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truth and wisdom, not respecting numbers and big names, have been ever wont in all ages to be contented with.

4. And if the late king bad thought sufficient those answers and defences made for him in his lifetime, they who on the other side accused his evil government, judging that on their behalf enough also hath been replied, the heat of this controversy was in all likelihood drawing to an end ; and the further mention of his deeds, not so much unfortunate as faulty, had in tenderness to his late sufferings been willingly forborne; and perhaps for the present age might have slept with him unrepeated, while his adversaries, calmed and assuaged with the success of their cause, had been the less unfavourable to his memory. But since he himself, making new appeal to truth and the world, hath left behind him this book, as the best advocate and interpreter of his own actions, and that his friends, by publishing, dispersing, commending, and almost adoring it, seem to place therein the chief strength and nerves of their cause; it would argue doubtless in the other party great deficience and distrust of themselves, not to meet the force of his reason in any field whatsoever, the force and equipage of whose arms they have so often met victoriously. And he who at the bar stood excepting against the form and manner of his judicature, and complained that he was not heard ;(V) neither

(V) See in Clarendon, (History vol. vi. p. 230. sqq.) the particulars of the trial as described by a most zealous partisan. This writer observes, that “ When he was first brought to Westminster

he nor his friends shall have that cause now to find fault, being met and debated with in this open and monumental court of his erecting; and not only heard uttering his whole mind at large, but answered : which to do effectually, if it be necessary, that to his book nothing the more respect be had for being his, they of his own party can have no just reason to exclaim.

5. For it were too unreasonable that he, because dead, should have the liberty in his book to speak all evil of the parliament; and they because living, should be expected to have less freedom, or any for them, to speak home the plain truth of a full and pertinent reply. As he, to acquit himself, hath not spared his adversaries to load them with all sorts of blame and accusation, so to him, as in his book alive, there will be used no more courtship than he uses; but what is properly his own guilt, not imputed any more to his evil counsellors, (*) (a ceremony used longer by the parlia

hall, which was upon the twentieth of January, before their highcourt of justice, he looked upon them, and sat down, without any manifestation of trouble, never stirring his hat; all the impudent judges sitting covered, and fixing their eyes upon him, without the least show of respect.” When the charge had been read, and the king was asked, " What answer he had to make to that impeachment ?” he, “ without any alteration in his countenance, by all that insolent provocation, told them, “he would first know of them, by what authority they presumed by force to bring him before them, and who gave them power to judge of his actions, for which he was accountable to none but God; though they had been always such as he need not be ashamed to own them before all the world.'”

(0) Speaking of the early part of Charles the First's reign,

ment than he himself desired,) shall be laid here without circumlocutions at his own door. That they who from the first beginning, or but now of late, by what unhappiness I know not, are so much affatuated, not with his person only, but with his palpable faults, and dote upon his deformities, may have none to blame but their own folly, if they live and die in such a stricken blindness, as next to that

Clarendon observes, that the proclamation, at the breaking up of the last parliament, and which was commonly understood to inhibit all men to speak of another parliament,' produced two very ill effects of different natures," which he goes on to describe. 'vol. i. p. 118, sqq.) Upon this passage Warburton remarks : “ That this interpretation of the proclamation concerning parliaments, that the king intended that the people should think no more of them than he did,” (he means “ was correct,") “appears plainly from the following fact. In the year 1633, the king agreed upon a draught (which was by his direction drawn up by his ministers) of a circular letter for a voluntary contribution to the support of the Queen of Bohemia and her children ; which, to put the people in better humour, concluded with these words : 6 after our having so long forborne to demand any of them (the people) for foreign affairs ; assuring them that as the largeiress of their free gift will be a clear evidence to us of the measure of their affections towards us,' (no doubt! that is the way to measure affection,) which we esteem our greatest happiness, so their forwardness to assist us in this kind, shall not make us more backward to require their aid in another way, no less agreeable to us than to them, when the season shall be proper for it. This paragraph the king struck out of the draught, and with his own hand hath added these words ; I have scored out these eight lines, as not judging them fit to pass. See the Clarendon collection of State Papers. (vol. i. 8vo. published 1767, p. 113.)” He had no objection to send out begging circulars for money, but for their affec. tions, or for their parliaments, where they might best show their affections, he did not judge the least hint at such a desire “ fit to pass."

of Sodom hath not happened to any sort of men more gross, or more misleading. Yet neither let his enemies expect to find recorded here all that hath been whispered in the court, or alleged openly, of the king's bad actions; it being the proper scope of this work in hand, not to rip up and relate the misdoings of his whole life, but to answer only and refute the missayings of his book.

6. First, then, that some men (whether this were by him intended, or by his friends) have by policy accomplished after death that revenge upon their enemies, which in life they were not able, hath been oft related. And among other examples we find, that the last will of Cæsar being read to the people, and what bounteous legacies he had bequeathed them, wrought more in that vulgar audience to the avenging of his deati, than all the art he could ever use to win their favour in his lifetime. (9) And how much their intent, who

(9) Shakspeare, with his usual art of depicting every phasis of human nature, has seized on this circumstance to work up, in his “ Julius Cæsar," one of the most splendid exhibitions anywhere to be found of dramatic eloquence. He represents Antony with the only virtue a person of an inborn slavish temper could have-attachment to his master; and brings him forward, with that secret contempt for the crowd which one slave always feels for another; yet, to gain his purpose, smothering this disdain, and enumerating with apparent undesign the baits the departed tyrant had intended to cozen them with. At these, to rouse their curiosity, he glances now and then, but presently Alies off to other circumstances calculated to enhance their admiration both of Cæsar and himself. Having powerfully wrought upon their passions, they are about to rush away to execute their stupid rage upon the patriots ; but, the more completely

published these over-late apologies and meditations of the dead king, drives to the same end of stirring up the people to bring him that honour, that affection, and by consequence that revenge to his dead corpse, which he himself living could never gain to his person, it appears both by the conceited portraiture before his book, drawn out to the full measure of a masking scene, and set there to catch fools and silly gazers; and by those Latin words after the end, Vota dabunt quæ bella negarunt;

to warp their ignorant minds, he returns to the will, and says:

“ You have forgot the will I told you of.
All. Most true--the will— let's stay and hear the will.

Ant. Here is the will, and under Cæsar's seal.
To every Roman citizen he gives,
To ev'ry several man, seventy-five drachmas.
2 Pleb. Most noble Cæsar! we'll revenge his death.
3 Pleb. O royal Cæsar !
Ant. Hear me with patience.
All. Peace, ho !

Ant. Moreover, he hath left you all his walks,
His private arbors, and new-planted orchards
On that side Tiber : he hath left them you,
And to your heirs for ever ; common pleasures
To walk abroad and recreate yourselves.
Here was a Cæsar! when comes such another ?

i Pleb. Never, never; come, away, away!
We'll burn his body in the holy place,
And with the brands fire all the traitors' houses.
Take up the body.

2 Pleb. Go fetch fire.
3 Pleb. Pluck down benches.
4 Pleb. Pluck down forms, windows, any thing.

[Exeunt Plebeians with the body.
Ant. Now let it work. Mischief thou art afoot;
Take thou what course thou wilt !".

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