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it is of little import what censure is passed upon a siffer si l'on prêtendoit conraincre Boccace de coxcomb who owes his present existence to the n'avoir pas êté honnête homme, puis qu'il a fait le above burlesque character given to him by the poet Decameron.” So said one of the best men, and whose amber has preserved many other grubs and perhaps the best critic, that ever lived-the very worms; but to classify Boccaccio with such a per- martyr to impartiality.* But as this information son, and to excommunicate his very ashes, must of that in the beginning of the last century one would itself make us doubt of the qualification of the have been hooted at for pretending that Boccaccio classical tourist for writing upon Italian, or, indeed, was not a good man, may seem to come from one of upon any other literature ; for ignorance on one those enemies who are to be suspected, even when point may incapacitate an author merely for that they make us a present of truth, a more acceptable particular topic, but subjection to a professional contrast with the proscription of the body, soul, and prejudice must render him an unsafe director on all muse of Boccaccio may be found in a few words occasions. Any perversion and injustice may be from the virtuous, the patriotic cotemporary, who made what is vulgarly called “a case of con- thought one of the tales of this impure writer science," and this poor excuse is all that can be worthy a Latin version from his own pen. "I have offered for the priest of Certaldo, or the author of remarked elsewhere," says Petrarch, writing to the Classical Tour. It would have answered the Boccaccio, " that the book itself has been worried by purpose to confine the censure to the novels of Boc- certain dogs, but stoutly defended by your staff and caccio, and gratitude to that source which supplied voice. Nor was I astonished, for I have had proof the muse of Dryden with her last and most harmo- of the vigor of your mind, and I know you have nious numbers might perhaps have restricted that fallen on that unaccommodating incapable race of censure to the objectionable qualities of the hun-mortals who, whatever they either like not, or knoro dred tales. At any rate the repentance of Boccaccio not, or cannot do, are sure to reprehend in others; might have arrested his exhumation, and it should and on those occasions only put on a show of learning have been recollected and told, that in his old age and eloquence, but otherwise are entirely dumb." + he wrote a letter to his friend to discourage the It is satisfactory to find that all the priesthood do reading of the Decameron, for the sake of modesty, not resemble those of Certaldo, and that one of them and for the sake of the author, who would not have who did not possess the bones of Boccaccio would an apologist always at hand to state in his excuse not lose the opportunity of raising a cenotaph to that he wrote it when young, and at the command his memory: Bevius, canon of Padua, at the beof his superiors.* It is neither the licentiousness ginning of the sixteenth century, erected at Arqua, of the writer, nor the evil propensities of the reader, opposite to the tomb of the Laureate, a tablet, in which have given to the Decameron alone, of all the which he associated Boccaccio to the equal honors works of Boccaccio, a perpetual popularity. The of Dante and of Petrach. establishment of a new and delightful dialect conferred an immortality on the works in which it was

34. first fixed. The sonnets of Petrarch were, for the What is her pyramid of precious stones! same reason, fated to survive his self-admired Africa,

Stanza lx. line 1. the " favorite of kings." The invariable traits of nature and feeling with which the novels, as well as and expires with his grandson; that stream is pure

Our veneration for the Medici begins with Cosmo the verses, abound, have doubtless been the chief source of the foreign celebrity of both authors; but only at the source; and it is in search of some meBoccaccio, as a man, is no more to be estimated by

morial of the virtuous republicans of the family that that work, than Petrarch is to be regarded in no The tawdry, glaring, unfinished chapel in that

we visit the church of St. Lorenzo at Florence, other light than as the lover of Laura. Even, how- church, designed for the mausoleum of the Dukes ever, had the father of the Tuscan prose been known of Tuscany, set round with crowns and coffins, gives only as the author of the Decameron, a considerate birth to no emotions but those of contempt for the writer would have been cautious to pronounce a lavish vanity of a race of despots, whilst the pave. sentence irreconcilable with the unerring voice of many ages and nations. An irrevocable value has ment slab, simply inscribed to the Father of his never been stamped upon any work solely recom- was very natural for Corinna to suppose that the

Country, reconciles us to the name of Medici. I It mended by impurity. which began at a very early period, was the choice but the magnificent Lorenzo is only the sharer of a

The true source of the outcry against Boccaccio, statue raised to the Duke of Urbino in the capella of his scandalous personages in the cloisters as well as the courts; but the princes only laughed at the coffin half hidden in a niche of the sacristy. The gallant adventures so unjustly charged upon queen Medici. Of the sepulchral peace which succeeded

decay of Tuscany dates from the sovereignty of the Theodelinda, whilst the priesthood cried shame upon the debauchees drawn from the convent and to the establishment of the reigning families in the hermitage; and most probably for the opposite Italy; our own Sidney has given us a glowing but

a reason, namely, that the picture was faithful to the tions of Florence, and other cities of Tuscany, the

· Notwithstanding all the sedi. life. Two of the novels are allowed to be facts use- horrid factions of Guelphs and Ghibelins, Neri and fully turned into tales, to deride the canonization of Bianchi, nobles and commons, they continued popurogues and laymen. Ser Ciappelletto and Marcellinus are cited with applause even by the decent Mu-lous, strong, and exceeding rich; but in the space ratori.t The great Arnaud, as he is quoted in reign of the Medices is thought to have destroyed

of less than a hundred and fifty years, the peaceable Bayle, states, that a new edition of the novels was nine parts in ten of the people of that province. omitting the words “monk" and “nun," and Among other things it is remarkable, that when tacking the immoralities to other names.

The lit- Philip the Second of Spain gave Sienna to the erary history of Italy particularizes no such edition; Duke of Florence, his ambassador then at Rome but it was not long before the whole of Europe had sent him word, that he had given away more than but ope opinion of the Decameron: and the absolution of the author seems to have been a point set

Eclaircissement, &c., &c., p. 638, elit. Besle, 1741, in the Supplement

to Bayle's Dictionary. tled at least a hundred years ago.

« On se feroit

1 "Animadverti alicubi librum iprum canum dentibus lacessitum, tuo tamen

Inculo egregiè tuâque voce defensam. Nec miratus sum: nam et vires in • " Non enim utique est, qui in excusationen mum consurgens dicat, Juve genii tui novi, et scio expurus esses horainum genus incolens et ignaruns, nis wripsit, et inajoria cocoa imperio." The letter was addressed to Magb- qui quicquid ipsi vel nolunt vel nesciunt, vel non possunt, in aliis reprehenchmal; înard of Cavalcanti, marshal of the kingdom of Sicily. See Tirutaschi, ad hoc unum docti et arguti, sed elingues ad reliqua.' Epist. Joan, Boo Hloria, &c., tom. 1. par. ii, lib. II. pag. 525, ed. Ven. 1795.

catio, Opp. tom. I. p. 540, edit. Basil. Disportazioni sopra lc Antichita Italiana, Diss. Ivili, p. 25€, torr. ii. dit. 1 Cosmus Metlices, Decreto Publico, Pater Patria Mlan, 1751.

$ Corinne, liv, Ivü, cap. ii. vol. fä, page 248.

650,000 subjects; and it is not believed there are round tower close upon the water; and the undu. now 21,000 souls inhabiting that city and territory. lating hills partially covered with wood, among Pisa, Pistoia, Arezzo, Cortona, and other towns which the road winds, sink by degrees into the that were then good and populous, are in the like marshes near to this tower. Lower than the road, proportion diminished, and Florence more than any. down to the right amidst these woody hillocks, When that city had been long troubled with sedi- Hannibal placed his horse,* in the jaws of or rather tions, tumults, and wars, for the most part unpros- above the pass, which was between the lake and perous, they still retained such strength, that when the present road, and most probably close to Bor. Charles VIII. of France, being admitted as a friend ghetto, just under the lowest of the “ tumuli." + with his whole army, which soon after conquered On a summit to the left, above the road, is an old the kingdom of Naples, thought to master them, circular ruin which the peasants call the Tower the people, taking arms, struck such a terror into of Hannibal the Carthaginian.” Arrived at the him, that he was glad to depart upon such condi- highest point of the road, the traveller has a partial tions as they thought fit to impose. Machiavel re- view of the fatal plain, which opens fully upon him ports, that in that time Florence alone, with the as he descends the Gualandra. He soon finds himVal d'Arno, a small territory belonging to that self in a vale enclosed to the left and in front and city, could, in a few hours, by the sound of a bell, behind him by the Gualandra hills, bending round bring together, 135,000 well-armed men; whereas in a segment larger than a semicircle, and running now that city, with all the others in that province, down at each end to the lake, which obliques to the are brought to such despicable weakness, emptiness, right and form the chord of this mountain arc. poverty, and baseness, that they can neither resist The position cannot be guessed at from the plains of the oppressions of their own prince, nor defend him Cortona, nor appears to be so completely enclosed or themselves if they were assaulted by a foreign unless to one who is fairly within the hills. It then, enemy. The people are dispersed or destroyed, and indeed, appears “a place made as it were on purthe best families sent to seek habitations in Venice, pose for a snare,” locus insidiis natus. “ Borghetto Genoa, Rome, Naples, and Lucca. This is not the is then found to stand in a narrow, marshy pass effect of war or pestilence; they enjoy a perfect close to the hill and to the lake, whilst there is no peace, and suffer no other plague than the governo other outlet at the opposite turn of the mountains ment they are under.” * from the usurper Cosmo than through the little town of Passignano, which down to the imbecile Gaston, we look in vain for is pushed into the water by the foot of a high rocky any of those unmixed qualities which should raise acelivity." I. There is a woody eminence branching a patriot to the command of his fellow-citizens. down from the mountains into the upper end of the The Grand Dukes, and particularly the third Cos- plain nearer to the side of Passignano, and on this mo, had operated so entire a change in the Tuscan stands a white village called Torre. Polybius seems character, that the candid Florentines, in excuse for to allude to this eminence as the one on which Hansome imperfections in the philanthropic system of nibal encamped and drew out his heavy-armed AfLeopold, are obliged to confess that the sovereign fricans and Spaniards in a conspicuous position. S was the only liberal man in his dominions. Yet From this spot he despatched his Balearic and lightthat excellent prince himself had no other notion of armed troops round through the Gualandra heights a national assembly, than of a body to represent to the right, so as to arrive unseen and form an the wants and wishes, not the will, of the people. ambush among the broken acclivities which the 35.

road now passes, and to be ready to act upon the

left flank and above the enemy, whilst the horse An earthquake reeld unheededly aray: shut

ир the pass behind. Flaminius came to the Stanza lxiii. line 5.

lake near Borghetto at sunset; and, without send"And such was their mutual animosity, so intent ing any spies before him, marched through the pass were they upon the battle, that the earthquake, which the next morning before the day had quite broken, overthrew in great part many of the cities of Italy, so that he perceived nothing of the horse and light which turned the course of rapid streams, poured troops above and about him, and saw only the back the sea upon the rivers, and tore doron the very heavy-armed Carthaginians in front on the hill of mountains, was not felt by one of the combatants.” ŕ Torre. The consul began to draw out his army Such is the description of Livy. It may be doubted in the Aat, and in the mean time the horse in amwhether modern tactics would admit of such an ab- bush occupied the pass behind him at Borghetto. straction.

Thus the Romans were completely enclosed, harThe site of the battle of Thrasimene is not to be ing the lake on the right, the main army on the hill mistaken. The traveller from the village under of Torre in front, the Gualandra hills filled with Cortona to Casa di Piano, the next stage on the the light-armed on their left flank, and being preway to Rome, has for the first two or three miles, vented from receding by the cavalry, who, the farther around him, but more particularly to the right, that they advanced, stopped up all the outlets in the dat land which Hannibal laid waste in order to in- rear. A fog rising from the lake now spread

itself duce the Consul Flaminius to move from Arezzo. over the army of the consul, but the high lands On his left, and in front of him, is a ridge of hills were in the sunshine, and all the different corps in bending down towards the lake of Thrasimene, ambush looked towards the hill of Torre for the called by Livy "montes Cortonenses," and now order of attack. Hannibal gave the signal, and named the Gualandra. These hills he approaches moved down from his post on the height. At the at Ossaja, a village which the itineraries pretend to same moment all his troops on the eminences behave been so denominated from the bones found hind and in the flank of Flaminius, rushed forwards there ; but there have been no boncs found there, as it were with one accord into the plain. The Roand the battle was fought on the other side of mans, who were forming their array in the mist, the hill. From Ossaja the road begins to rise a suddenly heard the shouts of the enemy among little, but does not pass into the roots of the mountains until the sixty-seventh milestone from Florenee. The ascent thence is not steep but perpetual, lh, xxii, cap.wr.

• " Equites ad ipsas fauces saltus tumulis apte tegentibus locat." T. Livi and continues for twenty minutes. The lake is

† "USi maxime montes Cortcnenses Thrasimenus subit." Ibid. soon seen below on the right, with Borghetto, a

"Inde colles assurgunt." Ib.

5 Τον μεν κατά πρόσωπον της πορείας λόφον αυτός κατε * On Government, chap. ii. sect. xxvi. pag. 208, elit. 1751. Sidney is, Nábero, kai rous Albvas, kai rovs "Inpas, &xwr Šiauroj together with Locke and Hor Dey, oue of Mr. Hume's " despicable" writers. KITETTOaToridente. Hist. lib. ill. cap. 83. The account in Polybius in

"Tantuaque fuit arlor animarum, eado intents pugna animus, it cun. not so easily reconcilable with present appearances ns that in Livy; he talka kerte motum qui multarum urbiura Italia magpas partes prostrivit, avertitate of bills to the right and left of the pros and valley; but when Flamlalım sau rapilo amnes mare fluminibus invexit, montes lapes ingenu proruit, enteret he tad the lake at the right of both. Demo pugnantium senserit,"... Tit. Liv. lib. xxi. cap. xi.

I "A tergo et super capat decepere klaidiz." T. Liv. &c

them, on every side, and before they could fall into either from above or below, it is worth als the castheir ranks, or draw their swords, or see by whom cades and torrents of Switzerland put together: they were attacked, felt at once that they were sur-the Staubach, Reichenbach, Pisse Vache, fall of Arrounded and lost.

penaz, &c., are rills in comparative appearance. Of There are two little rivulets which run from the the fall of Schaffhausen f cannot speak, not yet Gualandra into the lake. The traveller erosses the having seen it. first of these at about a mile after he comes into the

38. plain, and this divides the Tuscan from the papal An iris sits amidst the infernal surge. territories. The second, about a quarter of a mile

Stanza lxxii. line 3. further on, is called “the bloody rivulet,” and the peasants point out an open spot to the left between Of the time, place, and qualities of this kind of the "Sanguinetto" and the hills, which, they iris, the reader may have seen a short account in a say, was the principal scene of slaughter. The note to Manfred. The fall looks so much like " the other part of the plain is covered with thick set hell of waters," that Addison thought the descent olive-trees in corn grounds, and is nowhere quite alluded to by the gulf in which Alecto plunged into level except near the edge of the lake. It is, in the infernal regions. It is singular enough that deed, most probable, that the battle was fought near two of the finest cascades in Europe should be arthis end of the valley, for the six thousand Ro- tificial—this of the Velino, and the one at Tivoli. mans, who, at the beginning of the action, broke The traveller is strongly recommended to trace the through the enemy, escaped to the summit of an Velino, at least as high as the little lake called Pie eminence which must have been in this quarter, di Lup. The Reatine territory was the Italian otherwise they would have had to traverse the whole Tempe, * and the ancient naturalist, among other plain and to pierce through the main army of Han- beautiful varieties, remarked the daily rainbows of nibal.

the lake Velinus. f A scholar of great name has The Romans fought desperately for three hours, devoted a treatise to this district alone. I but the death of Flaminius was the signal for a general dispersion. The Carthaginian horse then burst

39. in upon the fugitives, and the lake, the marsh about

The thundering laurine. Borghetto, but chiefly the plain of the Sanguinetto

Stanza lxxiii. line 5. and the passes of the Gualandra, were strewed with dead. Near some old walls on a bleak ridge to the

In the greater part of Switzerland the avalanches

are known by the name of lauwine. left above the rivulet, many human bones have been repeatedly found, and this has confirmed the pre

40. tensions and the name of the stream of blood.” Every district of Italy has its hero. In the north

I abhorred some painter is the usual genius of the place, and Too much, to conquer for the poet's sake, the foreign Julio Romano more than divides Man

The dril'd dull lesson, forced down word by word. tua with her native Virgil.* To the south we hear

Stanza lxxv. lines 6, 7, and 8. of Roman names. Near Thrasimene, tradition is These stanzas may probably remind the reader still faithful to the fame of an enemy, and Hanni- of Ensign Northerton's remarks: “D-n Homo, bal the Carthaginian is the only ancient name re- &c., but the reasons for our dislike are not exactly membered on the banks of the Perugian lake. the same. I wish to express that we become tired Flaminius is unknown; but the postillions on that of the task before we can comprehend the beauty; road have been taught to show the very spot where that we learn by rote before we can get by heart ; n Console Romano was slain. Of all who fought that the freshness is worn away, and the future and fell in the battle of Thrasimene, the historian pleasure and advantage deadened and destroyed, by himself has, besides the generals and Maharbal, pre- the didactic anticipation, at an age when we can served indeed only a single name. You overtake neither feel nor understand the power of composi. the Carthaginian again on the same road to Rome. tions which it requires an acquaintance with life, as The antiquary, that is, the hostler, of the posthouse well as Latin and Greek, to relish, or to reason at Spoleto, tells you that his town repulsed the vic: upon. For the same reason we never can be aware torious enemy, and shows you the gate still called of the fulness of some of the finest passages of Porta di Annibale. It was hardly worth while to Shakspeare, (“To be, or not to be," for instance, remark that a French travel writer, well known by from the habit of having them hammered into us at the name of the President Deputy, saw Thrasimene eight years old, as an exercise not of mind but in the lake of Bolsena, which lay conveniently on of memory: so that when we are old enough to enhis way from Sienna to Rome.

joy them, the taste is gone, and the appetite palled.

In some parts of the Continent young persons are 36.

taught from more common authors, and do not read But thou, Clitumnus.

the best classics till their maturity. I certainly do

Stanza lxvi. line 1. not speak on this point from any pique or aversion No book of travels has omitted to expatiate on

towards the place of my education. I was not the temple of the Clitumnus, between Foligno and slow, though an idle boy; and I believe no one could, Spoleto, and no site, or scenery even in Italy, is

or can be more attached to Harrow than I have almore worthy a description. For an account of the ways been, and with reason ;-a part of the time dilapidation of this temple, the reader is referred to passed there was the happiest of my life; and my Historical Illustrations of the Fourth Canto of preceptor. (the Rev. Dr. Joseph Drury) was the best Childe Harold.

and worthiest friend I ever possessed, whose warnings

I have remembered but too well, though too late 37.

when I have erred, and whose counsels I have but Charming the eye with dread, -a matchless cat- followed when I have done well or wisely. If ever aract.

Stanza lxxi. line 9. this imperfect record of my feeling towards him I saw the “Cascata del marmore” of Terni should reach his eyes, let it remind him of one who twice, at different periods ; once from the summit never thinks of him but with gratitude and venera of the precipice, and again from the valley below. tion-of one who would more gladly boast of harThe lower view is far to be preferred, if the traveller has time for one only; but in any point of view,

• “Reatini me ad sua Tempe duxerunt." Cicer. epist. ad Attic, IT. "In eodem lacu pullo non die apparere arcu." Plin. Hist. Nat

... • About the middle of the XIIth century the coins of Mantua bore on one cap.lxi. side the image and figure of Virgil. Zecca d'Italia, pl. xvii. 1. 6... Voyage | Ald. Maput. de Reatina urbe agroque, ap. Sollengre, Thesaur. wa, L Jous le Milannis, &c., par. A. Z. Millin. tom. I. pag. 294, Paris, 1817.

ib. iv.

p.773.

1

ng been his pupil, if, by more closely following his of Rome. Winklemann * is loath to allow an henjunctions, he could reflect any honor upon his in- roic statue of a Roman citizen, but the Grimani structor.

Agrippa, a cotemporary almost, is heroic; and 41.

naked Roman figures were only very rare, not absoThe Scipios tomb contains no ashes now.

lutely forbidden. The face aceords much better Stanza lxxix. line 5.

with the hominem integrum et castum et gravem,'' + For a comment on this and the two following stern for him who was beautiful, says Suetonius, at

than with any of the busts of Augustus, and is too stanzas, the reader may consult Historical Illustra- all periods of his life. The pretended likeness to tions of the Fourth Canto of Childe Harold.

Alexander the Great cannot be discerned, but the

traits resemble the medal of Pompey. I The objec42.

tionable globe may not have been an ill-applied HatThe trebly hundred triumphs.

tery to him who found Asia Minor the boundary, and

Stanza Ixxxii. line 2. left it in the centre of the Roman empire. It seems Orosius gives three hundred and twenty for the that Winkelmann has made a mistake in thinking number of triumphs. He is followed by Panvinius ; that no proof of the identity of this statue, with and Panvinius by Mr. Gibbon and the modern writ- that which received the bloody sacrifice, can be deers.

rived from the spot where it was discovered. $ Fla43.

minius Vacca says sottu tera cantina, and this can

tina is known to have been in the Vicolo de' Leutari Oh thou, whose chariot rolld on Fortune's wheel, &c. near the Cancellaria, a position corresponding ex,

Stanza lxxxiii. line 1.

actly to that of the Janus before the basilica of Certainly were it not for these two traits in the Pompey's theatre, to which Augustus transferred life of Sylla, alluded to in this stanza, we should re- the statue after the curia was either burnt or taken gard him as a monster unredeemed by any admira- down. || Part of the Pompeian shade, I the portible quality. The atonement of his voluntary resig- co, existed in the beginning of the XV th century, nation of empire may perhaps be accepted by us, as and the atrium was still called Satrum. So says it seems to have satisfied the Romans, who, if they Blondus.** At all events, so imposing is the stern had not respected must have destroyed him. There majesty of the statue, and so memorable is the could be no mean, no division of opinion ; they story, that the play of imagination leaves no room must have all thought, like Eucrates, that what for the exercise of the judgment, and the fiction, it had appeared ambition was a love of glory, and a fiction it is, operates on the spectator with an efthat what had been mistaken for pride was a real fect not less powerful than truth. grandeur of soul.* 44.

46. And laid him with the earth's preceding clay. And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome ! Stanza lxxxvi. line 4.

Stanza lxxxviii. line 1. On the third of September, Cromwell gained the Ancient Rome, like modern Sienna, abounded victory of Dunbar ; a year afterwards he obtained most probably with images of the foster-mother of "his crowning mercy" of Worcester; and a few her founders, but there were two she-wolves of whom years after, on the same day, which he had ever history makes particular mention. One of these, esteemed the most fortunate for him, died. of brass in ancient work, was seen by Dionysius tt

at the temple of Romulus, under the Palatine, and

is universally believed to be that mentioned by the And thou, dread statue! still existent in Latin historian, as having been made from the money The austerest form of naked majesty,

collected by a fine on usurers, and as standing unStanza lxxxvii. lines 1 and 2. der the Ruminal fig-tree II The other was that The projected division of the Spada Pompey has which Cicero si has celebrated both in prose and already been recorded by the historian of the De- verse, and which the historian Dion also records as cline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Mr. Gibbon having suffered the same accident as is alluded to found it in the memorials of Flaminius Vacca, + by the orator. !!! The question agitated by the antiand it may be added to his mention of it that Pope Julius III. gave the contending owners five hun

• Storia delle Arti, &c., lib. ix. cap. 1, pag. 321, 322, tom. il dred crowns for the statue; and presented it to Car

† Cicer. Epist. ad. Atticam, xi, 6.

Published by Caneta in his Mascum Romanum. dinal Capo di Ferro, who had prevented the judg

$ Storia delle Arti, &c. Ibid. ment of Solomon from being executed upon the

| Sueton. in vit. August. cap. 31, and in vit. C. J. Cæsar, cap. 83. Appian image. In a more civilized age this statue was ex- says it was burnt down. See a note of Pitiscns to Suetonius, pag. 22. posed to an actual operation for the French who TI

"Tu modo Pompeia lenta spatiare snb umbra." acted the Brutus of Voltaire in the Coliseum, resolved that their Cæsar should fall at the base of ** Roma instaurata, lib. li. fo. 31 that Pompey, which was supposed to have been ft Χάλκεα ποιήματα παλαιάς εργασίας. Αntig. Rom. lib 1.

11 " Ad ficur Ruminalem simulacra infantium conditorum urbin sab sprinkled with the blood of the original dictator. The nine-foot hero was therefore removed to the

uberibus lapa posuerant." Liv. Hist. lib. x. cop. Ixix. This was in the

year U.C. 455, or 457. arena of the ampitheatre, and to facilitate its trans- s * Tum stille Nattø, tum simulacra Deorum, Romulusque et Remus port suffered the temporary amputation of its right cum altrice tellu vi fulminus ictis conciderunt." De Divinat. i. 20. "Taoarm. The republican tragedians had to plead that tus est ille ctiam qui hanc urbem condilit Romnulus, quem inauratum in Capithe arm was a restoration : but their accusers do not tolio parvum alque luctantem, uberibus lupinis inhiantem fuisse meministin." believe that the integrity of the statue would have in Catilio. d. 8. protected it. The love of finding every coincidence has discovered the true Cæsarian ichor in a stain

Martia, quæ parvos Mavortis semine nntos

Uteritas gravidis vitali rore rigebat Dear the right knee; but colder criticism has re

Que tum cum pueris flammato fulminis ictu jected not only the blood but the portrait, and as

Concidit, atque avulsa pedum vestigia liquit." signed the globe of power rather to the first of the

De Consulatn, lib. i. (lib. i. de Divinat. cap. II.) emperors than to the last of the republican masters

Η Εν γάρ τώ καπητολία ανδριάντες τε πολλοί υπό κεραυ

νων συνεχώνεύθησαν, και αγαλματα άλλα τε, και Διδς επί • " Seigneur, vous changez toutes mes idées de la façon dont je vous vois|kiovos idovuévov, cikuv té mis duraivns oùVITE Tô 'Pájos kai kt. Je croyois que vous aviez de l'ambition, mais aucun amour pour la cùy tū 'Pwuúdo idpouévn ircon. Dion. Hist. lib. xxxvii. pag. 87, plaire : je vayol bien que votre âme était haute ; mais je ne soupçonnois pas edit. Rob. Steph. 1548. He goes on to mention that the letters of the columns N'elle fut grandee."-Dialogue de Sylla et d'Eucrate,

on which the laws were writtes were liquefied and become duveod. Memorie, numo. Ivi. pag. 9, ap. Montfaucen, Darium Italicum All that the Romans did was to erect a large statue to Japiter, looking

45.

Ovid. Ar. Aman.

" Hic silvestris erat Romani pominis altrix

quaries is, whether the wolf now in the conservators' and wolf both fell, and the latter left behind the palace is that of Livyand Dionysius, or that of Cice- marks of her feet. Cicero does not say that the ro, or whether it is neither one nor the other. The wolf was consumed ; and Dion only mentions that earlier writers differ as much as the moderns : Lucius it fell down, without alluding, as the Abate has Faunus * says, that it is the one alluded to by both, made him, to the force of the blow, or the firmness which is impossible, and also by Virgil, which may with which it had been fixed. The whole strength, be. Fulvius Ursinus † calls it the wolf of Dionys- therefore, of the Abate's argument hangs upon the ius, and Marlianus t talks of it as the one men- past tense ; which, however, may be somewhat ditioned by Cicero. To him Rycquius tremblingly minished by remarking that the phrase only shows assents., Nardini is inclined to suppose it may be that the statue was not then standing in its former one of the many wolves preserved in Ancient Rome; position. Winkelmann has observed, that the but of the two rather bends to the Ciceronian present twins are modern ; and it is equally clear statue. || Montfaucon mentions it as as a point that there are marks of gilding on the wolf which without doubt. Of the latter writers the decisive might therefore be supposed to make part of the Winkelmann ** proclaims it as having been found ancient group. It is known that the sacred images at the church of Saint Theodore, where, or near of the Capitol were not destroyed when injured by where, was the temple at Romulus, and consequent-time or accident, but were put into certain anderly makes it the wolf of Dionysius. His authority ground depositories called favissa.* It may be is Lucius Faunus, who, however, only says that it thought possible that the wolf had been so depositwas placed, not found, at the Ficus Ruminalis, by ed, and had been replaced in some conspicuous sitthe Comitium, by which he does not seem to allude uation when the Capitol was rebuilt by Vespasian. to the church of Saint Theodore. Rycquius was Rycquius, without mentioning his authority, tells the first to make the mistake, and Winkelmann that it was transferred from the Comitium to the followed Rycquius.

Lateran, and thence brought to the Capitol. If it Flaminius Vacca tells quite a different story, and was found near the arch of Severus, it may have says he had heard the wolf with the twins was been one of the images which Orosius t says was found tt near the arch of Septimius Severus. The thrown down in the Forum by lightning when Alacommentator on Winkelmann is of the same opin- ric took the city. That it is of very high antiquiion with that learned person, and is incensed at ty the workmanship is a decisive proof, and that Nardini for not having remarked that Cicero, in circumstance induced Winkelmann to believe it the speaking of the wolf struck with lightning in the wolf of Dionysius., The Capitolene wolf, however, Capitol, makes use of the past tense. But, with may have been of the same early date as that at the the Abate's leave, Nardini does not positively assert temple of Romulus. Lactantius I asserts that in the statue to be that mentioned by Cicero, and, if his time the Romans worshipped a wolf; and it is he had, the assumption would not perhaps have known that the Lupercalia held out to a very late been so exceedingly indiscreet. The Abate himself period § after every other observance of the ancient is obliged to own that there are marks very like the superstition had totally expired. This may account scathing of lightning in the hinder legs of the pres- for the preservation of the ancient image longer ent wolf; and, to get rid of this, adds, that the than the other early symbols of Paganism. wolf seen by Dionysius might have been also struck It may be permitted, however, to remark, that by lightning, or otherwise injured.

the wolf was a Roman symbol, but that the wor: 'Let us examine the subject by a reference to the ship of that symbol is an inference drawn by the words of Cicero. The orator in two places seems zeal of Lactantius. The early Christian writers are to particularize the Romulus and the Remus, espe- not to be trusted in the charges

which they make cially the first, which his audience remembered against the Pagans. Eusebius accused the Roto have been in the Capitol, as being struck with mans to their faces of worshipping Simon Magus, lightning. In his verses he records that the twins and raising a statue to him in the island of the Ty

ber. The Romans had probably never heard of towards the east: no mention is afterwards made of the wolf. This happened such a person before, who came, however, to play a !n A. V. C. 689. The Abate Fea, in noticing this passage of Dion (Storia considerable, though scandalous part in the church delle Arti, &c., tom. I. pag. 202, note x.) says, Non ostante, aggiunge history, and has left several tokens of his aerial Dione, che fosse ben fermata (the wolf) bos which it is clear the Abate trans combat with St. Peter at Rome; notwithstanding kated the Xylandro-Leunclavian version, which puts quamiis stabilita for the that an inscription found in this very island of the original (dupévn, a word that does not mean ben fermeta, but only raised, Tyber showed the Simon Magus of Eusebius to be as may be distinctly seen from another pausage of the same Dion: 'Hbuvah- a certain indigenal god, called Semo Sangus or θη μεν ούν και 'Αγρίππας και τον Αύγουστον ενταύθα ιδρύσαι. Fidius. Η Hist. lib. Ivi. Dion says that Agrippa "wished to raise a statue of Augustua

Even when the worship of the founder of Rome • " In eadem porticu mea lupa, cujus utseribus Romulus ac Remus lactan had been abandoned, it was thought expedient to tes inhiant, conspicitur: de hac Cicero et Virgilius semper intellexere. Livius humor the habits of the good matrons of the city hoc signum ab Ædilinus ex pecuniis quibus muletati essen fæneratores, positum by sending them with their sick infants to the innnit. Antea in Comitiis ad Ficum Ruminalem, quo loco pueri fuerant ex. church of Saint Theodore, as they had before carpositi locatum pro corto est." Lic. Fruni de Antiq. Urb. Rom. lib), li. cap. vii. ap. Sallengre, tom. I. p. 217. In his XVIlth chapter he repeats that the statues were there, bnt not that they were found there.

• Luc. Faun. Ibid. † Ap. Nardini Roma Vetus, lib. 5. cap. iv.

See note to stanza lxxx. in Historical Minstrations, * Marlinni Urb. Rom. Topograph. lib. ii. cap. ix. lig mentions another 1 "Romuli nutrix Lupa honoribus est affecta divinis, et ferrem si animal vel and twins in the Vatican, lib. v. cap. xxi.

ipsum fuisset, cujus Aguram gerit." Lactant. de Falu Religione, lib. 1. cap 6."Non desunt qui hanc ipsam esse putent, quam adpinximus, quee e xx. pag. 101, edit. varior, 1660 : that is to say, he would rather adore a voll comito in Basilicam, Lateranum, cum nonnullis aliis antiquitatum reliquiis, than a prostitute. His commentator has observed that the opinion of Liv atque hinc in Capitoliom postea relata sit, quamvis Marlianus autiquam Cap concerning Laurentia being figured in this wolf was not universal. Strabo Molinam erst maluit à Tullio descriptam, cui ut in re nimis dubia, trepidè ad thought 80. Rycquius is wrong in saying that Lactantius mention the wall ventimur.” Just. Ryequii de Caput. Roman. Comm. cap. xxiv. pag. 250, was in the Capitol. edit. Lugd. Bat. 1696.

$ To A. D. 496. “Quis credere possit,” says Baronius (Ann. Eedias | Nardini Rorna Vetus, iib. v. exp. iv.

tom. viii. p. 602, in. an. 4964), "viguisse adhuc Romæ ad Gelassi tenpera, 11 "Lupa hodieque in capitolinis pr strat sulibus, cum restigio fulminia quo quæ fuere ante exordia urbis allata in Italiam Lupercalia ?" Gelasius srots Ictam narrat Cicero." Diarium Italie. tom. I. p. 174.

letter which occupies four folio pages to Andromachus the sonator, and ** Storia delle Arti, &c., lib. iii. cap. ili, s i, note 10. Winkelmann has others, to show that the rites should be given up>. made a strange blurder in the note, by saying the Ciceronian wolf was not in | Euettus has these words: και ανδριάντι παρ' υμϊν ως θεός the Capital, and that Dion was wrong in saying so.

τετίμηται, εν τω Τιβερι ποταμώ μεταξύ των δύο γεφυρών, tt " Interi dire, che l'Ercolo di bronz), che oggi si trova nella sala di čxwv ČRuy paonu 'Pwuaï kìy taúrnu, Eltopi déw To. Campidoglio, fu trovato nel foro Romano appresso l'arco di Settimio: e vofa Eccles. Hist. lib. ll. cap. xlii. p. 40. Justin Martyr has told the story welure trovata anche la lupa di bronzo che a Unta Romolo e Remo e sta nella Loggia but Baronius himself was craiged to detect this falle. See Nardini Rock de conservatori." Flam. Vacca, Memorie, num. ill. pag. à ap. Montfaucon, Vet. lib. vü. cap. xii.

in the Pantheon."

Dlar. Ital. tom. Le

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