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had himself succeeded so well in the world without using good orthography or good grammar (we have seen some of his own letters would be over solicitous about enabling his descendents or successors to spell or to write with accuracy; and ac.cordingly he did not, so far as we are informed, appropriate a single inch of ground to the support of elementary schools. His brethren were most of them as illiterate as himself; and though a few enterprising individuals contrived to establish some well regulated schools for teaching the elements of the higher parts of literature, nothing was ever done for the purpose by the proprietary or colonial government. That government did one thing, indeed, which was indirectly calculated to prevent the establishment of any uniform plan on the subject. The liberal and enlightened toleration which they extended to religions of all sorts, contributed, ---with the fertility of the soil and the hospitality of the climate ---to draw together emigrants from so many different quarters and of so many different denominations, that any thing like harmony and co-operation was quite out of the question. The Germans were immoveable in the resolution of sticking to their own language: the various religious sects were mutually jealous and hostile; and it was perfectly idle, therefore, to think of making them consentient upon a subject which was, perhaps more than any other, calculated to bring their several interests and prejudices into opposition. Before the Revolution, accordingly, the Germans had there own elementary schools; and the English, the Scotch, and the Irish got along as well as they could. Nor was the case much altered for a long time after the formation of a state government. The same causes which originally prevented any harmony, still contributed to keep up a dissonance; and while in some districts the inhabitants were obliged to do without any, instructors at all, in others, again, they were content to hire ignorant pretenders at the rate of four and six dollars a year. The case was, however, considerably different in Philadelphia; where there were, in general, good teachers, and well-regulated schools. Within a few years, the subject of education has been more generally attended to; and the legislature has gone the length of enacting,--that those parents who can make it satisfactorily appear that they are themselves unable, for want of funds, to instruct their children, may have them instructed at the expense of the county. In many districts, the greater part of the poor do not know there is such a regulation; and the greater part of those who do know it, would rather bring up their children in utter ignorance, than be subjected to the ignominy of appearing upon the poor-list. Indeed the remedy does not touch the evil in hardly any point.

A want of funds is certainly a great obstacle to the general prevalence of education; but a want of inclination is a much greater; and while the legislature is endeavouring to silence the complaints of those who have no money, they should also strive to do away, or, at any rate, to counteract the prejudices of those who have. Our meaning is, in short, that parents should be compelled by law, to educate their children in some way or other.

We must carry our complaining spirit also into the states of Delaware and Maryland. In both, a commendable degree of attention is beginning to be paid to the more refined and elegant pursuits of literature but in neither, is the more useful and less ambitious department of common education sufficiently promoted. There are many good schools in Maryland, we confess: many affluent gentlemen have also provided for the education of their own children by employing excellent private masters; and the state itself has, in many instances, made liberal donations to the English department of the county academies :—but it has not yet adopted any co-operative and uniform plan for the general diffusion of common education throughout the great mass of its inhabitants. We are no advocates for the interfering and meddling disposition which we see in some legislatures; but, if ever there was a case which called for the interposition of the hands and the eyes of government, we think it is to regulate and to watch over the elementary education of its subjects.

We can say very little in favour of Virginia on the score of common-school education. Many years ago, it is true, the Assembly listened to the report of a bill, containing the outline of a plan which united the excellences both of the Jesuitical and of the New-England system. It was proposed to divide the state into districts, which should each have an English school at the public charge. Out of these schools were to be chosen, at the periodical examinations, all those pupils who, in the opinion of competent judges, should possess talents and industry enough to merit a place in the higher seminaries. In these higher seminaries, again, the sheep

were to be separated from the goats:--and thus the colleges would at last be stocked with those students only who were, in every respect, worthy of a liberal education. "The scheme, however, has never been put into operation;—and Virginia still retains her old aristocracy of learning and of wealth.

The same remarks are applicable to the States south of Virginia. None of them have yet taken effectual measures for the promotion of common learning. All their schools were insti

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VOL. IX,

tuted, and are continued, by private enterprise; and most of our countrymen in the south are perhaps indebted to NewEngland for their education, as well as for their tin-ware.-The miscellaneous population of the western states will for a long time prevent the establishment of any uniform system of elementary instruction. Much more has been done beyond the mountains, however than we could have expected: and in Ohio and Indiana particularly, many good English schools have already been established.

Besides the kind of institutions which we have now been considering, there is, in our large cities and towns, another method of educating the children of poor parents particularly. We allude to what are called free schools;-a species of establishment which originated very certainly in the purest of motives, and which has certainly done the community a great deal of good. After all, however, they are attended with many disadvantages which can never be removed, it strikes us, without the interference of government. Besides, the degradation which must always be connected with such an institution,--the benevolence of private individuals will never create a sufficiency of funds to employ the most competent instructors; while, on the other hand, the number of pupils generally put under the tuition of such as are employed, is absolutely incompatible with a thorough discharge of their duties to all.' Under this head, we may also mention the adoption of Mr. Lancaster's system of education. The first school of the kind was established in Georgetown, in the district of Columbia: similar schools have since been instituted in a great many other parts of the country; and notwithstanding the discouragement of a few failures, we think there is reason to expect that, in no great length of time, an institution of the same surt will be found in every considerable village in the United States.

Female education has been sufficiently attended to in this country;---but it has not always been attended to in the right way. Many useful schools, under the tuition of well educated ladies, have been established in most of our cities: but we have to repeat the standing complaint, that they are devoted in too many instances, to the mere ornamental parts of education. This subject stands, we apprehend, in the clearest light. Mere ornament is a thing of nought;---and if the system of female education goes on the course which it has now taken, the daughters of our fair countrywomen may make good musicians, good dancers, and good frolickers,—but we are afraid they will never make good wives.

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Thus we have endeavoured to draw, in a very few lines, a rapid sketch of American education in the elementary parts of learning; and though we have given it by no means a flattering likeness, we have to congratulate our countrymen that it looks no worse, - especially when we compare it with what we see in most of the countries in the old world. Such a comparison, however, should never make us remit our endeavours at amelioration. Much certainly remains to be done; and we are sure it will never be done effectually, till the different legislatures take the subject into their own hands. The wealthy can educate their sons without extraneous aid; but what proportion do the wealthy bear to the middling and the poor; and where, in short, are the great body of our young countrymen to look for adequate instruction, if the legislature refuses to turn its averted eyes upon their necessities:-But we must now turn our own eyes to another part of the subject. A literary appetite always grows from what it feeds on; and the general prevalence of common learning will soon create a demand for liberal education. We shall proceed, therefore, to point out very briefly the means which our country possesses for instruction in the higher walks of literature.

The first college founded in America was originated by Mr. John Harvard; who, in the year 1638, made a donation of 7771. expressly for that purpose. The institution had, at first, no charter at all; nor could its managers afterwards obtain one, though they made application to the king; but they proceeded nevertheless to confer degrees, and their parchment was generally as much respected as if it had been accompanied by the broad seal of the crown. During its earliest stages, the mere belles lettres and polishing of education was very little attended; while, if we may judge from the writings of some of its presidents, the substance and solidity were very successfully imparted. The case is now directly reversed; the mathematics and severer studies, having yielded to the belles lettres and the languages. The superintendence of the university is committed to the hands of some of the most influential men in the state; and its annual revenue amounts at present to more than $40,000; of which $10,000 are paid by the state, and the remaining $30,000 are derived from vested funds and tuitionmoney: There are upwards of twenty professors; thirteen of whom are constantly employed in teaching the students in the ordinary way,—while the remaining seven deliver occasional courses of lectures upon medicine, upon natural and moral philo• sophy, upon history, upon theology, and upon various other sci

entific subjects. There is one professorship which we mention with peculiar satisfaction;---the professorship of the Greek

language;---an institution which does the greatest honour to the unknown individual who generously endowed it with funds. Connected with the same subject, we allude with pleasure, also, to the abolition of Latin translations to Greek originals, as well as to the introduction of Dalzel's Collecteana Græca Minora et Majora;---two works which, if thoroughly studied, are cal. culated to give the student a better acquaintance with that opulent and copious language, than any other equal quantity of reading whatsoever. An edition of both works has been printed at the University Press; and we hope, before long, they will supersede, in all our colleges, the books which have been heretofore used.---The Latin course in Harvard consists of the Discerptæ Latinæ;---the text-books for logic and metaphysics, are Locke's Essay, and Mr. Stewart's Elements; that for mathematics, Webber's System; for natural philosophy, Enfield; and for rhetoric, Blair's Lectures. The average number of students has of late been between 280 and 300; most of whom belong to Massachusetts, though not a few are from the southern states. The philosophical apparatus is very extensive; and, more than 25 years ago the library consisted of about thirteen hundred volumes,

We subjoin a list of the Presidents. Elected in 1640 Rev. Henry Dunstar

resigned in 1654 1654 Rev. Charles Chauncey

died 1671 1672 Leonard Hoar, M. D. resigned 1674 1675 Rev. Urian Oaks

died 1681 1682 John Rogers

died 1684 1684 Rev. Increase Mather, S. T. D. resigned 1701 1701 Rev. Samuel Willard, Vice President died 1707 1708 Hon. John Leverett, S. R. S. died 1724 1725 Rev. Benjamin Wadsworth

died 1737 1737 Rev. Edward Holyohe

died 1769 1770 Rev. Samuel Locke, S. T. D. resigned 1773 1774 Rev Samuel Langdon, S. T. D. . - resigned 1780 1781 Rev. Joseph Willard, S.T. D.LL, D. died 1804 1804 Rev. Samuel Webber, D.D. - died 1810

Rev. Thomas Kirkland, D. D. The course of studies pursued in all the grammar-schools of Massachusetts is directed to the preparation of students for Harvard University. Of such schools there are many in Boston; and not only is every township containing two hundred householders obliged by law to support one ---but there are few English schools in the state, in which the preparatory education cannot be acquired.

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