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ried them to the temple of Romulus.* The practice and willing to abandon both his empire and his misis continued to this day; and the site of the above tress for a sight of the Fountains of the Nile. Such church seems to be thereby identified with that of did Julius Cæsar appear to his cotemporaries and to the temple; so that if the wolf had been really those of the subsequent ages, who were the most found there, as Winkelmann says, there would be inclined to deplore and execrate his fatal genius. no doubt of the present statue being that seen by But we must not be so much dazzled with his Dionysius. But Faunus, in saying that it was surpassing glory, or with his magnanimous, his at the Ficus Ruminalis by the Comitium, is only amiable qualities, as to forget the decision of his talking of its ancient position as recorded by Pliny; impartial countrymen : and even if he had been remarking where it was

HE WAS JUSTLY SLAIN. found, would not have alluded to the church of Saint Theodore, but to a very different place, near which it was then thought the Ficus Ruminalis

48. had been, and also the Comitium; that is, the three What from this barren being do we reap! columns by the church of Santa Maria Liberatrice, Our senses narrow, and our reason frail. at the corner of the Palatine looking on the Forum.

Stanza xcii. lines 1 and 2. It is, in fact, a mere conjecture where the image was actually dug up, I and perhaps, on the whole, nihil percepi, nihil sciri posse dixerunt; angustos

omnes pene veteres; qui nihil cognosci, the marks of the gilding, and of the lightning, are sensus; imbecillos animos, brevia curricula vitæ; in a better argument in favor of its being the Cicero- profundo veritatem demersam ; opinionibus et instinian wolf than any that can be adduced for the con- tutis omnia teneri; nihil veritati relinqui: deinceps trary opinion. At any rate, it is reasonably selected omnia tenebris circumfusa esse dixerunt.” † The for the text of the poem as one of the most inte- eighteen hundred years which have elapsed since resting relics of the ancient city, f, and is certainly Cicero wrote this have not removed any of the imthe figure, if not the very animal to which Virgil perfections of humanity: and the complaints of the allades in his beautiful verses ;

ancient philosophers may, without injustice or affec"Geminos huic ubera circum

tation, be transcribed in a poem written yesterday. Ladere pendentes pueros, et lambore matrem Impavidos : illam tereti cervice refexam

49. Mulcere alternos, et corpora fingere lingua." I

There is a stern round tower of other days.

Stanza xcix. line 1. 47. For the Roman's mind

Alluding to the tomb of Cecilia Metella, called Was modell'd in a less terrestrial mould.

Cape di Bove, in the Appian Way. See Historical

Illustrations of the IVth Canto of Childe Harold. Stanza xc. lines 3 and 4. It is possible to be a very great man, and to be

50. still very inferior to Julius Cæsar, the most complete character, so Lord Bacon thought, of all antiquity.

Prophetic of the doom Nature seems incapable of such extraordinary com

Heaven gires its favorites-early death. binations as composed his versatile capacity, which

Stanza cii. lines 5 and 6. was the wonder even of the Romans themselves. "Ον οι θεοί φιλoύσιν, αποθνήσκει νέος. The first general—the only triumphant politician, Το γαρ θανείν ουκ αισχρόν αλλ' αισχρώς θανείν. . inferior to none in eloquence-comparable to any in

Rich. Franc. Phil. Brunck. Poeta the attainments of wisdom, in an age made up of Gnomiei, p. 231, edit. 1784. the greatest commanders, statesmen, orators, and philosophers, that ever appeared in the world-an

51. author who composed a perfect specimen of military annals in his travelling carriage-at one time in a Behold the Imperial Mount !'tis thus the mighty falls. controversy with Cato, at another writing a treatise

Stanza cvii. line 9. on punning, and collecting a set of good sayings The Palatine is one mass of ruins, particularly on fighting and making love at the same moment, the side towards the Circus Maximus. The very

soil is formed of crumbled brick-work. Nothing • " lo con gli antichi pontefici per toglier la memoria de' giuochi Luper has been told, nothing can be told, to satisfy the Well istituiti in onore di Ranolo, introdusero l'uso di portarvi Bambini belief of any but a Roman antiquary. See Hístoropproaci da inferinità deculte, accid ei liberino per l'intercessione di questo ical Illustrations, page 206. Santo, come di continuo di sperimenta." Rione xii. Ripa accurata e succincta descrizione, &c., di Roma Moderna dell' Ab. Ridolf, Venuti, 1766.

52. 1 Nardini, lih. y. cap. 11, convicts Pomponius Lætus crassi erroris, in putting the Rurninal fig-tree at the church of Sunt Theodore: but as Livy

There is the moral of all human tales : saya the wolf was at the Ficus Ruminalia, and Dionysius at the temple of 'Tis but the same rehearsal of the past, Romales, be is obliged (cap. iv.) to own that the two were close together, as First Freedom, and then Glory, ģć. well as the Lapercal cave, shadod, us it were, by the fig tree.

Stanza cviii. lines 1, 2, and 3. 1" Ad comitium ficus olim Ruminalis germinaht, sub qua lupe rumam, hoc est, mammam, docente Varroue, suxerant olim Roroulus et Remus; non The author of the Life of Cicero, speaking of tho procul a templo hodie D. Marise Literatricis appellato ubi foraan inventa 10- opinion entertained of Britain by that orator and kos la ænea statua lupe gemines puerulos lactantis

, quam hodie in capitolio his cotemporary Romans, has the following eloquent Vilamas." Ol Borrichii Antiqna Vrtás Romanæ Facies, cap. 1. See also tap. zii. Borrichius wrote after Nardini in 1687, Ap. Græv. Antiq. Rom.

"Sic velue in tuta socuri pace trahebant bom, ir. p. 1522

Noctis iter medium," $ Donatus, lb. xi. cap. 18, gives a medial representing on one side the wolf a tie sarne position as that in the Capitol; and in the reverse the wolf with Immediately afterwards, he is fighting again and defending every peition Wee bead not reverted. It is of the time of Antoninus Pius.

“ Sed avdext defensor tibique En, väl. 631. See Dr. Middleton, in his letter from Rome, who in

Cæsar et hos aditus gladiis, hos ignibus arcet
Etses to the Ciceronian wolf, but without examining the snbject.
In his tanth book, Lucan shows him sprinkled with the blood of Pharsalia

Insilift Cresar semper feliciter 0508 the arms of Cleopatra,

Præcipiti curru bellorum et tempore rapto."
Sanguine Thessalicse cladis perfusius adulter

• "Jure C#x018 existimetur," mys Seutonics, after a fair estination of hila Admisit Venerem curis, et miscuit armis.

character, and making nee of a phrase which was a formula in Livy's time. Alter forsting with his mistress, he site up all night 2 Converse with the . Melium jure caesum propuntiavit

, etiam si regui erimine insona sueri," Lopptian sages, a.ad tells Achoreus,

[lib. iv. cap. 48,) and which was continued in the legal judginents pro

nounced in Justifiable homicides, such as killing housebreakers. See Buetoo Spea sit mihi certa videndi

in vit. C. J. Cesar, with the commentary of Pidacus, p. 184 Nliacos fontes, bellum civile relinquarto

Academ 1, 13.

Ceca nocte carini

passage: "From their railleries of this kind, on the

56. barbarity and misery of our island, one cannot help

Egeria! sweet creation of some heart reflecting on the surprising fate and revolutions of kingdoms; how Rome, once the mistress of the

Which found no mortalresting-place so fair

As thine ideal breast. world, the seat of arts, empire, and glory, now lies sunk in sloth, ignorance, and poverty, enslaved to

Stanza cxv. lines 1, 2, and 3. the most cruel as well as the most contemptible of

The respectable authority of Flaminius Vaccs tyrants, superstition, and religious imposture: would incline us to believe in the claims of the Ege while this remote country, anciently the jest and rian grotto.* He assures us that he saw an inscrip contempt of the polite Romans, is become the hap-tion in the pavement, stating that the fountain was py seat of liberty, plenty, and letters ; flourishing that of Egeria, dedicated to the nymphs. The inin all the arts and refinements of civil life ; yet scription is not there at this day but Montfaucon running perhaps the same course which Rome'it-quotes two lines † of Ovid from a stone in the Villa self had run before it, from virtuous industry to Giustiniani, which he seems to think had been wealth; from wealth to luxury; from luxury to an brought from the same grotto. impatience of discipline, and corruption of morals; This grotto and valley were formerly frequented till, by a total degeneracy and loss of virtue, being in summer, and particularly the first Sunday in May, grown ripe for destruction,

it fall a prey at last to by the modern Romans, who attached a salubrious some hardy oppressor, and, with the loss of liber-quality to the fountain which trickles from an ority, losing everything that is valuable, sinks gradu- fice at the bottom of the vault, and, overflowing the ally again into its original barbarism."*

little pools, creeps down the matted grass into the

brook" below. The brook is the Ovidian Almo, 53.

whose name and qualities are lost in the modern

Aquataccio. The valley itself is called Valle di And apostolic statues climb Caffarelli, from the dukes of that name who made To crush the imperial urn, whose ashes slept sublime. over their fountain to the Pallavicini, with sixty

Stanza cx. lines 8 and 9. rubbia of adjoining land. The column of Trajan is surmounted by St. Peter ;

There can be little doubt that this long dell is the that of Aurelius by St. Paul. See Historical Illus- Egerian valley of Juvenal, and the pausing place of trations of the IVth Canto, &c.

Umbritus, notwithstanding the generality of his commentators have supposed the descent of the sat

irist and his friend to have been into the Arician 54.

grove, where the nymph met Hippolitus, and where Still we Trajan's name adore.

she was more peculiarly worshipped.

Stanza cxi. line 9. The step from the Porta Capena to the Alban Trajan was proverbially the best of the Roman hill, fifteen miles distant, would be too consideraprinces; † and it would be easier to find a sovereign ble, unless we were to believe in the wild conjecture aniting exactly the opposite characteristics, than of Vossius, who makes that gate travel from its one possessed of all the happy qualities ascribed to present station, where he pretends it was during the this emperor. “When he mounted the throne," reign of the kings, as far as the Arician grove, and says the historian Dion, I "he was strong in body, then makes it recede to its old site within the he was vigorous in mind; age had impaired none of shrinking city. I The tufo, or pumice, which the his faculties; he was altogether free from envy and poet prefers to marble, is the substance composing from detraction; he honored all the

good, and he the bank in which the grotto is sunk. advanced them; and on this account they could not

The modern topographers $ find in the grotto the be the objects of his fear, or of his hate; he never and a late traveller || has discovered that the care

statue of the nymph and nine niches for the Muses, listened to informers; he gave not way to his anger : is restored to that simplicity which the poet rehe abstained equally from unfair exactions and unjust punishments; he had rather be loved as a man gretted had been exchanged for injudicious ornathan honored as a sovereign; he was affable with ment. But the headless statue is palpably rather a his people, respectful to the senate, and universally

male than a nymph, and has none of the attributes beloved by both; he inspired none with dread but ascribed to it at present visible. The nine Muses the enemies of his country.

could hardly have stood in six niches; and Juvenal

certainly does not allude to any individual cave. S 55.

• “Poco lontano dal detto luogo si scende ad un casaletto, del qualen Rienzi, last of Romans.

sono Padroui li Cafarelli, che con questo nome è chiamato il luogo; vi è usa

Stanza cxiv. line 5. fontana solto una gran volta antica, che al presente si gode, e li Roman vi The name and exploits of Rienzi must be famil- essere quella la fonte di Egeria, dedicata alle ninfe, è questa dice l'epitafis

vanno l'estate a ricrearsi ; nel pavimento di essa fonte si legge in un epitafiə iar to the reader of Gibbon. Some details and ined- essere la medesima fonte in cui fu convertita." Memorie, &c., ap. Nartial, ited manuscripts relative to this unhappy hero will png. 13. He does not give the inscription. be seen in the Illustrations to the IV th Canto.

† "In villa Justiniana extat ingens lapis quadratus solidua in quo multa

hæc duo Ovidi carmina sunt: • The History of the Life of M. Tullius Cicero, sect. vi. vol. i. p. 102.

Ægeria est quæ præbet aquas dea grata Camænis The contrast has been reversed in a late extraordinary Instance. A gentle

Ila Numæ conjunx consiliumque fuit. man was thrown into prison at Paris; effor were made for his release. The Qui lapis videtur ex eodem feriæ fonte, aut ejus vicinia isthuc comportatus." French minister continued to detain him, under the pretence that he was not Diarium Italic. p. 153. an Englishman, but only a Roman. See "loteresting Facts relating to De Magnit. Vet. Rom, ap. Græv. Ant. Rom. tom. lv. P. 1507. Joachim Murat,"

$ Echinard, Descrizione di Roma e dell'agro Romano, corretto dall' Abait "Hujus tantum memoriæ delatum est, ut, usque ad nostram ætatem Venuti, in Roma, 1750. They believe in the grotto and nymph. "Scene non aliter in Senatu principibus acclamatur, nisi, FELICIOR. AVGVSTO.cro di questo fonte, essendovi sculpite le acque a pie di esso." MELIOR. TRAJANO," Eutrop. Brev. Hist. Rom. lib. vill. cap. v. 1 Classical Tour, chap. vi. p. 217, vol. i. ! Τώ τε γάρ σώματι έρθωτο......και τη ψυχή ήκμαζεν, "Substitit ad veteres arcus, madidamque Capenam, ως μήθ' υπό γήρως αμβλύνεσθει......και ούτ' εφθάνει ούτε Hic ubi nocturna Numa constituebat amicre. καθήρει τινά, αλλά και πάνυ πάντας τους αγαθούς ετίμα και Nunc sacri fontis nemus, et delubra locantur έμεγάλυνε και διά τούτο ούτε έφοβείτο τίνα αυτών, ούτε Judæis qnorum cophinum foarque supellex. εμίσει......διαβολαίς τε ήκιστα επιστεύε, και οργή ήκιστα Omnis enim populo mercadern pendere jusea est έδoυλούτο των τε χρημάτων των άλλωτρίων ίσα και φόνων Arbor, et ejectis mendicat silva Camænis. των αδίκων απείχετο......φιλούμενός τε ούν επ' αυτούς In vallem Egeris descendimus, et speluncas μάλλον ή τιμώμενος έχαιρε, και τώ τε δήμο μετ' επιείκειας Dissimiles veres: quanto praestantius esset συνεγίνετο, και τη χαρουσία σεμνπορεπώς ωμίλει αγαπητός Nunen aquæ, viridi si margine clauderet undas μεν πάσι φοβερός δε μηδενί, πλην πολεμίοις ών. Ηist. Rom. 15. Herba, nec ingeuuun violarent marmora tophum.' Levit. p. vl et vii. tom. li. p. 1123, 1124, edit. Hamb. 1750.

Sat, 111.

[graphic]

pag. 139.

Nothing can be collected from the satirist but that not thus that our fathers maintained it in the brill-
somewhere near the Porta Capena was a spot in iant periods of our history. Prejudice may be
which it was supposed Numa held nightly consulta- trusted to guard the outworks for a short space of
tions with his nymph, and where there was a grove time while reason slumbers in the citadel; but if
and a sacred fountain, and fanes once consecrated the latter sink into a lethargy, the former will
to the Muses; and that from this spot there was a quickly erect a standard for herself. Philosophy,
descent into the valley of Egeria, where were sev- wisdom and liberty, support each other; he who
eral artificial caves. It is clear that the statues of will not reason is a bigot; he who cannot, is a fool;
the Mases made no part of the decoration which and he who dares not, is a slave.” Preface, p. xiv
the satirist thought misplaced in these caves; for he xv. vol. i. 1805.
expressly assigns other fanes (delubra) to these di-

58.
rinities above the valley, and moreover tells us
that they had been ejected to make room for the

Great Nemesis !
Jews. In fact, the little temple, now called that of Here, where the ancient paid thee homage long.
Bacchus, was formerly thought to belong to the

Stanza cxxxii, lines 2 and 3.
Muscs, and Nardini* places them in a poplar

We read in Suetonius, that Augustus, from a grove, which was in his time above the valley. It is probable, from the inscription and position, a year, the beggar, sitting before the gate of his

warning received in a dream, counterfeited, once that the cave now shown may be one of the arti- palace with his hand hollowed and stretched out for ficial caverns,” of which, indeed, there is another a charity. A statue formerly in the Villa Borghese, little way higher up the valley, under a tuft of alder and which should be now at Paris, represents the bushes: but a single grotto of Egeria is a mere mod- Emperor in that posture of supplication. The obern invention, grafted upon the application of the ject of this self degradation was the appeasement epithet Egerian to these nymphea in general, and of Nemesis, the perpetual attendant on good forwhich might send us to look for the haunts of Numa tune, of whose power the Roman conquerors were upon the banks of the Thames. Our English Juvenal was not seduced into mis- cars of triumph. The symbols were the whip and

also reminded by certain symbols attached to their translation by his acquaintance with Pope: he care- the crotalo, which were discovered in the Nemesis fully preserves the correct plural

of the Vatican. The attitude of beggary made the " Thence slowly winding down the vale, we vier

above statue pass for that of Belisarius: and until The Egerian grots ; oh, how unlike the true.

the criticism of Winkelmann † had rectified the

mistake, one fiction was called in to support another. The valley abounds with springs, and over It was the same fear of the sudden termination of these springs, which the Muses might haunt from prosperity that made Amasis, king of Egypt, warn their neighboring groves, Egeria presided; hence his friend Polycrates of Samos,

that the gods loved she was said to supply them with water; and she those whose lives were checkered with good and was the nymph of the grottos through which the evil fortunes. Nemesis was supposed to lie in wait fountains were tanght to flow.

particularly for the prudent; that is, for those whose The whole of the monuments in the vicinity of caution rendered them accessible only to mere accithe Egerian valley have received names at will, dents: and her first altar was raised on the banks which have been changed at will. Venuti I owns of the Phrygian Æsepus by Adrastus, probably the he can see no traces of the temples of Jove, Saturn, prince of that name who killed the son of Crosus Juno, Venus, and Diana, which Nardini found, or by mistake. Hence the goddess was called Adrashoped to find. The mutatorium of Caracalla's cir-tea. cus, the temple of Honor and Virtue, the temple of The Roman Nemesis was sacred and august. Bacehus, and, above all, the temple of the god Redi- there was a temple to her in the Palatine under the culus, are the antiquaries' despair.

name of Rhamnusia : $ so great indeed was the The circus of Caracalla depends on a medal of propensity of the ancients to trust to the revolution that emperor cited by Fulvius Ursinus, of which the of events, and to believe in the divinity of Fortune, reverse shows a circus, supposed, however, by some that in the same Palatine there was a temple to the to represent the Circus Maximus. It gives a very Fortune of the day... This is the last superstition good idea of that place of exercise. The soil has which retains its hold over the human heart; and been but little raised, if we may judge from the from concentrating in one object the credulity so small cellular structure at the end of the Spina, natural to man, has always appeared strongest in which was probably the chapel of the god Comus. those unembarrassed by other articles of belief. This cell is half beneath the soil, as it must have The antiquaries have supposed this goddess to be been in the circus itself, for Dionysius ș could not synonymous with Fortune and with Fate; 1 but it be persuaded to believe that this diviníty was the was in her vindictive quality that she was worshipRoman Neptune, because his altar was under ped under the name of Nemesis. ground. 57.

. Srecon. in Vit, Augusti, cap. 91. Cassaubon, in the note, refers to Plu

tarch's Lives of Camillug and Æmilius Paulus, and also to his apothegms Yet let us ponder boldly.

for the character of this deity. The hollowed hand was reckoned the las Stanza cxxvii. line 1.

degree of degrodation; and when the dead boily of the præfect Rufinus was "At all events," says the author of the Academi-borne about in triumph by the people, the indignity was increased by putting of my own speculations, that philosophy will regain statue, however, a Cytele. It is given in the Museo Pio-Clement, tom. i. par. cal Questions, "I trust , whatever may be the fate his hand in that position.

† Storia delle Arti, &c., lib. xii. cap. ui. tom. ii. p 422. Visconti calls the
that estimation which it ought to possess. The 40. The Alate Fea (Spiegazione dei Rami. Storia, &c.; tom. ii. p. 513), calle
free and philosophic spirit of our nation has been it a Chrisippus.
the theme of admiration to the world. This was 1 Dict. de Bayle, Article Adrastea.
the proud distinction of Englishmen, and the lumi- $ It is enumerated by the regionary Victor.
nous source of all their glory. Shall we then for-

| Fortunæ hujusce diei. Cicero mentions hex. de Legib. lib. ll.
get the many and dignised sentiments of our an-
cestors, to prate in the language of the mother or
the nurse about our good old prejudices? This is
not the way to defend the cause of truth. It was

V. C. LEGAT.

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DEAE NEMESI
SIVE FORTUNAE

PISTORIVS
RVGIANYS

LEG. X111. G.

CORD.

. LIB. Il. cap. li.

"Undique e solo aqus scaturiunt." Nardini, Ib. ll. cap.

Echioard. &c., Cic. cit. p. 297, 298.
Slatig. Rom. lib. ii. cap. xxxi.

See Questiones Romane, &c., ap. Græv. Antiq. Roman. tom. v. p. 948. See alvo Muratori, Nov. Thesaur. Inscrip. Vet. tom. I. p. 88, 89, where there are threc Latin and one Greek lascription to Nemesis, and others to Fate.

59.

credibly attached to these games, gave instant or. I see before me the Gladiator lie.

ders to the gladiators to slay him; and Telemachus Stanza cxl. line 1.

gained the crown of martyrdom, and the title of

saint, which surely has never either before or since Wiether tne wonderful statue which suggested been awarded for a more noble exploit. Honorius this image be a laquearian gladiator, which, in spite immediately abolished the shows, which were never of Winkelmann's criticism has been stoutly main- afterwards revived. The story is told by Theodore → tained, or whether it be a Greek herald, as that and Cassiodorus, & and seems worthy of credit not great antiquary positively asserted,+ or whether it withstanding its place in the Roman martyrology: $ is to be thought a Spartan or barbarian shield - Besides the torrents of blood which flowed at the bearer, according to the opinion of his Italian edit- funerals, in the amphitheatres, the circus, the forums, or, it must assuredly seem a copy of that master- and other public places, gladiators were introduced piece of Ctesilaus which represented “a wounded at feasts, and tore each other to pieces amidst the man dying who perfectly expressed what there re- supper tables, to the great delight and applause of mained of life in him." $ Montfaucon || and Maf- the guests. Yet Lipsius permits himself to supfei thought it the identical statue; but that pose the loss of courage, and the evident degenerastatue was of bronze. The gladiator was once in y.of mankind, to be nearly connected with the abothe villa Ludovizi, and was bought by Clement XII. lítion of these bloody spectacles. Il The right arm is an entire restoration of Michael Angelo.

61. 60.

Here, where the Roman million's blame or praise

Was death or life, the playthings of a crorod.
He, their sire,

Stanza cxlii. lines 5 and 6.
Butcher'd to make a Roman holiday.
Stanza cxli. lines 6 and 7.

When one gladiator wounded another, he shout

ed, he has it," "hoc habet,” or “habet.” The Gladiators were of two kinds, compelled and vol- wounded combatant dropped his weapon, and aduntary; and were supplied from several conditions: vancing to the edge of the arena, supplicated the from slaves sold for that purpose; from culprits ; spectators. If he had fought well, the people saved from barbarian captives either taken in war, and, him; if otherwise, or as they happened to be inafter being led in triumph, set apart for the games, clined, they turned down their thumbs, and he was or those seized and condemned as rebels; also from slain. They were occasionally so savage that they free citizens, some fighting for hire (auctorati), were impatient if a combat lasted longer than ordiothers from a depraved ambition: at last even nary without wounds or death. The emperor's knights and senators were exhibited, a disgrace of presence generally saved the vanquished; and it is which the first tyrant was naturally the first in- recorded as an instance of Caracalla's ferocity, that ventor.tt In the end, dwarfs, and even women, he sent those who supplicated him for life, in a fought; an enormity prohibited by Severus. Of spectacle at Nicomedia, to ask the people; in other these the most to be pitied, undoubtedly, were the words, handed them over to be slain. A similar barbarian captives; and to this species a Christian ceremony is observed at the Spanish bull-fights. writer II justly applies the epithet “ innocent,” The magistrate presides; and after the horsemen to distinguish them from the professional gladiators. and piccadores have fought the bull, the matadore Aurelian and Claudius supplied great numbers of steps forward and bows to him for permission to these unfortunate victims ; the one after his tri- kill the animal. If the bull has done his duty by umph, and the other on the pretext of a rebellion.98 killing two or three horses, or a man, which last is No war, says Lipsius,|||| was ever so destructive to rare, the people interfere with shouts, the ladies the human race as these sports. In spite of the wave their handkerchiefs, and the animal is saved. laws of Constantine and Constans, gladiatorial The wounds and death of the horses are accompashows survived the old established religion more nied with the loudest acclamations, and many gesthan seventy years; but they owed their final ex- tures of delight, especially from the female portion tinction to the courage of a Christian. In the year of the audience, including those of the gentlest 404, on the kalends of January, they were exhibit-blood. Everything depends on habit. The author ing the shows in the Flavian amphitheatre before of Childe Harold, the writer of this note, and one the usual immense concourse of people. Almachius or two other Englishmen, who have certainly in or Telemachus, an eastern monk, who had travelled other days borne the sight of a pitched battle, were, to Rome intent on his holy purpose, rushed into during the summer of 1809, in the governor's box the midst of the arena, and endeavored to separate at the great amphitheatre of Santa Maria, opposite the combatants. The prætor Alypius, a person in- to Cadiz. The death of one or two horses com

pletely satisfied their curiosity. A gentleman

present, observing them shudder and look pale, ne• By the Abate Bracti, disertazione supra un clipeo rotivo, &c. Preface, ticed that unusual reception of so delightful a sport pag. 7, who accounts for the cord round the neck, brit not for the horn, which it to some young ladies, who stared and smiled, and Wes not appear the gladiators themselves ever used. Note A, Storia delle continued their applauses as another horse fell Arti, tom. ii. p. 205.

1 Elther Polifontes, herald of Latus, killed by Edipus; or Cepress, berald bleeding to the ground. One bull killed three • Euritheus, kiled by the Athenians when he endeuvored ta drag the Hera-horses off his own horns. He was saved by acclaelidæ from the altar of mercy, and in whose honor they mustused annual mations, which were redoubled when it was known

to the time of Hadrian; or Anthemocrian, the Athenian|he belonged to a priest. herald, killed by the Megarensca, who never recovered the impiety. See An Englishman, who can be much pleased with Storia delle Arti, &c., tom. I. p. 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, lib. ix. cap. ii.

1 Storia, &c., tom. ii. p. 207. Not. (A.) $ “Vulneratum deficientem fecit in quo possit intelligi quantum restat Augustinus (lib, vi.confess. cap. viii.) "Alipium suum gladiatori spectaculi anime." Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. xxxiv. cap. ii.

inhiatu incredibiliter ab reptum," scribit. ib. lib. l. cap. xii. Antiq. tom. li. par. 2, tab. 155.

| Hist. Ecclex. cap. xxvi. lib. v. T Racc. stat. tab. 64.

* Cassiod, Tripartita, I. 1. c. xi. Saturn, ib. ib. • Mus. Capitol, torn. ii. p. 154, edit. 1755.

$ Baronius, ad, anp. et in notis ad Martyrol. Rom. 1, Jan. See Maru 17 Julius Cæsar, who rose by the fall of the aristocracy, brought Furius goni delle memorie sacre e profane dell' Anfiteatro Flavio, p. 25, edit. 1746. Leptinus and A. Calenus upon the arena.

I "Quod ? non tu Lipsi momentum aliquod habuisse coses ad virtutem! 11 Tertulian, “certe quidem et innocentes gladiatores in ludem veniunt, et Magnum. Tempora nostra, nosque ipsos videamus. Oppidum ecee unua voluptatis publicæ hostæ fiant." Just. Lips. Saturn. Sermon. lib. ii. cap. xii. alterumve captum, direptum est : tumultus circa nos, non in nobis : et tamen $ Vopiscus, in vit, Aurel, and in vit. Claud, Ibid,

corcidimus et turtamur. Ubi rolur, ubi tot per annoa meditata sapientis 11 "Credo imò acio nullum bellum tantam cladem rastitiemque generi andia ? uti ille animus qui possit dicore, si fractua illabatur orbis ?" namano intullisee, quam hos ad voluptatem ludos." Jos.. Lips. Ibid. lib. i. ibid. lib. i. cap. xxvi. The prototype of Mr. Windham's panegyric O

bull-baiting.

gamta, con

tap. xii,

seeing two men beat themselves to pieces, cannot

69. bear to look at a horse galloping round an arena

The strange fate with his bowels trailing on the ground, and turns Which tumbles mightiest sorereigns. from the spectacle and the spectators with horror

Stanza clxxi. lines 6 and 7. and disgust.

Mary died on the scaffold; Elizabeth of a broken 62.

heart; Charles V. a hermit; Louis XIV. a bankLike Laurels on the bald first Cæsar's head. rupt in means and glory;. Cromwell of anxiety;

Stanza cxliv. line 6. and, "the greatest is behind,” Napoleon lives a Suetonius informs us that Julius Cæsar was par- prisoner. To these sovereigns a long but superfluticularly gratified by that decree of the senate. ous list might be added of names equally illustrious which enabled him to wear a wreath of laurel on all and unhappy. occasions. He was anxious not to show that he

70. was the conqueror of the world, but to hide that he Lo, Nemi, navell'd in the rooody hills. was bald. A stranger at Rome would hardly have

Stanza clxxiii. line 1. guessed at the motive, nor should we without the The village of Nemi was near the Arician retreat help of the historian.

of Egeria, and from the shades which embosomed 63.

the temple of Diana, has preserved to this day its While stands the Coliseum, Rome shall stand.

distinctive appellation of The Grove. Nemi is but Stanza cxlv. line l.

an evening's ride from the comfortable inn of Al

bano. This is quoted in the Decline and Fall of the Ro

71. man Empire ; and a notice on the Coliseum may be seen in the Historical Ilustrations to the IVth

And afar Canto of Childe Harold.

The Tiber winds, and the broad ocean laves

The Latian coast, &c. &c. 64.

Stanza clxxiv. lines 2, 3, and 4. Spared and blest by time.

The whole declivity of the Alban hill is of unri

Stanza cxlvi. line 3. valled beauty, and from the convent on the highest “Though plundered of all its brass, except the point, which has succeeded to the temple of the Laring which was necessary to preserve the aperture tian Jupiter, the prospect embraces all the objects above; though exposed to repeated fires, though alluded to in the cited stanza; the Mediterranean; sometimes flooded by the river, and always open to the whole scene of the latter half of the Æneid, the rain, no monument of equal antiquity is so and the coast from beyond the mouth of the Tiber well preserved as this rotunda. It passed with lit- to the headland of Circæum and the Cape of Terratle alteration from the Pagan into the present wor

cina. ship; and so convenient were its niches for the The site of Cicero's villa may be supposed either Christian altar, that Michael Angelo, ever studious at the Grotta Ferrata, or at the Tusculum of Prince of ancient beauty, introduced their design as a Lucien Bonaparte. model in the Catholic church."-Forsyth's Re

The former was thought some years ago the acmarks, &c., on Italy, p. 137, sec. edit.

tual site, as may be seen from Middleton's Life of

Cicero. At present it has lost something of its 65.

credit, except for the Domenichinos. Nine monks

of the Greek order live there, and the adjoining And they who feel for genius may repose villa is a cardinal's summer-house. The other vilTheir eyes on honored forms, whose busts around la, called Rufinella, is on the summit of the hill

them close. Stanza cxlvii. lines 8 and 9. above Frascati, and many rich remains of TuscuThe Pantheon has been made a receptacle for the lum have been found there, besides seventy-two busts of modern great, or, at least, distinguished, statues of different merit and preservation, and men. The flood of light which once fell through

seven busts. the large orb above on the whole circle of divinities

From the same eminence are seen the Sabine now shines on a numerous assemblage of mortals, hills, embosomed in which lies the long valley of some one or two of whom have been almost deified Rustica. There are several circumstances which by the veneration of their countrymen.

tend to establish the identity of this valley with the

Ustica" of Horace; and' it seems possible that the mosaic pavement which the peasants uncover by

throwing up the earth of a vineyard may belong to There is a dungeon, in whose dim, drear light. his villa. Rustica is pronounced short, not accord

Stanza cxlviii. line 1.

ing to our stress upon “ Usticæ cubantis."-It is This and the three next stanzas allude to the more rational to think that we are wrong than that story of the Roman daughter, which is recalled to the inhabitants of this secluded valley have changed the traveller by the site, or pretended site, of that their tone in this word. The addition of the conadventure, now shown at the church of St. Nicho- sonant prefixed is nothing: yet it is necessary to be las in carcere. The difficulties attending the full aware that Rustica may be a modern name which belief of the tale are stated in Historical Illustra- the peasants may have caught from the antiquaries. tions, &c.

The villa; or the mosaic, is in a vineyard on a 67.

knoll covered with chestnut trees. A stream runs Turn to the Mole, which Hadrian reard on high. in the guide books, that this stream is called Licen.

down the valley, and although it is not true, as said Stanza clii. line 1.

za, yet there is a village on a rock at the head of The castle of St. Angelo. See-Historical Illus- the valley which is so denominated, and which may trations.

have taken its name from the Digentia. Licenza 68.

contains seven hundred inhabitants. On a peak a Stanza cliii.

little way beyond is Civitella, containing three hun

dred. On the banks of the Anio, a little before you This and the six next stanzas have a reference to turn up into Valle Rustica, to the left, about an the church of St. Peter's. For a measurement of hour from the villa, is a town called Vicovaro, the comparative length of this basilica, and the another favorable coincidence with the Varia of the other great churches of Europe, see the pavement poet. At the end of the valley, towards the Anio, of St. Peter's, and the classical Tour through Italy, there is a bare hill, crowned with a little town called vol. ii. page 125, et seq. chap. iv.

Bardela. At the foot of this hill the rivulet of Li.

66.

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