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vided into three departments ---the college, the medical, and the grammar schools; in all of which there are about six hundred and fifty students ---about fifty in the first, five hundred in the second, and one hundred in the last. Its funds are not so extensive as they ought to be; yielding a revenue of only about 2365l.; but, in other respects, it is on a very good footing; and the philosophical apparatus, particularly, is, without a doubt, the most complete in the United States. The list of presidents comprises, the Rev. William Smith, D. D.; the Rev. John Ewing, D. D.; John Mc Dowell, LL. D.; the Rev. John Andrews, D. D.; and the Rev. Frederick Beazley, D. Ď. Washington and Jefferson Colleges are in the neighbourhood of each other; and are very much alike in every particular. The funds of the former are small;—but it has a pretty good library and philosophical apparatus. Dr. John Macmillan, was its founder; and the Rev. John Watson, the Rev. James Dunlap, and the Rev. Andrew Wylie, comprise the list of its presidents. Washington college has funds to the amount of $20,000; and is now under the presidency of the Rev. Mathew Brown. In each of these colleges the average number of students is about sixty.
At Athens, in Ohio, a college has lately been established, with landed funds which already yield a revenue of $30,000; and which are every day growing more and more productive. Its president is the Rev. Mr. Lindly, an alumnus of Jefferson College; who already enjoys the satisfaction of having under him about ninety pupils.
In 1782, Washington College was established at Chestertown, in Maryland. It was at first empowered to hold property yielding 6,000). a year, and had granted to it two years afterwards, a revenue of 1250l., arising from forfeitures and mar. riage licenses on the eastern shore. During the same year, too, St. John's College was founded at Annapolis, with the power of holding property worth 9,000!. a year, together with a revenue of 1750l. arising from forfeitures and marriage licenses on the western. These two institutions constituted the University of Maryland; but neither has ever been well supplied with teachers or with pupils. In 1785, the methodists established a college at Abington, Herford county';-but their building was consumed by fire, we know not in what year precisely. They then built an édifice in Baltimore, and got the institution pretty well a-going,-when their house was burned again; and though some attempts have been inade to get up a second phænix college, the undertaking is now pretty much at an end. There are, besides, two colleges at Baltimore; both of which were chartered,—though neither is supported,---by the state. St. Mary's College was es tablished, under the patronage of the Jesuits, by that extensive
branch of the Roman Catholic church, known by the name of the Society of St. Sulpitius; and, so far as extensive building and extensive advertising would go, no efforts were wanting to render the institution popular. It was enriched by liberal donations from Louisiana, from Canada, and from Europe; and till about 1806, its celebrity continued to increase in every part of the United States.
Its subsequent declension has been attributed partly to the military despotism of its government,-partly to the religious jealousy, with which it has been regarded by a great portion of the community,—but chiefly, we believe, to the establishment of a rival institution very near it. The creation of Baltimore College, and the grant not long since made of $25,000 for the support of common schools,—are manifestations of a liberal spirit in the legislature of Maryland. The Revd. Messrs. Duburg and Knox are respectively the presidents of St. Mary's and Baltimore Colleges.
William and Mary College in Williamsburgh, Virginia, was founded in 1691; with a donation from the English sovereign of about 2000l. sterling, twenty thousand acres of land, and a penny a pound on certain quantities of tobacco exported from Virginia and Maryland. Besides these funds, the Assembly granted it a duty on imported liquors and exported skins and furs;-so that, altogether, its annual revenue, before the Revolution, amounted to about 3,000l. It is under the direction of a president and six professors: it has a complete philosophical apparatus, and quite a large library; but the unsteadiness with which the institution has been managed—the exclusion of classical studies and the inconvenience of the college edifice, which was only calculated for one hundred students, have contributed to check the progress of its celebrity. In 1787, there were but thirty students,--all of whom were engaged in the study of the civil law. Not long since, however, the legislature made it a liberal donation; and every exertion is now made to fill the chairs with able professors, and to improve the general economy of the college. A Mr. Boyle, of England, made an appropriation of a considerable sum, for the establishment of a professorship, under the title of Brafferton Lecture; the object of which was to instruct and christianise the Indians. It never has done much good.--Hamden Sidney College was founded after the war. Its funds have always been small; the number of students never greater than sixty; and the institution has now become a school of theology, under the direction of Dr. Hoge, aided by the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church.-Washington College, at Lexington, originated in the exertions of the Rev. Mr. Graham---who, at first, carried his views no farther than to erect an academy for thec
logical education;---but he succeeded so well in this attempt that the legislature gave him a collegiate charter and very respectable endowments. Washington, too, bestowed upon it, a short time before his death, one hundred shares in the James River Company, which were worth about 7,0001., and a part of which has been appropriated to the erection of buildings, and the purchase of philosophical apparatus. The college is very pleasantly situated;---but its number of students has seldom exceeded sixty. The Rev. Mr. Baxter succeeded the Rev. Mr. Graham.
Before Kentucky was separated from Virginia, legislative provision had been made for the establishment of a college at Lexington. In 1798, it was re-incorporated---and now goes under the high sounding title of the Transylvania University; though, in fact, it is nothing more than a humble grammar school-of about thirty students. It was liberally endowed at first, and its revenue amounts now to $2700. There is a library of not far from fifteen hundred volumes; a philosophical apparatus; and a small, but neat and well arranged edifice. For a long time the institution was under the direction of the Rev. James Blithe,—who has been lately succeeded by the Rev. Robert H. Bishop.
Washington College, in the county of the same name, in Tennessee, though destitute of funds,-has served to educate a number of youths, in consequence of unusual assiduity in the president, the Rev. Dr. Doak. Greenville
College, in Greene county, has some funds; and, under the Rev. Charles Coffin, D. D. has been considered as in a flourishing state. Congress appropriated one hundred thousand acres of land for the endowment of two seminaries,-one in Cumberland, and the other in Knox county; neither of which, however, have ever been so useful as they are rich.
There were no colleges in North Carolina so late as the year 1789; when a university was founded on what is called Chapelhill, in Orange county. Its donations have been pretty liberal; and the legislature made it a loan of five thousand dollars, for the erection of buildings. It has about one hundred students, who are under the direction of a president, (Dr. Maxcy), two professors, and three tutors. South Carolina has outdone its sister. She has chartered five colleges,--one in Charleston, one at Winnsborough, one at Cambridge, one near Beaufort, and one at Columbia;---the three first of which, however, are very little superior to common grammar schools. Beaufort College has a fund of about $70,000; and is in a flourishing condition. It is nothing, however, to South Carolina College, established by the legislature at Columbia, the seat of government, in 1801. This has an income of $6,000.
a building which will hold six hundred students, (its present number is one hundred and fifty,) a good philosophical apparatus---and a library of about three thousand well selected volumes. The legislature of Georgia has made provision for establishing a college at Athens, in Clark county, and an academy in every county ---all united under the name of the University of Georgia.
In the above imperfect sketch, we have purposely avoided giving a particular account of the academies and grammar schools in the United States. The number of these is always in proportion to the number of colleges; and we were unwilling to protract our article with a separate description of them all. We have purposely abstained, also, from drawing the many conclusions which are obviously deducible from the facts we allege,---but which it is as well perhaps, to leave every reader to draw for himself. ART. IV.-- An Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy and Geology,
being an Introduction to the Study of those Sciences, and designed for the Use of Pupils, for Persons attending Lectures on these Subjects, and as a Companion for Travellers in the United States of America. Illustrated by six Plates. By Parker Cleaveland, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, and Lecturer in Chymistry and Mineralogy in Bowdoin College, &c.&c. Boston, 1816. Large 8vo. pp. 668. ROFESSOR CLEAVELAND'S book, is one of those
solid and judicious compilations that increase the mass of useful knowledge among us, and promise to add to the best part of our literary reputation. It deserves therefore to be made extensively known. We shall detail the plan and arrangement he has adopted; afford some specimens of the manner in which he has executed it; and then proceed to such remarks upon the book as may tend to improve a future edition, and to operato in the mean while as cautions respecting some dubious doctrines which the professor appears to adopt implicitly. This is ne. cessary, because, however we may differ from the respectable author of this compilation, we still hope to see it adopted among us as an indispensable part of every mineralogical library; and in the hands of every student. It is extremely gratifying to see this very useful study likely to become fashionable; for the United States will never know the extent of their own resources till they become acquainted with the mineral riches of the country, as well as the vegetables that grow on its surface. In England as it should appear from the latest novels, the well educated females of that country, have their cabinets and collections nor indeed can a more beautiful trifle be well imagined than a
well chosen collection of mineralogical specimens of the size commonly put up for that purpose.
The work before us commences with some definitions and preliminary observations, and proceeds to the Properties of Minerals; viz. the characters of their crystals and crystallography—their physical or external characters and their chymical characters. It then proceeds to the systematic arrangement of minerals into classes, orders, species, and varieties--an examination of the Wernerian arrangement, by physical characters, excluding chymical composition and crystallization--and the arrangement dependent on chymical analysis, with remarks on the utility and imperfections of each mode of arrangement. Thus, whatever inay be the intentions or professions of the Wernerian school, it is obvious, that its admirers are compelled to resort to chymistry, and to intermix perpetually,—more especially in the arrangement of ores,--the chymical constituents of the mineral, with its external characters: the same observation applies to the saline minerals; nor is it possible to avoid remarking the awkwardness of that arrangement, which, from dissimilarity of external appearance, will separate minerals so very nearly alike in their constituent parts, as apatite and spargelstein--gypsum and silenite, &c. Indeed one very useful view in which mineralogy may be contemplated, is as the short hand of chymistry. On the other hand, minerals nearly alike in their chymical composition, differ so widely in their external characters, that if chymistry must be depended on as the foundation of nineralogy, no minerals can be named or classed, till three or our good chymists have analyzed them; and even though chynical analysis may place them together, they will nevertheless appear to the sight, smell, taste, and feeling, as quite different substances. And why should we not trust our usual senses, as well as the laboratory of a chymist?
These considerations lead on the Professor to the system of the Abbe Hauy.
• It must be obvious (says he) from the preceding observations, that, until the analysis of earthy minerals becomes more decisive, some other mode or modes must be employed for determining the species. But, whatever these modes may be, they ought to employ those characters only, which depend on the nature or true composition of minerals. In many cases of crystallized minerals the species may be determined by the form of the integrant particles; br these forms undoubtedly depend on the elementary particles or true composition. It is the adoption and extension of the principles just stated, which constitute the peculiar traits of the system of Mineralogy by the Abbe Hauy. This principle and its application require a more particular illustration.
In the section on Crystallization (24) we have already defined an integrant particle; and shown in what manner its form may