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a deficiency. In youth, in health, in celibacy, in summer, their earnings are more than adequate to their exigencies. In age, in sickness, when surrounded with a young family, and often in winter, the case is sometimes unhappily reversed, and they are then frequently sore pressed with difficulty. The misfortune is, that in the sunshine of prosperity they make no provision against the rainy season of adversity, which, consequently, finds them destitute and dependent. Those surplus earnings, which, if carofully saved, might have secured them against want, are all consumed; and they have no other resource but charitable aid or parochial relief. In all this, however, they are objects rather of pity than of blame. They have no place where they may deposit, in safety, their surplus earnings. The fastenings of their humble dwellings afford no security against depredation. Their little hoards serve only to expose them to personal danger; and the minute streams, furnished by their economy, have no access to any channel of public security.'
The benefit of such institutions is two-fold; first in providing a fund which may eventually be very considerable; and next in improving the conduct, habits, and character of the lower classes. Economy implies temperance and industry, a disposition to respect ourselves and to value the respect of others. The books of a savings-bank will be a standing memorial of the exemplary habits of individuals: so that the rising generation may, by means of this institution and the late improvements in education, exhibit a practical example of much that our forefathers endeavoured in vain to effect by religious and moral exhortations. Man is a creature of habit; and, unless he can be brought under the influence of good principles, he will often prove too weak to contend with his various temptations. We entreat the particular attention of our readers to an observation of this author, viz. that, great as would be the advantages of savings-banks to the lower classes, those which would accrue to the higher would be scarcely less considerable. The comfort and security of the upper orders depend materially on the dispositions and habits of their inferiors, in the capacity of servants and otherwise; while nothing would conduce so much to lessen the enormous and progressively increasing burden of poor-rates, as the success of the institutions now set on foot. We should thus, in process of time, succeed in drying up the main sources of pauperism; after which we may find it practicable to devise some better mode than we have as yet obtained, for affording relief to real objects of charity.
ART. VIII.-Intelligence in Science, Literature, and the Arts.
DOMESTIC. OUR frontispiece requires some explanation. Newhaven is protected
from the winds on the north by an amphitheatrical range of hills, which terminate in two perpendicular blutis called West and East Rocks. Both front to the south; are equidistantly situated, about two miles from the town; the former 400, and the latter 370 feet in height. West Rock is formed by the abrupt terminat on of the east ridge of the Green Mountains, and presents to the travellei is he passes its base, a very grand and imposing spectacle. It has (as all such rocks should have) a meandering rivulet to lave its foot; and is adorned on the top with a romantic grove of pine trees. But what adds greatly to the romance of the scenery is,-that the rock contains the cave, in which three of the judges of king Charles I. of England, -Whalley, Goffe, and Dixwell,-contrived to secure themselves, till death, from the apprehension of their pursuers. President Stiles, of Yale college, published in 1794 an interesting account of their truly romantic adventures; and we intend to embrace the earliest opportunity of laying before our readers a brief abridgment of his book. In the mean time we can only remark, that the Judges' Cave is always mentioned as one of the curiosities of Connecticut, and is among the first objects which a sojourner thinks of visiting.-Our view was taken, we conjecture, at the distance of three or four miles,--and is not, on that account, a very fair copy of the real aspect which the rock presents. The eye so easily takes in a remote object, however great in itself
, that the sublimest mountains lose all their grandeur when contemplated at a distance. We may form a correct judgment of its magnitude; but it does not strike us with that imposing sense of vastness, which is such an essential constituent of the sublime. When we are at the base even of a perpendicular mountain which is no more than 400 feet bigh, the necessity of turning the eye so far up impresses us with a very adequate idea of majesty and grandeur;nor will it be denied by any person who has had occasion to travel on the road at the base of West rock, that the attention is not arrested and absorbed in the contemplation of the precipice that seems almost to depend over his head.
History of the United States, from their first settlement as English Colonies, in 1607, to the year 1808, or the Thirty-Third of their sovereignty and Independence. By David Ramsay, M. D. continued to the Treaty of Ghent, by S.S. Smith, D.D. and L.L.D. and other Literary Gentlemen. In three volumes. Vol. I. Philadelphia: Published by M. Carey, for the sole benefit of the heirs of the Author. 1816. 3vo. 418.
We have not transcribed this title page with a view to give, at present, a detail of what the volume contains. Every body is acquainted with the unfortunate event which terminated at once the life and the historical career of Dr. Ramsay;—and our design in this notice is merely to contribute our mite towards making it as generally known, that his History of the United States is now in the course of publication, and forms almost the only legacy that was left by the author to a family of no less than eight children. The present volume is introduced with a Portrait and a Biogra. phy (extracted from our Journal); and its other contents are the Civil #istory of the United States while they were yet colonies. We hope there is no necessity of appealing to the patriotism of our countrymen in behalf of the only systematic history which has ever been written of the American Republic. We would not be understood to recommend any book solely on this account;—but the powers of Dr. Ramsay are sufficiently known; and we think the circumstances under which his history is published, should form a part of the motives for encouraging the work.
ENGLAND.Mr. D’Israel has in the press a sixth edition of Curiosities of Literature, and at the same time will appear an additional third volume, which will be published separately, for the convenience of those who may be desirous of completing their sets. The same author has also nearly ready for press a History of Men of Genius, being his Essay on the Literary Character, which has been out of print many years, considerably enlarged.
The first volume of a new and very splendid musical work has been just published in Edinburgh, entitled · Albyn's Antiology, or a National Repository of Original Scotch Music and Vocal Poetry, principally compiled by Alexander Campbell, Esq. and who has been ably assisted by some of the most eminent poets of the present day, particularly, Scott, Wilson, Boswell, Jamieson, Hogg, &c. who have each contributed several original and beautiful songs, adapted to those ancient and truly interesting melodies: price One Guinea in boards. (M. Thomas proposes to republish this work without the music.]
On the 1st of January, 1817, will be published, in London, the First Number of a New Magazine (to be continued quarterly) entitled, the British Journal and Quarterly Magazine, embellished with Portraits of Public Charaetcrs, Views, &c.
It is reported on the continent—but we have not been able to trace the report to any satisfactory source,-that an Englishman at Smyrna bas discovered an ancient Greek manuscript, containing among other things, a new poem of Homer's. That such a thing is not impossible appears from the discovery of Homer's Hymn to Ceres; but who this fortunate individual is, has not yet appeared. One thing, however, we think ourselves warranted in asserting, that there is no Greek poet living, who can pass off a poern of his own for one of Homer's.
FRANCE.-Finances.- The Budget-a term, by the bye, originally given in derision to lord North's proposals for Ways and Means, in the British parliament, at length naturalized among us, and now currently used among the French, and who have borrowed it from us—the budget continues to occupy the calculators of France;——it has given occasion to Moral Considerations on the Finances,' by M. de Levis; and to the Spirit of the Budget, or the Budget of 1816 modified and extended to 1820,' by M. Pellegrini. This is spoken well of; it states the present condition of the finances; and after examining the minister's budget, proposes another, referring to the intervening five years 1816 to 1820. The author is described as a clear headed man.
Seclusion of Women.-From the Chinese language has been translated into the Russian, and from the Russian into the French, a treatise on the Advantages resulting from the Seclusion of Women, and the inconveniences inseparable from giving them liberty. It is to be hoped that the Chinese author bas adduced good reasons for this custom, which certainly has prevailed in most nations, even the most polished as well as the most barbarous, at different times. On the other hand, good reasons are given for placing the restraints to which the sex ought to submit, rather on their minds than on their persons; and for producing the most powerful effects, rather by the operation of excellent principles implanted, than by the jealousies of perpetual imprisonment. The benefits received by allowing liberty to the female sex, are very reconcileable with the preservation of their own honour and that of their families. Perhaps, however, this treatise may prove extremely a propos at Paris, for certainly the intrigues for which French women are so famous, and which they manage with a dexterity unattainable and incredible, by other nations, could not possibly be conducted, as they conduct them, were the agents and prime movers of them secluded a la Chinoise.
New Journal.-A new journal has been started at Paris, under the title of Le Diable Boile ux. It professes to be critical and literary; and if it possesses but half the wit and the spirit of observation which distinguish Le Sage's famous novel of the Devil on Two Sticks, it cannot fail of meeting applause and support. It appeared for the first time on the first day of April, and from that date it appears every fifth day: each number contains a sheet and a half.
M. Hacquart has circulated proposals for publishing under the title of Les Fastes des Bourbons, a collection of engravings representing acts of beneficence, virtue, and heroism, of the princes of that house. It will extend to 15 folio numbers to be published monthly.
According to a general exposition of the present state of French literature, nearly ready for publication, it appears that the number of authors living at Paris is 4997.
The Marquis de Dangeau, who was a distinguished member of the court of Louis XIV. and died in 1720, was accustomed to note down every circumstance as it happened, and left manuscript memoirs commencing with 1684, and terminating with the year of his death. Madame de Genlis is engaged upon a selection of the most interesting parts of these memoirs, which will speedily be published in four 8vo. volumes.
GERMANY.-Our esteemed correspondent Mr. BOTTIGER of Dresden has furnished us with the following particulars respecting the last book-fair at Leipzig: what must foreigners think of our rage for writing and reading, when they find it stated in the public prints, and correctly too, that the number of new works which appeared at the late Leipzig fair, amounted to 2,523, and which were published by 322 houses! What notions must they entertain of our fondness for music wben they learn that 370 new pieces were on the spot, exclusive of many meritorious compositions inserted in the Musikalische Zeitung so admirably conducted by Rochlitz at Leipzig! What attention must be paid by us to the subject of elementary instruction, when without any Pestalozzian or Lancasterian system, this single fair has brought us an addition of 110 spelling-books and other works for children! And what a supply must the book-societies and circulating libraries, the number of which throughout all Germany computed at 2,500, have received in 83 new novels and 57 dramatic pieces for the amusement of their supporters! Scarcely ever indeed was there such a bulky catalogue, but on examination its copiousness will be found rather apparent than real. The practice of publishing the most unimportant works in parts is becoming more and more common, and it may be safely affirmed that one fifth of the books here announced as ready, are yet in the press. Of the new editions one half at least must be struck out as being merely furnished with new title pages. Then again what a number of pamphlets, fugitive pieces, cookery-books, collections of receipts, which are little better than waste paper. It is true on the other hand, that many a work of consequence, especially if printed at the expense of the author, never finds its way into the general catalogue. This complaint more particularly applies to works printed in the south of Germany, and especially in the Austrian dominions. It is a matter of serious regret, that the state of the currency and piracy have as it were cut off this empire from all literary traffic with the rest of Germany, where the productions of Austrian genius and talent, made known only through the medium of the ably conducted Wiener Litteratur Zeitung, are not to be procured without the greatest difficulty.--New Monthly Mag.
Ancient Poems published. The two most ancient German poems-of the eighth century,-have lately been published at Cassel, for the first time, in their original metre: the subjects are, 1. The Song of Hildebrand and Hadubrand. 2. The Prayer near the White Fountain.
The general catalogue of new works and new editions prepared for the last Leipzig Easter fair, occupies 304 octavo pages. It comprehends 2,523 articles, including music, which are stated to be ready for delivery, and are the productions of 312 houses. Of these firms, 38 are at Leipzig, 27 at Berlin, 14 at Vienna, 11 at Frankfort, 5 at Nurnberg, and 3 at Gottingen. Among the works, 73 are translations from living and dead languages; 352 new editions, and 370 continuations.
SPAIN.— Progress of Science and Education.—- The king of Spain, who, not long ago, instituted six chairs of professors of the science of agriculture, has subsequently directed his attention to the promotion of the natural and philosophical sciences, as forining the bases of arts and natural industry. The cabinet of natural history, the botanic garden, the museum, the laboratory of chemistry, with the mineralogical school, have been formed into one single and general institution, under the title of the Museum of Natural Sciences. Several appropriate chairs have been established on this occasion: in particular, one for zoology and icthyology; one for reptiles, insects, shells, &c. one for chemistry, mineralogy and botany. In addition to the established professors, an assistant or deputy has been named for each branch of science, for which a chair has been created.-In February last the king of Spain named a junta, charged with the duty of forming a plan for arranging and establishing general education and public instruction. The principal universities of the kingdom, as Salamanca, Valladolid, and Alcale de Henares, have been directed to present, each its own plan, on which, before it is adopted, the junta will take the opinions of the principal universities and literary establishments throughout Europe.--As to elementary books on the subject of theology, canon law, ecclesiastical discipline, the law of nations, and civil law, the junta will be guided by the opinion of certain bishops nominated by the king for this purpose. All the schools of arts and sciences have been re-established, throughout the kingdom, and those of mineralogy and natural history of Madrid, have resumed their public lectures and course of instruction. The king has farther bestowed donations and endowments on several universities, and is intent on measures calculated to encourage agriculture and commerce in general.
ITALY.–At Milan is published, under the title of Lo Spettatore, &c. the Spectator, a work in numbers, containing varieties, historical, literary, critical, political, and moral. It is divided into two parts, an Italian part, and a foreign part. This latter part can hardly fail of introducing into Italy much foreign knowledge, as it consists of analysis of works of value in other countries, with extracts and suitable references.
Antiquities.—Messrs. Rosini, Passetti, and Scotti, at Naples, continue their assiduity in unrolling the MSS. of Herculaneum. Several works which bave been transcribed are proceeding at the press. The excavations at Pompeii are advancing with great activity. Since 1806, three hundred men have been labouring at removing the earth, &c. in order to get at the ruins: before that time the number employed was scarcely more than a dozen. A portion of the marble ceilings and beams which have been recovered, have been carried to the gallery of the Royal Museum, and others to the academy of arts as objects of study to the young artists.
Ancient Chronicle Recovered.—The Armenian academy established at Venice, in the island of St. Lazarus, has had the good fortune to discover a manuscript complete of the Chronicle of Eusebus, of Cesarea. It is,