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VI.

the tie of marriage was less sacred in that Catholic last, and alas! posthumous son of the marriage of country, than among those nations where the laws the Doges with the Adriatic, who fought his frigate and religion admit of its being dissolved. Because with far greater gallantry than any of his French they could not break the contract, they feigned that coadjutors in the memorable action off Lissa. I it had not existed; and the ground of nullity, im- came home in the squadron with the prizes in 1811, modestly alleged by the married pair, was admitted and recollect to have heard Sir William Hoste, and with equal facility by priests and magistrates, alike the other officers engaged in that glorious conflict, corrupt. These divorces, veiled under another speak in the highest terms of Pasqualigo's behavior. name, became so frequent, that the most important There is the Abbate Morelli. There is Alvise act of civil society was discovered to be amenable Querini, who, after a long and honorable diplomatic to a tribunal of 'exceptions; and to restrain the career, finds some consolation for the wrongs of his open scandal of such proceedings became the office country, in the pursuits of literature, with his of the police. In 1782 the Council of Ten decreed, nephew, Vittar Benzon, the son of the celebrated that every woman who should sue for a dissolution beauty, the heroine of " La Biandina in Gondolet. of her marriage should be compelled to await the ta.” There are the patrician poet Morosini, and decision of the judges in some convent, to be the poet Lamberti, the author of the “ Biondina," named by the court. * Soon afterwards the same &c., and many other estimable productions; and, council summoned all causes of that nature before not least in an Englishman's estimation, Madame itself. This infringement on ecclesiastical jurisdic- Michelli, the translator of Shakspeare. There are tion having occasioned some remonstrance from the young Dandolo, and the improvisatore Carrer, Rome, the council retained only the right of reject- and 'Giuseppe Albrizzi, the accomplished son of ing the petition of the married persons, and con- an accomplished mother. There is Aglietti, and, sented to refer such causes to the holy office as it were there nothing else, there is the immortality should not previously have rejected. I

of Canova. Cicognara, Mustoxithi, Bucati, &c., * There was a moment in which, doubtless, the &c., I do not reckon, because the one is a Greek, destruction of private fortunes, the ruin of youth, and the others were born at least a hundred miles the domestic discord occasioned by these abuses, off, which, throughout Italy, constitutes, if not determined the government to depart from its a foreigner at least a stranger, (forestiere.) established maxims concerning the freedom of manners allowed the subject. All the courtesans were banished from Venice; but their absence was not enough to reclaim and bring back good morals to a whole people brought up in the most scandalous licentiousness. Depravity reached the very bosoms Extrait de l'ouvrage-Histoire littéraire d'Italie, of private families, and even into the cloister; and they found themselves obliged to recall, and even

par P. L. Ginguené, tom. ix. chap. xxxvi. p. 144,

Edition de Paris, MDCCCXIX. to indemnify $ women who sometimes gained possession of important secrets, and who might be usefully employed in the ruin of men whose fortunes si tu ne changes pas,' dit elle à cette république

“Il y une prédiction fort singulière sur Venise : might have rendered them dangerous. Since that time licentiousness has gone on increasing, and we altière, ta liberté, qui déja s'enfuit, ne comptera have seen mothers, not only selling the innocence pas un siècle après la millième année. of their daughters, but selling it by a contract, Vénitienne jusqu'à l'établissement du gouverne

“ En faisant remonter l'époque de la liberté authenticated by the signature of a public officer, and the performance of which was secured by the ment sous lequel la république a fleuri, on trouvera protection of the laws.l

que l'élection du premier Doge date de 697, et si "The parlors of the convents of noble ladies, and l'on y ajoute un siècle après mille, c'est-à-dire onze the houses of the courtesans, though the police

cents ans, on trouvera encore que le sens de la carefully kept up a number of spies about them, prédiction est littéralement celui-ci: "Ta liberté ne were the only assemblies for society in Venice; and comptera pas jusqu'à l'an 1797. Rappelez-vous in these two places, so different from each other, cinq de la République francaise, ou en 1799 ; vous

que Venise a cessé d'étre libre en l'an lantry, were not more forbidden in' the parlors than verrez qu'il n'y eut jamais de prédiction plus précise at the casinos. There were number of casinos for et plus ponctuellement suivie de l'effet. Vous notethe purpose of public assemblies, where gaming 1'Alamani, adressés à Venise, que personne pourtant

rez donc comme très remarquables ces trois vers de was the principal pursuit of the company. It was

n'a remarqués : a strange sight to see persons of either sex masked,

Se non cangi pensier, l'un secol solo or grare personages in their magisterial robes,

Non conterá sopra 'l millesimo anno round a table, invoking chance, and giving way at

Tua libertà, che va fuggendo a volo.' one instant to the agonies of despair, at the next to the illusions of hope, and that without uttering Bien des prophéties ont passé pour telles, et bien a single word.

des gens ont été appelés prophètes à meilleur “The rich had private casinos, but they lived marché.” incognito in them; and the wives whom they abandoned found compensation in the liberty they enjoyed. The corruption of morals had deprived

VII. them of their empire. We have just reviewed the whole history of Venice, and we have not once Extract from the Literary History of Italy, by P. Seen them exercise the slightest infinence."

L. Ginguénı, vol. ix. p. 144. Paris Edit. 1819. From the present decay and degeneracy of Venice under the barbarians, there are some honorable “There is one very singular prophecy concernindividual exceptions. There is Pasqualigo, the ing Venice: If thou dost not change,' it says to

that proud republic, “thy liberty, which is already • Corresponents of Mt. Schlick, French chargé d'affairca. Despatch of on the wing, will not reckon a century more than Ma Augu., 1762.

the thousandth year.' Bid. Despatch, 31st Aagust.

"If we carry back the epocha of Venetian free1 Ibid. Despruch, 30 September, 1785.

dom to the establishment of the government under The deeree for their recall designates them as nostre benemerite mere. which the republic flourishes, we shall find that the vid. A fund and some horusss called case rampane were assigned to them; date of the election of the first Doge is 697; and if bence the opprobrious appellation of Carampane.

| Mayer Descnption Tric vol. l. and M. Archenholtz, Picture or we add one century to a thousand, that is, eleven Only, vol chap. %.

hundred years, we shall find the sense of the pro

320

BYRON'S WORKS. diction to be literally this: "Thy liberty will not carefully avoided as any kind of intercourse will last till 1797.' Recollect that Venice ceased to be his countrymen,-excepting the very few who were free in the year 1796, the fifth year of the French a considerable time resident in Venice, or had been republic; and you will peceive that there never was of my previous acquaintance. Whoever made him prediction more pointed, or more exactly followed any such offer was possessed of impudence equal to by the event. You will, therefore, poté as very that of making such an assertion without having remarkable the three lines of Alamanni, addressed had it. The fact is, that I hold in utter abhorrence to Venice, which, however, no one has pointed out: any contact with the travelling English, as my

friend the Consul-General Hoppner, and the CounSe non cangi pensier, l'un secol solo

tess Benzoni, (in whose house the Conversazione Non conterà sopra, 'I millesimo anno Tua libertà, che va suggendo a volo.'

mostly frequented by them is held,) could amply

testify, were it worth while. I was persecuted by Many prophecies have passed for such, and many these tourists even to my riding-ground at Lido, men have been called prophets for much less." and reduced to the most disagreeable circuits to

avoid them. At Madame Benzoni's I repeatedly If the Doge's prophecy sem remarkable, look to the above, made by refused to be introduced to them ;-of a thousand Alamanni two hundred and suVenty years ago.

such presentations pressed upon me, I accepted two, and both were to Irish women.

I should hardly have descended to speak of such

trifles publicly, if the impudence of this “sketcher" The author of "Sketches Descriptive of Italy," had not forced me to a refutation of a disingenuous &c., one of the hundred tours lately published, is and gratuitously impertinent assertion ;-so meant extremely anxious to disclaim a possible charge of to be, for what could it import to the reader to be plagiarism from “Childe Harold” and “ Beppo.” told that the author "had repeatedly declined an He adds, that still less could this presumed coinci- introduction,” even had it been true, which, for the dence arise from "my conversation," as he had reasons I have above given, is scarcely possible. repeatedly declined an introduction to me while in Except Lords Lansdowne, Jersey, and Lauderdale; Italy:

Messrs Scott, Hammond, Sir Humphrey Davy, the Who this person may be, I know not; but he late M. Lewis, W. Bankes, Mr. Hoppner, Thomas must have been deceived by all or any of those who Moore, Lord Kinnaird, his brother, Mr. Joy, and "repeatedly offered to introduce" him, as I have Mr. Hobhouse, I do not recollect to have exchanged invariably refused to receive any English with whom a word with another Englishman since I left their I was not previously acquainted, even when they country; and almost all these I had known before. had letters from England. If the whole assertion The others—and God knows there were some hun. is not an invention, I request this person not to sit dreds—who bored me with letters or visits, I refused down with the notion that he could have been to have any communication with, and shall be proud introduced, since there has been nothing I have soland happy when that wish becomes mutual.

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Men.-FRANCIS FOSCARI, Doge of Venice.

SCENE I.
Jacopo Foscari, Son of the Doge.
JAMES LOREDANO, a Patrician.

A Hall in the Ducal Palace.
MARCO MEMMO, a Chief of the Forty.
BARBARIGO, a Senator.

Enter LOREDANO and BARBARIGO, meeting.
Other Senators, the Council of Ten, Guards, At Lor. Where is the prisoner?
tendants, &c., &c.

Bar.

Reposing from

The Question. Woman.-MARINI, Wife of young FOSCARI. Lor.

The hour's past-fix'd yesterday

For the resumption of his trial.-Let us
Scene-the Ducal Palace, Venice. Rejoin our colleagues in the council, and

Urge his recall.

That you have written in your books of commerce, Bar, Nay, let him profit by

(The wealthy practice of our highest nobles,)
A few brief minutes for his tortured limbs; "Doge Foscari, my debtor for the deaths
He was o'erwrought by the Question yesterday, Of Marco and Pietro Loredano,
And may die under it if now repeated.

My sire and uncle ? "
Lor. Well!

Lor.

It is written thus.
Bar. I yield not to you in love of justice, Bar. And will you leave unerased ?
Ot hate of the ambitious Foscari,

Lor.

Till balanced. Father and son, and all their noxious race;

Bar. And how ? But the poor wretch has suffer'd beyond nature's [Two Senators pass over the stage, as in their Most stocial endurance.

way to "the Hall of the Council of Ten." Lor. Without owning

Lor.

You see the number is complete. His crime?

Follow me.

[Exit LOREDANO. Bar. Perhaps without committing any. Bar. (solus.) Follow thee! I have follow'd long But he arow'd the letter to the Duke

Thy path of desolation, as the wave
Of Milan, and his sufferings half atone for Sweeps after that before it, alike whelming
Such weakness.

The wreck that areaks to the wild winds, and wretoka
Lor.
We shall see.

Who shrieks within its riven ribs, as gush Bar.

You, Loredano, The waters through them; but this son and sire Pursue hereditary hate too far.

Might move the elements to pause, and yet
Lor. How far?

Must I on hardily like them-Oh! would
Bar.
To extirmination.

I could as blindly and remorselessly!-
Lor.

When they are Lo, where he comes !-Be still, my heart! they are Latinct, you may say this.-Let's in to council. Thy foes, must be thy victims : wilt thou beat Bar. Yet pause-the number of our colleagues is For those who almost broke thee? not

Enter Guards, with young FOSCARI as prisoner, &c. Complete yet; two are wanting ere we can Proceed.

Guard.

Let him rest. Lor. And the chief judge, the Doge ? Signor, take time. Bar.

No-he Jac. Fos. I thank thee, friend, I'm feeble; With more than Roman fortitude, is ever

But thou may'st stand reproved. First at the board in this unhappy process

Guard.

I'll stand the hazard. Against his last and only son.

Jac. Fos. That's kind :-I meet some pity, but no Lor. True-true

mercy : His last.

This is the first. Bar. Will nothing move you?

Guard. And might be the last, did they Lor. Feels he, think you ?

Who rule behold us. Bar.

He shows it not. Bar. (advancing to the Guard.) There is one who Lor. I have mark'd that-the wretch !

does :
Bar. But yesterday, I hear, on his return Yet fear not; I will neither be thy judge
To the ducal chambers, as he pass'd the threshold, Nor thy accuser ; though the hour is past,
The old man fainted.

Wait their last summons, I am of “the Ten," Lor.

It begins to work, then. And waiting for that summons, sanction you Bar. The work is half your own.

Even by my presence: when the last call sounde, Lor.

And should be all mine-We'll in together.-Look well to the prisoner! My father and my itncle are no more.

Jac. Fos. What voice is that ?-'Tis Barbarigo's Bar. I have read their epitaph, which says they

Ah! died

Our house's foe, and one of my few judges. By poison.

Bar. To balance such a foe, if such there.be, Lor. When the Doge declared that he Thy father sits among thy judges. Should never deem himself a sovereign till

Jac. Fos.

True
The death of Peter Loredano, both

He judges.
The brothers sicken'd shortly ;-he is sovereign. Bar. Then deem not the laws too harsh
Bar. A wretched one.

Which yield so much indulgence to a sire
Lor.

What should they be who make As to allow his voice in such high matter
Orphans ?

As the state's safety
Bar.
But did the Doge make you so ?

Jac. Fos.

And his son's. I'm faint;

Yes. Let me approach, I pray you, for a breath Bar. What solid proofs ?

Of air, yon window which o'erlooks the waters. Lor.

When princes set themselves l'o work in secret, proofs and process are

Enter an Officer who whispers BARBARIGO. Alike made difficult; but I have such

Bar. (to the Guard.) Let him approach. I must Of the first, as shall make the second needless.

not speak with him Bar. But you will move by law?

Further than thus; I have transgress'd my duty

By all the laws In this brief parley, and must now redeem it Which he would leave us.

Within the Council Chamber. (Exit BARBARIGO Bar.

They are such in this Our state as render retribution easier

[Guard conducting JACOPO FOSCARI to the windore Than mongst remoter nations. It is true

Guard.

There, sir, 'tis

Lor.

Lor

me,

Open-How feel you ?

Guard.

Signor, you hear the order. Jac. Fos.

Like a boy--Oh Venice ! Jac. Fos. Ay, I am used to such a summons: 'tis Guard. And your limbs ?

The third time they have tortur'd me :-then lend me Jac. Fos. Limbs! how often have they borne me Thine arm.

[To the Guard. Bounding o'er yon blue tide, as I have skimm'd Offi. Take mine, sir ; 'tis my duty to The gondola along in childish race,

Be nearest to your person. And, masqued as a young gondolier, amidst

Jac. Fos.

You !-you are he
My gay competitors, noble as I,

Who yesterday presided o'er my pangs-
Raced for our pleasure, in the pride of strength; Away! I'll walk alone.
While the fair populace of crowding beauties, Offi.

As you please, signor: Plebeian as patrician, cheer'd us on

The sentence was not of my signing, but With dazzling smiles, and wishes audible, I dared not disobey the Council when And waving kerchiefs, and applauding hands, TheyEven to the goal !-How many a time have I Jac. Fos. Bade thee stretch me on their hcrrid Cloven with arm still lustier, breast more daring,

engine. The wave all roughen'd; with a swimmer's stroke I pray thee touch me not—that is, just now; Flinging the billows back from my drench'd hair, The time will come they will renew that order, And laughing from my lip the audacious brine, But keep off from me till 'tis issued. As Which kiss'd it like a wine-cup, rising o'er I look upon thy hands my curdling limbs The waves as they arose, and pronder still

Quiver with the anticipated wrenching, The loftier they uplifted me; and oft,

And the cold drops strain through my brow, as if In wantonness of spirit, plunging down

But onward--I have borne it-I can hear it.-
Into their green and glassy gulfs, and making How looks my father ?
My way to shells and sca-weed, all unseen

Offi.

With his wonted aspect. By those above, till they wax'd fearful; then Jac. Fos. So does the earth, and sky, the blue of Returning with my grasp full of such tokens

ocean, As show'd that I had search'd the decp: exulting, The brightness of our city, and her domes. With a far-dashing stroke, and drawing deep The mirth of her Piazzi, even now The long-suspended brcath, again I spurn'd Its merry hum of nations pierces here, The foam which broke around and pursued Even here, into these chambers of the unknown My track like a sea-bird.— I was a boy then. Who govern, and the unknown and the unnumber'd

Guard. Be a man now: there never was more need Judged and destroy'd in silence,-all things wear Of manhood's strength.

The self-same aspect, to my very sire! Jac. Fos. (looking from the lattice.) My beautiful, Nothing can sympathize with Foscari, my own,

Not even a Foscari. -Sir, I attend you. My only Venice this is breath! Thy breeze,

[E.ceunt Jacopo FOSCARI, Officer, de Thine Adrian sea-breeze, how it fans my face ! The very winds fecl native to my veins,

Enter MEMMO and another Senator.
And cool them into calmness! How unlike
The hot gales of the horrid Cyclades,

Mem. He's gone we are too late :-think you Which howlid about my Candiote dungeon, and

" the Ten ” Made my heart sick.

Will sit for any length of time to-day?
Guard.
I see the color comes

Sen. They say the prisoner is most obdurate Back to your cheek: Heaven send you strength to Persisting in his first avowal; but bear

More I know not.
What more may be imposed !-I dread to think on't. Mem. And that is much; the secrets
Jac. Fos. They will not banish me again ?-No- of yon terrific chamber are as hidden
no,

From us, the premier nobles of the state,
Let them wring on; I am strong yet.

As from the people. Guard.

Confess, Sen.

Save the wonted rumors, And the rack will be spared you.

Which (like the tales of spectres that are rife Jac. Fos.

I confess'd Near ruin'd buildings) never have been proved, Once-twice before: both times they exiled me. Nor wholly disbelieved: men know as little

Guard. And the third time will slay you. of the state's real acts as of the grave's
Jac. Fos.

Let them do so, Unfathom'd mysteries.
So I be buried in my birthplace: better

Mem.

But with length of time Be ashes here than aught that lives elsewhere. We gain a step in knowledge, and I look Guard. And can you so much love the soil which Forward to be one day of the decemvirs. hates you?

Sen. Or Doge? Jac. Fos. The soil !-Oh no, it is the seed of the Mem.

Why, no; not if I can avoid it. soil

Sen. 'Tis the first station of the state, and may Which persecutes me; but my native earth Be lawfully desired, and lawfully Will take me as a mother to her arms.

Attain'd by noble aspirants. I ask no more than a Venetian grave,

Mem.

To such
Adungeon, what they will, so it be here. I leave it; though born noble, my ambition

Is limited : I'd rather be an unit
Enter an Officer.

of an united and imperial " Ten,”

Than shine a lonely, though a gilded cypher. Of. Bring in the prisoner !

Whom have we bere ? the wife of Foscari?

Enter MARINA, with a female Attendant. Left barren the great house of Foscari, Har. What, no one ?-I am wrong, there still are Though they sweep both the Doge and son from two;

life; But they are senators.

I have endured as much in giving life
Mem.
Most noble lady,

To those who will succeed them, as they can
Command us.

In leaving it: but mine were joyful pangs; Mar. I command !- Alas! my life

And yet they wrung me till I could have shrick'd, Has been one long entreaty, and a vain one. But did not, for my hope was to bring forth Mem. I understand thee, but I must not answer. Heroes, and would not welcome them with tears. Mar. (fiercely.) True-none dare answer here save Mem. All's silent now. on the rack,

Mar.

Perhaps all's over; but Or Question, save those

I will not deem it: he hath nerved himself, Mem. (interrupting her.) High-born dame! be- And now defies them.

think thee Where thou now art.

Enter an Officer hastily.
Var.
Where I now am !-It was Mem.

How now, friend, what seek you! My husband's father's palace.

Offi. A leech. The prisoner has fainted.
Mem.
The Duke's palace.

[Exit Officer Mar. And his son's prison ;-true, I have not for- Mem.

Lady, got it;

'Twere better to retire. And if there were no other nearer, bitterer

Sen. (offering to assist her.) I pray thee do so. Remembrances, would thank the illustrious Memmo Mar. Off! I will tend him. For pointing out the pleasures of the place.

Mem.

You ! Remember, lady! Mem. Be calm!

Ingress is given to none within those chambers, Mar. (looking up toroards heaven.) I am; but Except “the Ten," and their familiars. oh, thou eternal God!

Mar.

Well, Canst thou continue so, with such a world ? I know that none who enter there return

Mem. Thy husband yet may be absolved. As they have enter'd-many never; but
Mar.

He is, They shall not balk my entrance.
In heaven. I pray you, signor senator,

Mem.

Alas! this Speak not of that; you are a man of office, Is but to expose yourself to harsh repulse, So is the Doge; he has a son at stake

And worse suspense. Now, at this moment, and I have a husband,

Mar.

Who shall oppose me? Or had ; they are there within, or were at least Mem.

They An hour since, face to face, as judge and culprit ; Whose duty 'tis to do so. Will he condemn him!

Mar.

'Tis their duty
Mem.
I trust not.

To trample on all human feelings, all
But if

Ties which bind man to man, to emulate
He does not, there are those will sentence both. The fiends, who will one day requite them in
Vem. They can.

Variety of torturing! Yet I'll pass.
And with them power and will are one Mem. It is impossible.
In wickedness :-my husband's lost !

Mar.

That shall be tried Mem.

Not so; Despair defies even despotism : there is Justice is judge in Venice.

That in my heart would make its way through hosta Mar. If it were so,

With levell'd spears; and think you a few jailers There now would be no Venice. But lett Shall put me from my path? Give me, then, way, Live on, so the good die not, till the hour This is the Doge's palace; I am wife Of nature's summons; but “the Ten's " is quicker, of the Duke's son, the innocent Duke's son, And we must wait on't. Ah! a voice of wail ! And they shall hear this! (A faint cry within. Mem.

It will only serve Sen. Hark

More to exasperate his judges. Mem. 'Twas a cry of

Mar.

What Mar.

No, no; not my husband's-Are judges who give way to anger ? they Not Foscari's.

Who do so are assassins. Give me way, Mean. The voice was

[Exit MARINA. Mar.

Not his : no.

Sen. Poor lady! He shriek! No; that should be his father's part,

Mem.

'Tis mere desperation; she Not his-not his--he'll die in silence.

Will not be admitted o'er the threshold. [A faint groan again within. Sen.

And Mem

What! Even if she be so, cannot save her husband. Again?

But, see, the officer returns. Mar. His voice! it seem'd so: I will not [The Officer passes over the stage with another person. Believe it. Should he shrink, I cannot cease

Mem.

I hardly To love; but-10-10-10-it must have been Thought that “the Ten" had even this touch of pity A fearful pang, which wrung a groan from him. Or would permit assistance to the sufferer. Sen. And, feeling for thy husband's wrongs, Sen. Pity! Is't pity to recall to feeling wouldst thou

The wretch too happy to escape to death Have him bear more than mortal pain, in silence ? By the compassionate trance, poor nature's last

Mar. We all must bear our tortures. I have not'Resource against the tyranny of pain ?

Mar.

Mar.

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