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He thence traces out the origin of political societies; of monarchy, and patriarchal governments, and shews that true religion and government had both their foundation in the principle of love, and that superstition and tyranny arose from the principle of sear. He considers the influence of self-love, as operating to the social and public good; treats of the restoration of true religion and government on their sirst principles; then descants on mix'd governments and their various forms; and lastly, points out the true end of all, in the following admirable lines.

For forms of government let fools contest;
Whate'er is best administered is best:
For modes of faith let graceless zealots sight;
His can't be wrong whose lise is in the right .
In faith and hope the world will difagree,
But all mankind's concern is charity:
All must be false that thwart this one great end,
And all of God, that bless mankind or mend.

Man, like the gen'roqs vine, supported lives;
The strength he gains is from th' embrace he gives.
On their own axis as the planets run,
Yet make at once their circle round the sun;
So two consistent motions act the foul;
And one regards Itself, and one the Whole.
Thus God and nature link'd the gen'ral frame,
And bade self-lone and social be the fame.

In his fourth epistle he treats of the nature and state of man with respect to happiness, explodes all false notions of happiness, philosophical and popular, and affirms that it is the end of all men, and attainable by all, for God intends happiness to be equal; and to be so, it must be social, since all particular happiness depends on general, and since he governs by general, not particular laws.

Take Nature's path, and mad opinions leave.
All states can reach it, and all heads conceive;
Obvious her goods, in no extream they dwell;
There needs but thinking right, and meaning well;
And mourn our various portions as we please,
Equal is common sense, and common ease.

Remember, man, < the univerfal cause
Acts not by partial, but by gen'ral laws;'
And makes what happiness we justly call
Subsists not in the good of one, but all.
There's not a blessing individuals sind,
But some way leans and hearkens to the kind.
Each has his share; and who would more obtain,
Shall sind, the pleasure pays not half the pain.

He observes that as it is necessary for order, and the peace and welfare of society, that external goods should be unequal, happiness is not made to consisf in these: for notwithstanding that in inequality, the balance of happiness among mankind is kept even by Providence, by the two passions of hope and sear.

If then to all men happiness was mtant,
God in externals could not place content.
Fortune her gifts may variously dispose,
And these be happy call'd, unhappy those;
But Heav'nsjust balance equal will appear,
While those are plac'd in hope, and these in sear:
Not present good or ill, the joy or curse,
But suture views of better, or of worse.

He tells us what the happiness of individuals is,- as far as is consistent with the constitution of this world; and here it appears that the good man has evidently the advantage.

Know, all the good that individuals sind,
Or God and nature meant to mere mankind;
Reason's whole pleasure, all the joys of sense,
Lie in three words, health, peace, and competence.
But health consists with temperance alone,
And peace, oh virtue! peace is all thy own.
The good or bad the gifts of fortune gain,
But these less taste them, as they worse obtain.

After this he points out the error of imputing to virtue what are only the calamities of nature, or of fortune, and also the folly of expecting that God should alter his general laws in favour of particulars. He proves that we are unable to judge who are good, but concludes that whoever they are they must be happy. He observes that external goods are so far from being the proper rewards of virtue, that they are very often inconsistent with, and destructive to it.

What nothing earthly gives, or can destroy,
The soul's calm sun-mine, and the heart selt joy,
Is virtue's prize: a better would you six?
Then give humility a coach and six,
Justice a conqueror's sword, or truth a gown,
Or public spirit, its great care, a crown.
Weak, foolish man! will Heav'n reward us there
With the fame trash mad mortals wish for here?
The boy and man an individual makes,
Yet sigh'st thou now for apples and for cakes?
Go, like the Indian, in another lise
Expect thy dog, thy bottle and thy wise;
As well as dream such are aflign'd,
As toys and empires, for a god-like mind.
Rewards, that either would to virtue bring
No joy, or be destructive of the thing:
How oft by these at sixty are undone
The virtues of a faint at twenty-one!

To prove that these can make no man nappy without virtue, he has considered the effect of riches, honours, nobility, greatness, fame, superior talents, itfe. and given pictures of human inselicity in men possess'd of them all; whence he concludes, that virtue only constitutes happiness, whose object is univerfal, and whose prospect eternal; and that the persection of virtue and happiness consists in a due conformity to the order of providence here, and a resignation to it here and hereafter.

We have dwelt long enough, perhaps too long, on this poem; but it was necessary to give the whole scope and design of the poet; that the reader might sec what art was required to make a subject so dry and metaphysical, instructive and pleasing: and that it is so will appear by the extracts we have taken, which we hope will induce our readers to peruse attentively the poem itself. From the nature of his plan, the reader will see that the poet was deprived of many embellishments which other subjects will admit of, and tied down as it were to a chain of


argument, which would allow of no digressions, studied similes and descriptions, or allusions to ancient fables; the want of which he has supplied, however, with seasonable remarks, and moral reflections; all of them just, and many of them truly sublime.

A wit's a seather, and a chief a rod;
An honest man's the noblest work of God.
Honour and shame from no condition rise;
Act well your part, there all the honour lies.

The learned editor of the author's works informs os that this poem is only a part of what the poet intended on the subject, and that the whole would have made four books, of which this was to have been the sirst; but the author's bad Hate of health, and some other considerations induced him to lay the plan aside : a remnant, however, of what he intended as a subsequent part of this was published under the title of Moral Epistles, which are in number four. The sirst treats of the knowledge and characters of men; the second, of the characters of women; and the two last, of the use of riches; and from the masterly manner in which these are executed the world has great reason to lament the loss of the rest.

We come now to speak of those preceptive poems that concern our philosophical speculations; and these, tho' the subject is so pregnant with matter, affords such a sield for fancy, and is so capable of every decoration, are but sew. Lucretius is the most considerable among the ancients who has written in this manner; and among the moderns I know of none but small detached pieces, except the poem called Anti-Lucretius, which has not yet received an Englijh dress, and Dr. Akenfide's Pleasures of the Imagination; both which are worthy of our admiration. Some of the small pieces are also well executed; r.nd there is one entitled the Universe, written by Mr. Baker, from which I shall borrow an example.

The author's scheme is in some measure coincident with Mr. Pope's, so far especially as it tends to restrain the pride of man, with which design it was prosessedly written. It may be objected, perhaps, that this poem is not preceptive, and theresore not suitable to our purpose; but it is to be considered, that if it is not preceptive, it is didactic; if it does not teach by precept, it does by description; and therefore we hope to be allowed the liberty we are about to take.

The passage we have selected is that respecting the planetary system, which is, in our opinion very beautisul.

Unwise! and thoughtless! impotent! and blind!
Can wealth, or grandeur, fatisfy the mind i
Of all those pleasures mortals most admire,
Is there one joy sincere, that will not tire?
Can love itself endure? or beauty's charms
Afford that bliss we fancy in its arms ?—
Then, let thy soul, more glorious aims pursue:
Have thy Creator, and his works in view:
Be these thy study: hence thy pleasures bring:
And drink large draughts of wisdom from its spring:
That spring, whence persect joy and calm repose,
And blest content, and peace eternal flows.

Observe how regular the Planets run,
In stated times, their courses round the Sun.
-Diff'rent their bulk, their distance, their career,
And diff'rent much the compass of their year:
Yet, all the fame eternal laws obey,
While God's unerring singer points the way.

First Mercury, amidst sull tides of light,
Rolls next the sun, through his small circle bright.
All that dwell here must be resin'd and pure:
Bodies like ours such ardour can't endure:
Our Earth would blaze beneath so sierce a ray,
And all its marble mountains melt away.

Fair Venus, next, sulsils her larger round,
With softer beams, and milder glory crown'd.
Friend to mankind, me glitters from afar,
Now the bright ev'ning, now the morning star.

More distant still, our Earth comes roiling on,
And forms a wider circle round the sun:
With her the Moon, companion ever dear!
Her course attending through the shining year.

See, Mars, alone, runs his appointed race,
And measures out, exact the dcstin'd space:

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