can by the separate endeavours of the same number of charitable persons. Now, he who refuses to help forward the good work before us, because it is not conducted exactly in his own way, breaks in upon that general principle of union, which those who are friends to the indigent and distressed part of our fellow-creatures will be very cautious how they do in any case; but more especially will they beware how they break in upon
necessary principle in a case of so great importance as is the present. For the public is as much interested in the education of poor children as in the preservation of their lives.
This last, I observed, is legally provided for. The former is left among other works of charity, neglected by many who care for none of these things, and to be carried on by such only as think it their concern to be doing good. Some of you are able and in a situation to assist in it in an eminent degree, by being trustees, and overlooking the management of these schools, or in different ways countenancing and recommending them, as well as by contributing to their maintenance; others can assist
only in this latter way. In what manner and degree then it belongs to you, and to me, and to any particular person, to help it forward, let us all consider seriously; not for one another, but each of us for himself.
And may the blessing of Almighty God accompany this work of charity, which he has put into the hearts of his servants in behalf of these poor children; that being “ trained up in the way they should go,
when they are old they may not depart from it.” May he of his mercy keep them safe amid the innumerable dangers of this bad world through which they are to pass, and preserve them unto his heavenly kingdom.
BY FRANCIS WAYLAND, JUNIOR.
PRESIDENT OF BROWN UNIVERSITY.
[In March, 1830, a society was established at Boston in the United States, called the American Institute of Instruction. It consisted chiefly of teachers, but is open to any one "of good moral character, interested in the subject of education," a dollar being paid on admission, and an annual subscription of a like sum, by every member. At the meetings, the principal of which takes place in August of each year, and continues for several days, the members are occupied with discussions on questions brought forward relative to matters connected with education, and lectures are delivered upon similar subjects. The Society have also instituted prizes for essays on subjects appointed by them. By the constitution of the Society, the Board of Directors are empowered to appoint competent persons to deliver an address at the annual meeting, and lectures "on such subjects relating to education' as they may deem expedient and useful;" and they are also to collect such facts as may promote the general interests of the Society. The censors are to publish such of these as “may tend to throw light on the subject of education, and aid the faithful instructor in the discharge of his duty.” Two volumes have been published, containing much valuable matter, and from these volumes we take the following
Introductory Discourse, delivered by Francis Wayland, President of Brown University, at the first annual meeting, and shall avail ourselves in the course of this work of a few of the lectures delivered before this Society.]
In the long train of her joyous anniversaries, New England has yet beheld no one more illustrious than this. We have assembled to-day, not to proclaim how well our fathers have done, but to inquire how we may enable their sons to do better. We meet, not for the purposes of empty pageant, nor yet of national rejoicing, but to deliberate upon the most successful means for cultivating, to its highest perfection, that invaluable amount of intellect, which Divine Providence has committed to our hands. We have come up here to the city of the Pilgrims, to ask how we may render their children most worthy of their ancestors and most pleasing to their God. We meet to give to each other the "right hand of fellowship in carrying forward this allimportant work, and here to leave our professional pledge, that, if the succeeding generation do not act worthily, the guilt shall not rest upon those who are now the Instructors of New England.
Well am I aware that the occasion is worthy of the choicest effort of the highest talent in the land. Sincerely do I wish that upon such talent the duty of addressing you this day had devolved. Much do I regret that sudden indisposition has deprived me of the time which had been set apart to meet the demands of the present occasion, and that I am only able to offer for your consideration such reflections as have been
snatched from the most contracted leisure, and gleaned amid the hurried hours of languid convalescence. But I bring, as an offering to the cause of education, a mind deeply penetrated with a conviction of its surpassing importance, and enthusiastically ardent in anticipating the glory of its ultimate results. I know, then, that I may liberally presume upon your candour, while I rise to address those, to very many of whom it were far more beseeming that I quietly and humbly listened.
The subject which I have chosen for our mutual improvement is, The object of intellectual educution; and the manner in which that object is to be attained.
I. It hath pleased Almighty God to place us under a constitution of universal law. By this we mean, that nothing, either in the physical, intellectual, or moral world, is in any proper sense contingent. Every event is preceded by its regular antecedents, and followed by its regular consequents; and hence is formed that endless chain of cause and effect which binds together the innumerable changes which are taking place everywhere around us.
When we speak of this system as subjected to universal law, we mean all this ; but this is not all that we
The term law, in a higher sense, is applied to beings endowed with conscience and will, and then there is attached to it the idea of rewards and punishments. It is then used to signify a constitution so arranged, that one course of action shall be inevitably productive of happiness, and another course shall be as inevitably productive of misery. Now, in this higher sense it is strictly and universally true, that we are placed under a constitution of law. Every action which we perform is as truly amenable as inert matter