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word callilexia, the science of fine writing, he would have maintained inviolate his distinctive termination of a specific science. The second class of his second province, or his anthropodynamica, has four orders; which, denoting the healing art, economics, ethics, and military science, have received the names of iatrica, oeconomica, ethica, and polemitactica. Here the order ethica is, we think, out of its proper place,-inasmuch as the moral duties, which man should perform in relation to himself, to his fellow men, and to his maker, do not, as the author intimates, originate in the power which one human mind has over another. It is partly from the nature of the human mind, which is made capable of the acts of conscience from its internal operations on itself,—but especially from the relation subsisting between a created and the uncreated mind, that the principles of moral philosophy, and the knowledge of them, or the science of ethics, take their rise.
Our author's iatrica includes eight epistemia,-called anatomia, zoonomia, therapeutria, anthropiatria, chirurgia, mæeutria, zootomia, and zoiatria; which are the sciences that treat of anatomy, the laws of life, remedies, or materia medica, the healing of man, surgery, midwifery, comparative anatomy, and the healing of brutes.-His oeconomica embraces agriculture, mechanism or handiworks, the fine arts, commerce, and political economy; which are respectively denominated georgia, chirotechnia, callitechnia, emporia, and politoecia. His ethica are the sciences of morality, jurisprudence, politics, and the laws of nations; which are all expressed by the four words, -ethosophia, themistia, politarchia, and ethnonomia. The order polemitactica generates eight epistemia; relating respectively to infantry, cavalry, artillery, fortification, the staff department, the marshaling of armies, generalship,' and naval tactics; which are denominated pezotaxia, hippotaxia, barytotaxia, sthenotaxia, erismatotaxia, stratotaxia, polemitaxia, nautotaxia.
The third generic science of the second province is that of narration; which is called diegetica, and is needlessly divided into geocosmica, the description of the human world,' and his. torica, history. The first of these produces chroniotetia, or chronology, and geocosmia, or the description of the world of men. Historica gives us voyages, travels, and journals in the epistemia named hodoeporia; and biotetia, historia, archæotetia; which mean biography, history, and antiquities.
We have now arrived at the last and most important province, which is that of ennoeica, or mind; and here our author seems to have been weary,–here august Homer slumbers. His class is but the repetition of his province; it is, the solitary ennoeica again, affording a distinction without any difference.
The class is ramified into three orders,-psychica, or the science of souls,-pneumatica, or pneumatology,—and eusebica, or godliness. Psychica is manifested either in brutes or in men; and hence are derived the epistemia of zoonoeia, or the science of the souls of brutes,* and anthroponoeia, the science of human souls. We should have been better pleased, had he said zoopsychia, and anthropopsychia; since he has made a distinction which is just, between an animal soul, the seat of instincts, and the spirit, or mind; for in man, &c. there is, according to scripture, a combination of body, soul, and spirit.' Psychia denotes the animal soul, and pneumatia, the reasoning mind, whether it be found in man, or superior beings.
Our author educes from the order pneumatica, the epistemia of pneumatia, or spirits, and theotetia, or the godhead. Eusebica he expands into ethnilatria, hebræosebia, evangelia, and elutheria; which denote the worship of the nations, the religion of the Jews, the gospel, and free-thinking. Under the Last name he would describe all those opinions called philosophical, that respect religion.
Had the first table satisfied Mr. Woodward, he would not have introduced the second. He was sensible, that, according to the order in which the mind acquires human science, grammar is before mathematics and physics. To produce, therefore, a more desirable arrangement of his epistemia, he resorts to an artificial distinction already described, by which he is enabled to take his third class, anthropoglossica, from its original place, and introduce it at the head of his table; so as to bring out the sciences founded on language before those which originate, as he thinks, in abstractions of the mind. This is an improvement in the result; but the end will not render the means philosophical; nor is his second table a naturally concatenated system' of universal science. While making this transposition, we wonder that the author did not think of another, and contrive to give chroniotetia, or chronology, and all the sciences originating in human language, which he has elicited from the fifth class, diegetica, a location contiguous to their natural relatives; for rhetoria, diacrisia, and chroniotetia, biotetia, and historia and their companions, are of one sisterhood, and have all descended from their venerable grandmother, Anthropoglossica. In separating chronology from criticism by forty-two intervening epistemia, he has violated one of his excellent fundamental rules, that subjects closely allied by nature should not by art be widely separated.' p. 243.
* We use the word soul in this place, because there is no other in the language which so nearly expresses our meaning,
We have now taken a brief,—but, we believe, an intelligible view of Mr. Woodward's performance; a task in which we have had no inconsiderable difficulty, arising from the frequent involution and obscurity of the author's language. We have candidly exposed what we consider as the principal defects of the classification; which, we think, is susceptible of much improvement. Before judge Woodward wrote, we agree with him, that the American Dr. Samuel Johnson, of Connecticut, had given the best general scheme for the partitions of the sciences, according to the natural order of things; or a synopsis of all the parts ot learning.' Now the system before us stands, we apprehend, without a rival; and though it cannot claim the praise of perfection, we think it is justly entitled to that of being more complete than any other extant.
But we have not done with it yet. We have already suggested some alterations which we think would greatly improve it; and we shall now proceed to state, at somewhat greater length, the reasons on which our opinion is founded. Without one exception, then, the name of a generic science shall end in ica, that of a specific science in ia, and that of the first ramifications of a specific science in logia. The name of any generic science is epistemica, and that of any specific science epistemia. The system of universal science will be an epistemica, and therefore it shall be catholepistemica. By calling it catholepistemia, Mr. Woodward has violated his own rule concerning the termination of words in ica.
Now the first knowledge acquired by any being born into our world which can be the foundation of any epistemica, or epistemia, is the perception of human speech. The distinction which Mr. Woodward has marked, between yuwois, perception, or the simplest form of knowledge, and copia, which implies conception, and many other operations of the mind,—especially that complex one of reflection, -shall be observed. A child who is not deaf from his birth, hears the sound of human speech before he opens his eyes, and long before he looks at objects with any attention. The epistemica which treats of human speech, we call glossignostica, or the department of the sciences relating to human speech.—Next, a child has a perception of some material object which is presented to his bodily organs. He sees, hears, smells, tastes, and touches matter in various forms. The history of his perceptions, would be what is commonly called natural history. These perceptions are the foundation of several sciences; and the knowledge, therefore, which we have by the perception of physical objects we call hylegnostica. These exhaust all the sciences which emanate from simple perception.--Having perceived material things, we con
ceive of number, space, and other things. The generic department of science which includes all the specific departments that originate in conception, relative to matter, we call hylesophica. In like manner, we have no perception of power; but we conceive of the meaning of the word, and reason about the thing. That epistemica which includes all sciences that have their base in power, we denominate dynamisophica.
Of mind we have no knowledge by simple perception; but we conceive of something which thinks, feels, chooses, and acts from volition. We are conscious, too, of mental operations. The epistemica, which includes all the sciences that have their base in the knowledge of mind, we style ennoesophica. Thus we have five provinces, which include all human knowledge; the two first of which are founded in perception, and the three last in some operations of mind consequent upon perception. Had we not learned of Reid a better philosophy than that of Locke, we should say, that all knowledge is derived either from sensation or reflection: and so, indeed, it is, if by sensation Mr. Locke meant perception, and by reflexion all the other acts of the human mind. Mr. W. evidently uses sensation for perception.
The province glossignostica, has three classes; grammatica, diegetica, and dialectica,—which include all the sciences that have their base in the knowledge of the component parts of language; in narration, and in the selection and arrangement of words. The class grammatica includes the specific sciences, or the epistemia, which are denominated grammatia, anthropoglossia, and lexiconia. The names of these sciences having been already explained, we shall not repeat them; but merely state, that the last means lexicography. Our class diegetica includes the same epistemia which Mr. W. has deduced from it. Our class dialectica includes callilexia, poesia, logiotetia, rhetoria, and diacrisia; which exhaust all the epistemia which are originated by the perception of human language. The second province, hylegnostica, relates to material things, which either are or are not endowed with life; and therefore contains the classes azoeica and zoeica. The first has two epistemia, called geognosia and oryctognosia, and the last two, phytognosia and zoognosia.-The third province, hylesophica, corresponds to Mr. Woodward's mathematica; with this exception, that astrometria, or astronomy, is included in the number of its epistemia; because every thing attributed to the heavenly bodies, which does not relate to their appearance, their size, their circular orbits, and their places in them, must belong either to the hand of their Creator, in governing them, according to his centripetal and centrifugal laws; or else to the occult science of impostors, stigmatized as magic, or astrology. The fourth province, dynamisophica, has four classes, denominated physiosophica, iatrica, technematica, and polemitactica; epistemica that include all our knowledge of the power of inanimate matter acting on matter,--of the power of matter acting on animal bodies of power exerted in mechanical or fine arts,--and of physical force applied in warfare. We prefer technematica, from the genitive case of rexinka, opus arte confectum, an artifi. cial work, to oeconomica, a domestic concern,--because we cannot ascertain what the fine arts, sculpture, music, painting, and dancing have to do with economy; nor do we perceive that commerce appertains to a family any more than to an individual. Georgia, which we term geosophia, or agriculture, should be located, we apprehend, with those sciences which treat of inanimate matter acting on matter; because it principally consists in our knowledge of the operation of soil and climate upon other material things. Mr. Woodward's politoecia, or political economy, we would make a subdivision of politarchia; ending in logia, because civil government, among other things, ought to attend to finance, and all such applications of power as may promote the public welfare. According to our scheme, therefore, physiosophica includes the epistemia, stereosophia, hydrosophia, aerosophia, photosophia, electrosophia, magnetosophia, chymisophia, and geosophia. The sciences de duced from iatrica are the same in our system and that of Mr. Woodward; but our technematica includes only chirotechnia, callitechnia, and emporia. We retain our author's division of the specific military sciences.
Our fifth and last province, ennoesophica, which includes all the sciences emanating from our knowledge of mind, we divide into three classes,-psychica, pisteuica, and ethica; which denote, respectively, the doctrine of mind, of religious belief, and of moral duties. All who have any knowledge of mind, believe something about the relation of minds, and the duties consequent upon their knowledge and situation. The class psychica is ramified into the epistemia, zoopsychia, anthropsychia, and pneumatia; which treat of the souls of animals and men, and of the world of spirits. The class pisteuica, includes • atheotetia, pantheotetia, hentheotetia, trihentheotetia, and theanthropia-or the doctrines which men receive concerning atheism, pantheism, unitarianism, trinitarianism, and God and man united in one person, Christ Jesus. The class entitled ethica contains those departments of knowledge which respect the law of nations, civil government, jurisprudence, ecclesiastical government, the duties which man owes to himself and to his brother man, the religious rites of the nations, and enlightened