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• The water courses which pass through this country, particu. larly the small rivulets, are indeed beautiful. They are perhaps more so from the wildness and desolation of the country on each side of them. The stream flows over a bed of beautiful wbite sand, is uncommonly limpid, and is, in the hottest part of summer, cool and agreeable, owing to its being closely overshadowed with juniper, laurel, bay, and other evergreens. In it grows, in great abundance, a beautiful plant, called, silver-leaf, from its peculiar appearance when under the water; besides the common reed, lily, and another curious plant called trumpet-weed, from its resembling that instrument in form. The borders, for about nine or ten feet, are for the inost part profusely covered with a plant called the dew-cup, and a variety of shrubbery, chiefly evergreens. Then suddenly commences a naked, sandy, barren soil, incapable of producing any vegetation of consequence.' Art. VI.-Intelligence in Science, Literature, and the Arts.
ENGLAND.— The Identity of Junius, with a distinguished living character established. 8vo. price 12s. Taylor and Hessey. London. 1816.-- This is really an extraordinary volume. It has occupied patience and perseverance in no common proportion; and life itself has been consumed, together with the oil of the midnight lamp in this inquiry. Neither pains nor ingenuity has been wanting. Every thing that could be compared with another thing, is compared: every date (the most troublesome and perplexing subject, to similar inquirers) is scrutinized; is found to agree to a miracle; every branch of knowledge is examined, and the proficiency of the party is estimated; every connexion of friendship is traced to the utmost; the figure of the writer, his speech, his pronunciation, his phraseology, are all brought to bear their witness in this important cause. The hand writing is not overlooked; the reasons for keeping that a secret, are suggested. The causes of Junius's evident favouritisin, his refraining from abusing lord Holland, while he threatens his son Charles Fox, his praise of lord Chatham, with a thousand other particulars, are all stated, canvassed, cleared up, decided on, and satisfactorily dismissed and concluded.
If such a work had come down to us from the days of antiquity, what could we think of it. Having nothing to guide our opinion into a better channel, it must be taken as demonstrat and whether it concerned Pericles or Plato, Demosthenes or Cicero, it would be apnealed to with triumphant satisfaction, by whoever undertook to do those illustrious characters justice. And yet, after all, it might mislead the reader; the identity supposed, might be only suppositious; the proofs might be all fallacious, and a single yes, or no, from another quarter might invalidate, (or confirm) the whole.
We may safely say, that if the volume be not demonstrative it deserves to be so; and it possibly may approach nearer to it than it may be convenient to allow, especially as the writer seems tacitly to allow that Junius was not a single writer. There were, in short, several persons to whom the secret of the marked C was intrusted; and towards the close of the correspondence tbere is an evident change of style. Sir Philip Francis might address Woodfall under the private mark of Junius; but, who was the Junius that wrote the letter to the king, the duke of Grafton, and the early compositions? not sir Philip Francis.
The question might be further advanced if an opportunity were afforded of comparing the then hand writing of sir Philip, with that of Junius. We are mistaken if that of Junjuş would not be found older by twenty years, than that of sir Philip. The first Junius had been in the world the busy world—many years. He was a chosen tool, by men who themselves were politicians of no small eminence, and who in other ways, and in more ostensible situations, made the most of all his and their own arguments in their own favour.
To the Shelburne party, and to the Shelburne house we have always attributed Junius; and though all memory of a man@utre so private may be lost in that family, and it may not be recollected now, the scheme might nevertheless originate and be carried on, in that connexion. We do not perceive, that the writer of this volume has shown any great intimacy between sir P. Francis, or his father, and lord Shelburne. Such an incident, fairly proved, would in our estimation weigh equal to volumes of inferential evidence. Nevertheless inferential evidence is not to be despised; as this writer makes clearly manifest in every page.
The following paragraph contains one of the negative arguments adduced by the writer: together with his admission that Junius was not a single person.
If we could suppose that the interests of Sir P. FRANCIS were not identified with those of JUNIUS, what motive can be found for the sudden and lasting silence of the latter? Admitting that he was a friend, angry at his protege's dismissal from the War-office, is that a reason why he should for ever give up the cause of the public?' Or if he was that stanch friend, that second self, is not sir PHILIP aware of this kindness, and could he not disclose the name of his benefactor? But perhaps such a disclosure would be a breach of honour! He admits then that he was a party in the affair—that the letters were written with his privity-in short, that he knows who Junius is, or was, though he cannot divulge the se cret-ab animo tuo quicquid agitur, id agitur a te.-Such an admission is all I ask, and with this additional voucher for the truth of my conjecture, I shall proceed in my investigation. It is not for me to deny that more than one person might have contributed to sustain the character of JuNIUS: all I have in view is the proof that at least sir Philip FRANCIS was a party.
How far this may operate to abate the expectations of the sanguine, and the dependence of the forward, we must leave to themselves. The letters which attacked the character of lord Barrington, then secretary at war, and on that of Mr. Chamier his private secretary, certainly have much the air of being such as might be expected from the then disappointed and dismissed sir P. F. but others might know from clerks in office quite as inuch as these letters contain, for they assume rather a greater share of knowledge than they display. They are written with bitterness, with a personal animosity, unworthy a Junius; and are not exactly a fac simile of what it might be supposed he would have said on the occasion.
As much of the author's reasoning depends on the identity of phraseology between his two characters, and as the subject is really curious, we shall insert a specimen of his talents on this branch of evidence.
JUNIUS.—“As it is, whenever he changes his servants, he is sure to have the people in that instance of his side.”
“I am persuaded he would have the reasonable part of the Americans of his side.”
“ Here my lord you have fortune of your side."
“ One would think that all the fools were of the other side of the question.”
“We have the laws of our side, and want nothing but an intrepid leader.”
-“ It is true he professes doctrines which would be treason in America, but in England, at least, he has the laws of his side.”
Francis.-"But he who knows that he has the laro of his side, will never think of appealing to necessity for a defence of the legality of his measures.
“My reply to the preceding minute is intended for my own justification, and to satisfy the court of directors, that if I persist in a conduct opposed to the decided sense of the majority, it is not from obstinacy or passion, but that I have some reason of my side, and that I am not so ill advised as to endeavour to support any opinion by appealing to evidence that proves directly against me.
.“ I confess he supported his opinion with so many plausible arguments, that I myself began to think he might have reason of his side."
-“ Let the questions be put into writing, and read or delivered to her publicly, and then I think there can be no ground for a suspicion of undue influence of either side.”
“ Considerations of that kind are irregular, and, as I think, not fit to be insisted on of either side.”
This phrase occurs, it must be owned, sufficiently often, but, those who are in the habit of rapid composition, or of public speaking, without previous deliberation will know what trifling stress it will bear. Even friends at the bar fall into one another's mode of diction; and very frequently, a pupil is for a long while a mere repetition of his master.
Not to leave any argument that seems to afford assistance untried, the personal appearance of Jupius is adverted to; although it is every way probable, that Junius himself never visited Woodfall's office, at a time when a Junius was waited for, and consequently all eyes would be open to watch, and every passenger would be suspected. On one occasion a Junius was thrown into the passage of Wocdfall's office late at night, by a tall gentleman: now this shall be converted into an argument to prove that Junius was a tall man; and as sir Philip Francis is tall, the evidence is conclusive!
Even in externals the resemblance between sir PHILIP FRANCIS and JUNIus is remarkably perfect. The stature of the latter may be ascertained from a perusal of his letters. It is the custom only of tall men to attach very commonly the epithet “ little" to those whom they are incliped to treat with disrespectful freedom. We seldom find one of a middle size guilty of this; it too nearly concerns himself: if he employs the term, it either loses its force, or recoils upon him with an unpleasant effect. The slightest observation will confirm the above remark. If then in JUNIUS we see the word little assigned to many different individuals, we may conclude that the person of the writer was of an opposite description. Should it appear that this is a habit in which he frequently indulges; and that some individuals, not much, if any thing, below the common standard are thus distinguished; we may judge by the same rule, that the denominator was himself a taller man than ordinary.
To this class Junius most certainly belongs. His liberal šprinkling of the inglorious attribute among those who had the honour of his notice, may be collected from the following examples.
• I dont so much as question Mr. Hervey's being able to give good advice, as that other little man's being either willing or able to follow it;" alluding to lord Barrington, who is again styled “my little lord."
Mr. Chamier is scarcely ever mentioned but as little Shammyma tight active little fellow—a little gambling broker-little Waddlewell—little 3 per cents reduced—a wonderful Girgishite—a little whiffling broker, de. &c.
Mr. Ellis is a little piece of machinery-little Ellis little mannikin Ellis-WELBORE Ellis whAT SAY You!-Speak out Grildrig.”
This presumptive proof that JUNIUs was bimself a tall man, receives strength from the following description of his person, extracted from a note to the last edition of the Letters.
“Mr Jackson, the present respectable proprietor of the Ipswich Journal, was at this time in the employment of the late Mr. Woodfall, and he observed to the editor, in September last, that he once saw a tall gentleman dressed in a light coat, with bag and sword, throw into the office door opening in Ivy Lane, a letter of JUNIUS's, which he picked up; and immediately followed the bearer of it into St. Paul's Church-yard, where be got into a hackney coach and drove off.” This possibly might not be the author of the Letters; but the anecdote deserves attention, since the figure of the gentleman agrees with that idea of his person which JuNIUS had led us to conceive.
• Some persons are inclined to dwell on these particulars more than on moral evidence-formam aliquam figuramque quærebant. I confess that I am inclined to place dependence upon Mr. Jackson's testimony, and should have felt dissatisfied in no slight degree, had it not been perfectly reconcileable with my opinion of the author. Sir PAILIP FRANCIS resembles, in person, the gentleman seen by Mr. Jackson. For the satisfaction of those who never saw sir PailIP, his portrait is prefixed to this volume, in confirmation of our statement. The original picture, painted by Lonsdale, was copied by the engraver of the present, in the plate to the Monthly Mirror for May, 1810.
I know not in what costume Sir Philip usually appeared at the time the Letters were written, but from the fashion of the age, it could not be essentially different from that which Mr. Jackson describes.—The colour must, of course, be accidental.'
These, with the other circumstances enlarged on by the writer, are brought into a laboured and very attentively composed volume. They might puzzle a jury of very honest Englishmen: but the judge would set them to rights. They might all be dissipated in a moment by a clear denial in a few words, but that kind of denial which sir Philip did give, this writer insists is in perfect character with Junius, equally jesuitical and sarcastic, proving nothing. It is to this effect.
“SIR, -The great civility of your letter induces me to answer it, which, with reference merely to its subject matter, I should have declined. Whether you will assist in giving currency to a silly, malignant falsehood, is a question for your own discretion. To me it is a matter of perfect indifference.
“ I am, Sir, yours, &c.
“ P. FRANCIS." To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
Here we close our account of this volume: it is ingenious, laborious, persevering. If the author be a lawyer, his pleading does him credit: he bas made the most of his cause; and if it fail in any point, it is not for want of industry in him who has pleaded it. Lit. Pan. No. 28.
Mr. Tabart, of the Juvenile Library, Piccadilly, announces a monthly miscellany for the use of schools, and for the general purposes of education, under the title of “ Tabart's School Magazine, or Journal of education.” It is intended to be composed chiefly of modern materials, for the purpose of connecting, as much as possible, the business of the schoolroom with that of the active world, for which education ought to prepare its subjects. The first number will appear on the first of March.
The Rev. Dr. Chalmers, of Glasgow, is printing a volume of Discourses, in which he combats, at some length, the argument derived from astronomy, against the truth of the Christian Revelation: and, in the prosecution of his reasoning, he attempts to elucidate the harmony that subsists between the doctrines of Scripture and the discoveries of modern sci
In the course of the month may be expected, an octavo volume, comprising, a Tour through Belgium along the Rhine, and through the North of France; in which an account is given of the civil and ecclesiastical polity of the kingdom of the Netherlands, and of the system of education; with remarks on the fine arts, commerce, and manufactures; by James Mitchel, M. A.
That accurate meteorologist, Mr. Luke Howard, has circulated some observations on the effect of the late Solar Eclipse on the temperature of the day on which it occurred. It appears that the temperature on the day was falling, as is very commonly the case, before sun-rise; presently after which, it began to rise. This effect continued until a considerable portion of the sun's rays became intercepted, when it fell again, to near the middle of the eclipse; and, in proportion as the latter went off, resumed its former movement, rose steadily, and attained its maximum at nearly the same degree as the day before, though later in the afternoon.
Mr. William Daniell is commencing the third volume of his picturesque Voyage round Great Britain, which is published in monthly parts.
Biblical Criticism on the Books of the Old Testament, and Translations of Sacred Songs, with notes, critical and explanatory, by Samuel Horsley, LL.D. F.R.S. F.A.S. late Lord Bishop of St. Asaph, is in considerable forwardness.
In the month of January may be expected, in octavo, the first volume of the Annual Obituary, containing memoirs of those celebrated men who have died within the year (1816); neglected biography, with biographical notices and anecdotes, and original letters; an analysis of recent biographical works; and an alphabetical list of persons who have died within the British dominions.
Mr. Booth, treasurer to the Childwall Provident Institution, has in the press, and will be published in a few weeks, a System of Book-keeping, adapted solely for the use of Provident Institutions, or Saving Banks, whether their capitals be invested in the public funds or otherwise; together with tables, for reducing money into stock, (five per cent.) and stock into money; by which their accounts may be kept in a shorter and more expeditious manner than in any of the modes that have been consulted, in which they are kept by the managers of such institutions.
270, 41, for western read northern.
20, for works read work.