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known or believed. It is endeavouring to form such truths into practical principles in the mind, so as to render them of habitual good influence upon the temper and actions, in all the various occurrences of life. And this is not done by bare instruction; but by that, together with admonishing them frequently as occasion offers; restraining them from what is evil, and exercising them in what is good. Thus, the precept of the apostle concerning this matter is, to “ bring up children in the nurture and admonition of the Lord” (Eph. vi. 4); as it were by way of distinction from acquainting them merely with the principles of Christianity, as you would with any common theory. Though education were nothing more than informing children of some truths of importance to them, relating to religion and common life, yet there would be great reason for it, notwithstanding the frivolous objections concerning the danger of giving them prejudices. But when we consider that such information itself is really the least part of it, and that it consists in endeavouring to put them into right dispositions of mind, and right habits of living, in every relation and every capacity,—this consideration shows such objections to be quite absurd; since it shows them to be objections against doing a thing of the utmost importance at the natural opportunity of our doing it, childhood and youth ; and which is indeed, properly speaking, our only one: for when they are grown up to maturity, they are out of our hands, and must be left to themselves. The natural authority on one side ceases, and the deference on the other. God forbid that it should be impossible for men to recollect themselves, and reform at an advanced age; but it is in no sort in the power of others to gain upon them to
turn them away from what is wrong, and enforce upon them what is right, at that season of their lives, in the manner we might have done in their childhood.
Doubtless religion requires instruction, for it is founded in knowledge and belief of some truths ; and so is common prudence in the management of our temporal affairs : yet neither of them consist in the knowledge or belief even of these fundamental truths; but in our being brought, by such knowledge and belief, to a correspondent temper and behaviour. Religion, as it stood under the Old Testament, is perpetually styled " the fear of God;" under the new, 66 faith in Christ.”. But as that fear of God does not signify literally being afraid of him, but having a good heart, and leading a good life, in consequence of such fear; so this faith in Christ does not signify literally believing in him, in the sense that word is used in common language, but becoming his real disciples in consequence of such belief.
Our religion being thus practical, consisting in a frame of mind and course of behaviour suitable to the dispensation we are under, and which will bring us to our final good, children ought by education to be habituated to this course of behaviour, and formed into this frame of mind. And it must ever be remembered, that if no pains be taken to do it, they will grow up in a direct contrary behaviour, and be hardened in direct contrary habits ; they will more and more corrupt themselves, and spoil their proper nature; they will alienate themselves farther from God; and not only neglect, but “ trample under foot” the means which he, in his infinite mercy, has appointed for our recovery. And, upon the whole, the same reasons which show that
they ought to be instructed and exercised in what will render them useful to society, secure them from the present evils they are in danger of incurring, and procure them that satisfaction which lies within the reach of human prudence, show likewise that they ought to be instructed and exercised in what is suitable to the highest relations in which we stand, and the most important capacity in which we can be considered,-in that temper of mind and course of behaviour which will secure them from their chief evil, and bring them to their chief good : besides that religion is the principal security of men's acting a right part in society, and even in respect to their own temporal happiness, all things duly considered.
It is true, indeed, children may be taught superstition under the notion of religion ; and it is true also that under the notion of prudence they may be educated in great mistakes as to the nature of real interest and good respecting the present world. But this is no more a reason for not educating them according to the best of our judgment, than our knowing how very liable we all are to err in other cases is a reason why we should not, in those other cases, act according to the best of our judgment.
It being then of the greatest importance that children should be thus educated, the providing schools to give this education to such of them as would not otherwise have it has the appearance, at least at first sight, of deserving a place amongst the very best of good works. One would be backward, methinks, in entertaining prejudices against it; and very forward, if one had any, to lay them aside upon being shown that they were groundless. Let us consider the whole state of
For though this will lead us some little compass, yet I choose to do it; and the rather, because there are people who speak of charity-schools as a newinvented scheme, and therefore to be looked upon with I know not what suspicion : whereas it will appear that the scheme of charity-schools, even the part of it which is most looked upon in this light, teaching the children letters and accounts, is no otherwise new than as the occasion for it is so.
Formerly, not only the education of poor children, but also their maintenance, with that of the other poor, were left to voluntary charities. But great changes of different sorts happening over the nation, and charity becoming more cold, or the poor more numerous, it was found necessary to make some legal provision for them. This might, much more properly than charityschools, be called a new scheme. For, without question, the education of poor children was all along taken care of by voluntary charities, more or less; but obliging us by law to maintain the poor was new in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Yet because a change of circumstances made it necessary, its novelty was no reason against it. Now, in that legal provision for the maintenance of the poor, poor children must doubtless have had a part in common with grown people. But this could never be sufficient for children, because their case always requires more than mere maintenance; it requires that they be educated in some proper manner. Wherever there are poor who want to be maintained by charity, there must be poor children, who, besides this, want to be educated by charity. And whenever there began to be need of legal provision for the maintenance of the poor, there must immediately have been need also
of some particular legal provision in behalf of poor children for their education; this not being included in what we call their maintenance. And many whose parents are able to maintain them, and do so, may yet be utterly neglected as to their education. But possibly it might not at first be attended to, that the case of poor children was thus a case by itself, which required its own particular provision. Certainly it would not appear to the generality so urgent a one as the want of food and raiment; and it might be necessary that a burden so entirely new, as that of a poor-tax was at the time I am speaking of, should be as light as possible. Thus the legal provision for the poor was first settled without any particular consideration of that additional want in the case of children; as it still remains with scarce any alteration in this respect. In the meantime, as the poor still increased, or charity still lessened, many poor children were left exposed, not to perish for want of food, but to grow up in society, and learn everything that is evil, and nothing that is good in it; and when they were grown up, greatly at a loss in what honest way to provide for themselves, if they could be supposed inclined to it. And larger numbers, whose case was not so bad as this, yet were very far from having due care taken of their education. And the evil went on increasing till it was grown to such a degree as to be quite out of the compass of separate charities to remedy. At length some excellent persons, who were united in a society* for carrying on almost every good work, took into consideration the neglected case I have been represer ng; and first of all, as I understand it, set up
* Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.