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of parishes where charity schools have been for a considerable time established with neighbouring ones in like situations which have had none, the good effects of them, as I am very credibly informed, are most manifest. Notwithstanding, I freely own that it is extremely difficult to make the necessary comparisons in this case, and form a judgment upon them. And a multitude of circumstances must come in, to determine, from appearances only, concerning the positive good which is produced by this charity, and the evil which is prevented by it; which last is full as material as the former, and can scarce be estimated at all. But surely there can be no doubt whether it be useful or not to educate children in order, virtue, and religion.

However, suppose, which is yet far from being the case, but suppose it should seem, that this undertaking did not answer the expense and trouble of it, in the civil or political way of considering things, what is this to persons who profess to be engaged in it, not only upon mere civil views, but upon moral and Christian ones? We are to do our endeavours to promote virtue and religion amongst all men, and leave the success to God. The designs of his Providence are answered by these endeavours: “ whether they will hear, or whether they will forbear;" i. e. whatever be the success of them; and the least success, in such cases, is a great and valuable effect.

From these foregoing observations, duly considered, it will

appear that the objections which have been made against charity schools are to be regarded in the same light with those which are made against any other necessary things; for instance, against providing for the sick and the aged poor. Objections in this latter case

were

could be considered no otherwise than merely as warnings of some inconvenience which might accompany such charity, and might, more or less, be guarded against, the charity itself being still kept up; or as proposals for placing it upon some better foot. For though, amidst the disorder and imperfection in all human things, these objections were not obviated, they could not however possibly be understood as reasons for discontinuing such charity; because, thus understood, they would be reasons for leaving necessitous people to perish. Well-disposed persons therefore will take care that they be not deluded with objections against this before us, any more than against other necessary charities, as though such objections

reasons for suppressing them, or not contributing to their support, unless we can procure an alteration of that to which we object. There can be no possible reasons for leaving poor children in that imminent danger of ruin in which many of these must be left, were it not for this charity. Therefore objections against it cannot, from the nature of the case, amount to more than reasons for endeavouring, whether with or without success, to put it upon a right and unexceptionable foot in the particular respects objected against. And if this be the intention of the objectors, the managers of it have shown themselves remarkably ready to second them; for they have shown even a docility in receiving admonitions of anything thought amiss in it, and proposals for rendering it more complete. And, under the influence of this good spirit the management of it is really improving ; particularly in greater endeavours to introduce manufactures into these schools, and in more particular care to place the children ont to employments in which they are most wanted, and may be most serviceable, and which are most suitable to their ranks. But if there be anything in the management of them which some particular persons think should be altered, and others are of a contrary opinion, these things must be referred to the judgment of the public, and the determination of the public complied with. Such compliance is an essential principle of all charitable associations, for without it they could not subsist at all; and by charitable associations multitudes are put in mind to do good, who otherwise would not have thought of it; and infinitely more good may be done than possibly can by the separate endeavours of the same number of charitable persons. Now, he who refuses to help forward the good work before us, because it is not conducted exactly in his own way, breaks in upon that general principle of union, which those who are friends to the indigent and distressed part of our fellow-creatures will be very cautious how they do in any case; but more especially will they beware how they break in upon

that

necessary principle in a case of so great importance as is the present. For the public is as much interested in the education of poor children as in the preservation of their lives.

This last, I observed, is legally provided for. The former is left among other works of charity, neglected by many who care for none of these things, and to be carried on by such only as think it their concern to be doing good. Some of you are able and in a situation to assist in it in an eminent degree, by being trustees, and overlooking the management of these schools, or in different ways countenancing and recommending them, as well as by contributing to their maintenance; others can assist only in this latter way. In what manner and degree then it belongs to you, and to me, and to any particular person, to help it forward, let us all consider seriously; not for one another, but each of us for himself.

And may the blessing of Almighty God accompany this work of charity, which he has put into the hearts of his servants in behalf of these poor children; that being “ trained up in the way they should go,

when they are old they may not depart from it.” May he of his mercy keep them safe amid the innumerable dangers of this bad world through which they are to pass, and preserve them unto his heavenly kingdom.

now

INTRODUCTORY DISCOURSE.

BY FRANCIS WAYLAND, JUNIOR.

PRESIDENT OF BROWN UNIVERSITY.

[In March, 1830, a society was established at Boston in the United States, called the American Institute of Instruction. It consisted chiefly of teachers, but is open to any one "of good moral character, interested in the subject of education," a dollar being paid on admission, and an annual subscription of a like sum, by every member. At the meetings, the principal of which takes place in August of each year, and continues for several days, the members are occupied with discussions on questions brought forward relative to matters connected with education, and lectures are delivered upon similar subjects. The Society have also instituted prizes for essays on subjects appointed by them. By the constitution of the Society, the Board of Directors are empowered to appoint competent persons to deliver an address at the annual meeting, and lectures "on such subjects relating to education' as they may deem expedient and useful;" and they are also to collect such facts as may promote the general interests of the Society. The censors are to publish such of these as “may tend to throw light on the subject of education, and aid the faithful instructor in the discharge of his duty.” Two volumes have been published, containing much valuable matter, and from these volumes we take the following

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