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that the business of man is not to pry into God, but to study himself. He speaks of his middle nature, his powers, frailties, and the limits of his capacities; observes that the two principles by which he is govern'd, are self-love and reason, which are both necessary, but that self-love is the strongest, and the reason why it is so he has given os in the following lines.

Two principles in human nature reign;
Self-love, to urge, and Reason to restrain:
Nor this a good, nor that a bad we call,
Each works its end, to move or govern all:
And to their proper operation still,
Ascribe all Good; to their Improper, ill.

Self-love, the spring of motion, acts the soul;
Reason's comparing balance rules the whole.
Man, but for that, no action could attend,
And, but for this, were active to no end;
Fix'd like a plant on his peculiar spot,
To draw nutrition, propagate, and rot:
Or, meteor-like, flame lawless thro'the void,
Destroying others, by himself destroy'd.

Most strength the moving principle requires;
Active its task, it prompts, impels, inspires.
Sedate and quiet the comparing lies,
Form'd but to check, delib'rate, and advise.
Self-love still stronger, as its object's nigh;
Reason's at distance, and in prospect lie:
That sees immediate good by present sense;
Reason, the suture and the consequence.
Thicker than arguments, temptations throng,
At best more watchsul this, but that more strong.
The action of the stronger to suspend,
Reason still use, to reason still attend:
Attention, habit and experience gains,
Each strengthens reason, and self-love restrains. —
Self-love and reason to one end aspire,
Pain their aversion, pleasure their desire:
But greedy that its object would devour,
This taste the honey, and not wound the flow'r:
Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood,
Our greatest evil, or our greatest good.

He then speaks of the passions, and their use, and more especially of the predominant or ruling passion; of its necessity, in directing men to different pursuits, and its providential use, in sixing our principles, and ascertaining our virtue.

Passions, like elements, tho' born to sight,
Yet, mix'd and sosien'd, in his work unite:
These, 'tis enough to temper and employ;
But what composes man, can man destroy?
Sussice that reason keep to nature's road,
Subject, compound them, follow her and God.
Love, hope, and joy, fair pleasure's smiling train,
Hate, sear, and grief, the family of pain;
These mix'd with art, and to due bounds consin'd,
Make and maintain the balance of the mind:
The lights and shades, whose well-accorded strise
Gives all the strength and colour of our lise.

Pleasures are ever in our hands or eyes.
And when in act they cease, in prospect rise:
Present to grasp, and suture still to sind,
The whole employ of body and of mind.
All spread their charms, but charm not all alike;
On diff'rent Senses diff'rent objects strike;
Hence diff'rent passions more or less enslame,
As strong or weak, the organs of the frame;
And hence one master-passion in the breast,
Like Aaron's serpent, swallows up the rest.

As man, perhaps, the moment of his breath,
Receives the lurking principle of death;
The young disease, that must subdue at length,
Grows with his growth, and strengthens with his strength:
So cast, and mingled with his very frame,
The mind's disease, its ruling passion came;
Each vital humour which should seed the whole,
Soon flows to this, in body and in foul:
Whatever warms the heart, or sills the head,
As the mind opens, and its sunctions spread,
Imagination plies her dang'rous art,
And pours it all upon the peccant part.

Virtue and vice, he observes, are joined in our mixt nature, and their limits are near, tho' separate and evident. He points out the ossice of reason, describes vice as odious in itself, and yet shews by what means we deceive ourselves into it. He proves that not only the ends of Providence are anfwer'd in our passions and impersections, but that the general good is often promoted by them, and shews how usesully they are distributed to all orders of men; points out their use to society, and to individuals in every state, and every age of life, and thus concludes the epistle.

Whate'er the passion, knowledge, fame or pelf,
Not one will change his neighbour with himself.
The learn'd is happy nature to explore,
The fool is happy that he knows no more;
The rich is happy in the plenty giv'n,
The poor contents him with the care of heav'n.
See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing,
The sot a hero, lunatic a king;
The starving chymist in his golden views
Supremely blest, the poet in his muse.

See some strange comfort ev'ry state attend,
And pride bestow'd on all, a common friend:
See some sit passion ev'ry age supply,
Hope travels thro', nor quits us when we die.

Behold the child, by nature's kindly law,
Pleas'd with a rattle, tickled with a straw:
Some livelier play-thing gives his youth delight,
A little louder, but as empty quite:
Scarss, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage;
And beads and pray'r-books are the toys of age:
Pleas'd with this bauble still, as that before;
'Till tir'd he fleeps, and lise's poor play is o'er;

Mean while opinion gilds with various rays
Those painted clouds that beautify our days;
Each want of happiness by hope supply'd,
And each vacuity of sense by pride:
These build as fast as knowledge can destroy;
In folly's cop still laughs the bubble, joy;
One prospect lost, another still we gain;
And not a vanity is giv'n in vain;
Ev'n mean self-love becomes by force divine,
The scale to measure others wants by thine.
See! and consess, one comfort still must rise,
'Tis this, Tbo man's a fool, yet God is wife.

In his third epistle, he treats of the nature and state of man with respect to society, and considers the whole universe as one system thereof, in which nothing subsists wholly for itselfy nor yet wholly for another, but wherein the happiness of animals is mutual.

Look round our world ; behold the chain of love
Combining all below and all above.
See plastic Nature working to this end,
The single atoms each to other tend,
Attract, attracted to the next in place,
Form'd and impell'd its neighbour to embrace.
See matter next, with various lise endu'd,
Press to one centre still, the gen'ral good.
See dying vegetables lise sustain,
See lise dissolving vegetate again:
All forms that perish other forms supply
(By turns we catch the vital breath, and die)
Like bubbles on the sea of matter born,
They rise, they break, and to that sea return.
Nothing is foreign: parts relate to whole;
One all-extending, all preserving soul
Connects each being, greatest with the least;
Made beast in aid of man, and man of beast;
All serv'd, all serving: nothing stands alone;
The chain holds on, and, where it ends, unknown.

Has God, thou fool! work'd solely for thy good,
Thy joy, thy pastime, thy attire, thy food?
Who for thy table seeds the wanton fawn,
For him as kindly spreads the flow'ry lawn.
Is it for thee the lark ascends and sings?
Joy tunes his voice, joy elevates his wings:
Is it for thee the linnet pours his throat i
Loves of his own and raptures swell the note:
The bounding steed you pompoufly bestride,
Shares with his lord the pleasure and the pride:
Is thine alone the seed that strews the plain?
The birds of heav'n shall vindicate their grain:
Thine the sull harvest of the golden year?
Part pays, and justly, the deserving steer:
The hog, that plows not, nor obeys thy call,
Lives on the labours of this lord of all.

Know, Nature's children all divide he{ care;
The sur that warms a monarch, warm'd a bear.
While exclaimsy « See all things for my use!'
'See man for mine •' replies a pamper'd goose:
And just as short of reason he must fall,
Who thinks all made for one, not one for all.

He then proceeds to shew, that reason or instinct operates alike to the good .of each individual, and enforces society in all animals. He considers how far society is carried by instinct, and how much farther by reason; he beautisully describes the state of nature, and shews how reason was instructed by instinct in the invention of arts, and in the forms of society.

Thus then to man the voice of nature speak—
« Go, from the creatures thy instruction take:
Learn from the birds what food the thickets yield;
Learn from the beast the physic of the sield;
The arts of building from the bee receive;
Learn of the mole to plow, the worm to weave;
Learn of the little nautilus to fail,
Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale.
Here too all forms of social union sind,
And hence let reason, late instruct mankind;
Here subterranean works and cities see;
There towns aereal on the waving tree:
Learn each small people's genius, policies,
The ant's republic, and the realm of bees;
How those in common all their wealth bestow,
And anarchy without consusion know;
And these for ever, tho' a monarch reign,
Their sep'rate cells and properties maintain.
Mark what unvary'd laws preserve each state,
Laws wise as Nature, and as sixt as Fate.
In vain thy reason siner webs shall draw,
Entangle Justice in her net of Law,
And right, too rigid, harden into wrong;
Still for the strong too weak, the weak too strong.
Yet, go! and thus o'er all the creatures sway,
Thus let the wiser make the rest obey;
And for those arts mere instinct could asford,
Be crown'd as monarch:, or as gods ador'd."

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