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slight exceptions, his subsequent performances are such as do credit to the appointment.'-p. 324, 325.

"WALKER, Adam, lecturer in natural and experimental philosophy. This self-taught genius was born on the banks of Windermere, in the county of Westmoreland. His father employed a few hands in the woollen manufacture: and having a large family, he took his son from school before the boy could read a chapter in the bible. The mechanical turn of the youth was not however to be smothered by hard labour. He copied corn mills, paper mills, and fulling mills, the models of which were constructed on a brook near his father's dwelling, to the surprise of passengers. He also borrowed books, and built a huuse for himself in a bush to read without interruption on Sundays. Thus he went on with such success, that a person, who discovered his extraordinary talents, offered him the ushership of Ledsham school, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Here he began his career of teaching when he was no more than fifteen

age, and had frequently to study over night, what he had to impart to his pupils the next morning. After continuing three years in that situation, he was chosen writing master and accomptant to the free school at Macclesfield, where he resided four years, and perfected himself in mathematics by his own application. At this place he embarked in trade, but failing in his business, he resolved to turn hermit in one of the islands on the lake of Windermere, from which romantic scheme he was diverted by the ridicule of his friends. His next enterprise was that of lecturing on astronomy at Manchester, where he met with a very favourable reception, which enabled him to establish an extensive seminary. This however he relinquished for the purpose of travelling as a lecturer in natural philosophy: and after visiting most of the great towns in the three kingdoms, he visited Dr. Priestley, by whose recommendation he undertook to lecture in the Haymarket, in 1778. The encouragement which he experienced in the metropolis induced him to take a house in George street, Hanover square, where he read lectures every winter to numerous audiences. He was also engaged by Dr Barnard, provost of Eton College to lecture in that seminary; which example was followed by Westminster, Winchester, and other great schools. Among the variety of inventions with which Mr. Walker has amused himself, may he mentioned various engines for raising water; three methods by which ships may be easily pumped at sea; carriages to go by wind and steam; the patent empyreal air stove; the patent celestina harpsichord; the Eidouranion, or transparent orrery; the rotatory lights on the island of Scilly; a boat that works against the stream; another that clears the bottoms of rivers by the stream or tide; a weather guage which, united to a clock, shows the quantity of rain, the direction and strength of the wind, the height of the barometer, the heat and moisture of the air; an easy method

years

of turning a river into a wet dock; a road mill; a machine for watering land; a dibbling plough, &c. &c.'-p. 367, 368.

"WATT, JAMES, F.R.S. and engineer at Birmingham. Mr. Watt, is a native of Glasgow, where he was born about the year 1737. Having finished his grammatical studies and laid in a stock of useful elementary knowledge, he was apprenticed to what is called in the north an instrument maker, whose business consists in making and repairing the various machines and articles used in different professions, as music, surveying, navigation, &c. After serving three years he came to London, and worked some time with a mathematical instrument maker; but having contracted a complaint by sitting in winter at the door of the workshop, he went down to his native country where he set up for himself. While he was thus employed, the professor of natural philosophy in the university of Glasgow engaged him in repairing the old model of a steam engine, which by length of time had grown out of use. The artist in the course of his labour, was much struck with the con trivance, but he soon perceived defects which prevented it from being of more general advantage. From that instant he devoted himself to the improvement of this machine, particularly with regard to the saving of heat in the production and condensation of steam. By repeated observations he found that near four times the quantity of steam was wasted in comparison of that which actually worked the machine. He therefore endeavoured to diminish this waste, and after many trials he completely succeeded. This was about the year 1763, at which period he married a lady of Glasgow, without any property, by whom he had two children, which obliged him to lay aside his speculations, till Dr. Roebuck, a gentleman of science and property, joined him in his schemes, but their means were not adequate to their objects. In this situation Mr. Boulton fortunately becoming acquainted with Mr. Watt, instantly made him an offer of partnership which was accepted, and Dr. Roebuck being reimbursed for what he had expended, Mr. Watt removed with his family to Birmingham, where he has ever since been employed in the most extensive concerns, and in the sale of his engines, for which a patent was obtained, and an act of parliament to prolong its duration. Mr. Watt is also author of many other inventions, particularly of the copying machine, by the help of which, what has taken a person several hours to write, may be transcribed in a few seconds. Soon after his settlement in Birmingham, having lost his wife, he married Miss M'Gregor, of Glasgow. Though a man of profound science and incessant activity, he is represented as being a lively companion, and very fond of reading novels and romances. Mr. Watt has some communications in the Philosophical Transactions, the Philosophical Magazine, and the Memoirs of the Manchester society.'--p. 377.

• Wolcott, John, M.D. This gentleman, who is more genera ally known by his poetical name of PETER PINDAR, was born at Dodbrook, in Devonshire and educated at Kingsbridge, after which he was taken under the protection of his uncle, a surgeon and apothecary at Fovey in Cornwall. Here young Wolcott studied phar. macy with becoming diligence, occasionally amusing himself with poetry and drawing. On the appointment of sir William Tre. lawney to be governor of Jamaica in 1768, John obtained permission to go out in his suite, and the ship touching at Madeira, he wrote some of his best sonnets, descriptive of the natural beauties of the island. At Jamaica he commenced practice as a surgeon, and was nominated also physician to the governor, to qualify himself for which he procured a diploma from Scotland. A very remarkable circumstance, however, occurred, which had nearly diverted the pursuits of our author into another channel, and to have fixed him in the West Indies for life. The rector of St. Anne's dying while he was there, Dr. Wolcott was prevailed upon to officiate as a minister for some time, and this duty he discharged so much to the satisfaction of the planters, that they entreated the governor to procure the living for him. But as this could not be granted without the consent of the bishop of London, the doctor returned to England for that purpose. Being disappointed, and sir William Trelawney dying in the interim, he gave up all farther idea of the charch, and went to settle as a physician at Truro, where he practised several years with some credit, though not without occasional bickerings with Mr. Rosewarne and other gentlemen of the neighbourhood, owing to the doctor's unconquerable turn for satire. Not long after his settlement at Truro, his circumstances were rendered easy by the death of his uncle, who left him an estate and about two thousand pounds in money. It was here that he had an opportunity of befriending genius by taking under his instruction and patronage John Opie, who from being an apprentice to a house carpenter in the village of St. Agnes, rose to be a celebrated painter and professor of the art in the royal academy. The doctor in his rides through the village was much struck with some rude sketches in chalk and a few on paper, that were shown him of this lad's performance, on which he invited Opie to his house, and there gave him such lessons and helps as enabled him in a short time to set up as an itinerant portrait painter. About the year 1778 Dr. Wolcott removed from Cornwall to London, where he resolved to live at his ease, and to indulge in literary amusements, which, however, soon proved of very substantial benefit. As a satirist he struck into a new line, and by a rich vein of humour peculiar to himself, contrived to fascinate the public attention. His works were read with great eagerness, and multiplied in successive editions, both here and abroad. It is how, ever to be lamented that this son of humour did not observe uniformly more decorum in his productions, and particularly in the deference due to high rank and virtue. His attacks on the sovereign have been generally laughable, but too frequently scurrilous; and it cannot be denied, even by the warmest admirers of the facetious bard that he has often exceeded even the bounds of poetical license in his caricatures of great personages and men of eminence. Some years ago he had a suit in chancery with his publishers, respecting the construction of an agreement by which they were to pay him two hundred and forty pounds a year for the copyright of his works. At the time when this contract was made, the doctor was labouring under an asthmatic complaint, and to all appearance had not long to live. By going into Cornwall, however, he recovered his health and returned to London without any cough, which was far from being a pleasing sight to the persons who were bound to pay his annuity. A plea was then set up that the agreement extended to all future pieces, as well as to the past; and on this ground an action was commenced which in a short time was compromised. The doctor was also embroiled in an unpleasant dispute with Mr. William Gifford, who having treated him rather severely in his Baviad and Mæviad, was assaulted by the redoubtable Peter, staff in hand, in Wright's shop in Piccadilly. Subsequently to this our merry wight has been prosecuted on a charge of another nature, by the husband of a young woman to whom he gave some lectures in the histrionic art. Luckily, however, nothing more serious came of this affair than a laughable exposure in the newspapers. The doctor, who is now far advanced in years, has been for some time deprived of sight by an incurable glaucoma.'-p. 394, 395.

Art. VIII.-A Course of Legal Study, respectfully addressed

to the Students of Law in the United States. By David Hoffman, Professor of Law in the University of Maryland. 8vo. pp. 383. 1817. Baltimore. THIS is an ingenious and successful effort to demonstrate the

importance, and to designate the means, of introducing system and method into the prosecution of studies, preparatory to the profession of the law. Two causes have existed in this country to interfere with the objects which the author has in view;—first, an ambition of early distinction, which leads the youth of America, more than those of any other country, to place themselves in responsible situations, before their understandings are matured, or their memories properly stored with knowledge. This leads to what my Lord Coke calls præ propera praxis. And secondly, the frequency of assuming the labours of the profession, by those whose education and habits have been foreign from science and system; and who, if they have studied at all, have been content with what my Lord Coke calls prepostera lectio. Mr. Hoffman will essentially promote the interests of the community, and redeem the credit of a most honourable profession, if he can inscribe his

selves among

principles upon the minds of all who intend to enrol them

its members. Without attempting to give lessons himself, the author of this work has undertaken to point out the sources from which instruction may be acquired;—to arrange the various books which he deems worthy of perusal in clear and comprehensive order;—to designate such parts as merit or require particular attention;—to point out the prevailing beauties and prominent defects of the many authors he enumerates;—to suggest the means which have been discovered by reflection and experience, of acquiring and using the knowledge they contain;and, finally, to exhibit what is generally considered as a chaos of science, in a lucid and intelligible form. All this is done with industry and judgment. A course of lectures on the study of the law would require a volume much more extensive than that to which professor Hoffman has limited himself. To such, however, his present work would be a most useful auxiliary: and the same powers of discrimination which have enabled him to select the authors from whom information is to be derived, would eminently qualify him to analyze the matter of which they treat, and to communicate it to the student in the most elementary, and therefore the most beneficial form. Perhaps, in a treatise purely didactic, it had been better if the path had been strewed with fewer flowers; which, however they may amuse the fancy, certainly do not inform the understanding. A style somewhat more simple, both as to words and figures, would have been better adapted to the science of which it treats; and particularly to that department of it which professes merely to enumerate and to arrange. We should have preferred, for example, the substitution of less unusual words for the following;-—sciolous, in several places,-particularly when accompanied by its synonime superficial,---facile, temerariously, evanesce, gladiation. One science'is sufficient at a time;—and though a harmonious word may more nicely balance a sentence, or round a period, yet if it obscure the meaning of a phrase, or dissipate a single thought, it is worse than useless.

With this little error,---for it can scarcely be called a fault,we do not hesitate to give Mr. Hoffman's book decided praise. It is calculated, we think, to stimulate the idle; to encourage the ambitious, and to console the industrious. It may be read with advantage by the man of experience; and certainly cannot fail to prove to the pupil a key by which he will readily open the doors of science, and discover its most secret and valuable

stores.

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