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fore in every person born into this world, it deserveth God's wrath and damnation. And this

We were all miserable

persons, sinful
persons, damnable

persons, justly driven out of Paradise, justly excluded from heaven, justly condemned to hell-fire: and yet, see a wonderful token of God's love, he gave us his only-begotten Son—us, I say,

that were his extreme and deadly enemies. Hom. xxv. 2.

Before the coming of Christ into the world, all men universally were nothing else but a wicked and crooked generationrotten and corrupt trees-stony ground full of brambles and briers lost sheep-prodigal sons-naughty and unprofitable servants-unrighteous stewards-workers of iniquity-the brood of adders-blind guides-sitting in darkness and in the shadow of death: to be short, nothing else hut children of perdition, and inheritors of hell-fire. To this doth St. Paul bear witness in divers places of his Epistles, and Christ also himself in sundry places of his Gospel. But after he was once come down from heaven, and had taken our frail nature upon him, he made all them that would receive him truly, and believe his word, good trees, and good ground—fruitful and pleasant brancheschildren of light-citizens of heaven-sheep of his fold-members of his body--heirs of his kingdom-his true friends and brethren-sweet and lively bread—the elect and chosen people of God. Hom. xxiv. 1.

i And there is no health in us. Confession.

We do daily and hourly, by our wickedness and stubboru disobedience, horribly fall away from God. Hom. xxxii. 1.

We have erred and strayed from thy ways like lost sheep; we have followed too much the devices and desires of our own hearts; we have offended against thy holy laws; we have left undone those things which we ought to have done; and we have done those things which we ought not to have done. Confession.

Have mercy upon us, miserable sinners. Confession.

We acknowledge and bewail our manifold sins and wickedness, which we from time to time most grievously have committed by thought, word, and deed. Com. Service.

Spirit do mortify the deeds of the Rom. viii. 6. He that soweth to body, ye shall live. Rom. viii. 13. his flesh, shall of the flesh reap That every mouth may be stopped, corruption. Gal. vi. 8. If ye beand all the world may become lieve not that I am he, ye shall die guilty before God. Rom. iii. 19. in your sins. John viii. 24. By the offence of one, judgment For I know that in me, that is came upon all men to condemnation. in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing : Rom. v. 18. The wages of sin is for to will is present with me; but death. Rom. vi. 20. To be carnally- how to perform that which is good minded is death; but to be spi- I find not. For I delight in the ritually minded is life and peace, law of God after the inward man.

infection of nature doth remain, yea, in them that are regenerated, whereby the lust of the flesh, called in Greek, sphronema sarkos, which some do expound the wisdom, some sensuality, some the affection, some the desire of the flesh, is not subject to the law of God. And although


e are letted by the natural corruption of our own flesh, and the wicked affections of the same. Hom. xxxii. 1. See also Article XV. e, f.

O Lord, raise up, we pray thee, thy power, and come among us, and with great might succour us; that whereas through our sins and wickedness we are sore let and hindered in running the race that is set before us, thy bountiful grace and mercy may speedily help and deliver us, through the satisfaction of thy Son our Lord; to whom, with thee and the Holy Ghost, be honour and glory, world without end. Amen. Coll. for the fourth Sunday in Advent.

h But what booteth it now to bewail ? Sin is come, and so come that it cannot be avoided. “ There is no man living, no, not

But I see another law in my mem- sin. Prov. XX. 9. If we say that bers warring against the law of my we have no sin, we deceive ourmind, and bringing me into capti- selves, and the truth is not inus. vity to the law of sin, which is in If we say that we have not sinned, my members. Rom. vi. 18, 22, 23. we make him a liar, and his word The carnal mind is enmity against is not in us. I John i. 8, 10. We God: for it is not subject to the are all as an unclean thing, and law of God, neither indeed can be. all our righteousnesses are as filthy So then they that are in the flesh rags. Isa. Ixiv. 6. In many things cannot please God. Rom. viii. 7, 8. we offend all. James iii. 2. I find a law, that when I would do 8 Το be carnally minded (φρόνημα good, evil is present with me. I see rñs odgròs) is death; but to be spirianother law in my members war- tually minded is life and peace. Bering against the law of my mind, cause the carnal mind (ogórnpa rñs and bringing me into captivity to reqxos) is enmity against God: for the law of sin which is in my mem- it is not subject to the law of God, bers. Rom. viii. 21, 23. So then neither indeed can be. Rom. viii. with the mind I myself serve the 6,7. Peter took him, and began law of God, but with the flesh' the to rebuke him, saying, Be it far law of sin. Rom. vii. 25. That he from thee, Lord; this shall not be no longer should live the rest of unto thee. But he turned and said his time in the flesh to the lusts of unto Peter, Get thee behind me, men, but to the will of God. 1 Pet. Satan, thou art an offence unto iv. 2. There is not a just man for thou savourest not (ou upon earth, who doeth good and Qgoveīs) the things that be of God, sinneth not. Eccles. vii. 20. For a but those that be of men. Matt. just man falleth seven times, and xvi. 22, 23. riseth up again. Prov. xxiv. 16. h Verily, verily, I say unto you, Who can say,

have made my He that heareth my word, and bee art clean, I am pure from my lieveth on him that sent me, hath



there is no condemnation for them that believe and are baptized, yet the Apostle doth confess, that concupiscence and lust hath of itself the nature of sin.


the justest man on the earth, but he falleth seven times a day,”. às Solomon saith. (Prov. xxiv. 16.) And our Saviour Christ, although he hath delivered us from sin, yet not so that we shall be free from committing sin; but so that it shall not be impated to our condemnation. Hom. xxv. 2.

Q. Dost thou say that unadvised and sudden desires, and short thoughts that come upon the very godly, are sins, although they strive against such, rather than yield to them? A. Surely it is plain that all corrupt thoughts, although our consent be not added to them, do proceed of our corrupt nature. And it is no doubt that sudden desires that tempt the hearts of men, although they prevail not so far as to win a stedfast assent of mind and allowance, are in this commandment (the seventh) condemned by God as sins. Nowell, p. 26.

everlasting life, and shall not come with her already in his heart. into condemnation; but is passed Matt. v. 28. The thought of foolfrom death unto life. John v. 24. ishness is sin, Prov. xxiv. 9. The He that believeth on him is not Lord knoweth the thoughts of man, condemned. John iii. 18. He that that they are vanity. Ps. xciv. 11. believeth and is baptized shall be I hate vain thoughts. Ps. cxix. 113. saved. Mark xv. 16. Being jus- Let the wicked forsake his way, tified by faith, we have peace with and the unrighteous man his God, through our Lord Jesus thoughts. Isa. liv.7. O Jerusalem, Christ. Rom. v. 1. There is there- wash thyself from wickedness, that fore now no condemnation to them thou mayest be saved. How long which are in Christ Jesus, who shall thy vain thoughts lodge walk not after the flesh, but after within thee! Jer. iv. 14. The the Spirit. Rom. viii. 1. Christ wicked boasteth of his heart's dehath redeemed us from the curse sire, and blesseth the covetous, of the law, being made a curse whom God abhorreth. Ps. X. 3. for us. Gal. iii. 21.

The backslider in heart shall be i I had not known sin but by filled with his own ways, and a the law: for I had not known lust good man shall be satisfied from except the law had said, Thou himself. Prov, xiv. 14. Bringing shalt not covet. Rom. vii. 7. Who- into captivity every thought to the soever looketh on a woman to lust obedience of Christ. 2 Cor. x. 5. after her hath committed adultery

X. Of Free-Will. THE condition of man after the fall of Adam is such, that he cannot turn and prepare him

* Adam took upon him to eat thereof, and in so doing he died the death ; that is to say, he became mortal, he lost the favour of God, he was cast out of Paradise, he was no longer a citizen of heaven, but a fire-brand of hell, and a bond-slave to the devil. So that now neither he, nor any of his, had any right or interest at all in the kingdom of heaven; but were become plain reprobates and castaways, being perpetually damned to the everlasting pains of hell-fire. Hom. xxv. 2.

As transgressors of God's commandment, they and their posterity are brought to a perpetual shame and confusion. Hom. xvii, 1.

In this so great misery and wretchedness, if mankind could have recovered himself again, and obtained forgiveness at God's hands, then had his case been somewhat tolerable; because he might have attempted some way how to deliver himself from eternal death. But there was no way left unto him; he could do nothing that might pacify God's wrath; he was altogether unprofitable in that behalf

. Hom. xxv. 2. Man's nature hath been so corrupted and destroyed with this active mischief, that if the goodness and mercy of Almighty God had not with applying a remedy holpen and relieved us in affliction, like as we fell in our wealth into all calamities, and in our bodies into all miseries of diseases, and of death, so should we of necessity fall headlong into darkness and everlasting night, and into fire unquenchable, there, with all kind of punishment, to be perpetually tormented.—Oh deadly and horrible plague and calamity by sin ! Nowell, p. 40.

b We are tied and bound with the chain of our sins. Occas, Prayers.

O Almighty God, who alone canst order the unruly wills and affections of sinful men, &c. Fourth Sunday after Easter.

The image of God in man is, since the fall of Adam, by original sin and by evil custoni, iso darkened, and natural judgment so corrupted, that natural man doth not sufficiently understand what difference is between honest and dishonest, right and wrong. Nowell, p. 29.

b A deceived heart hath turned out strengh, Christ died for the him aside, that he cannot deliver ungodly. Rom. v. 6. God having his soul, nor say, Is there not a lie raised up his Son Jesus, sent him in my right hand ? Isa. xliv. 20. to bless you, in turning away O Israel, thou hast destroyed thy- every one of you from his iniquiself, but in me is thy help. Hosen ties. Acts iii. 26. As the Father xni. 9. When we were yet with raiseth up the dead and quickeneth

self, by his own natural strength and good

We are

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For in ourselves (as of ourselves) we find nothing, whereby we may be delivered from this miserable captivity, into the which we were cast, through the envy of the devil, by breaking God's commandment in our first parent Adam. We are all“ become unclean :" Ps. xiv. 3. but we all are not able to cleanse ourselves, nor make one another of us clean. We are by nature “ the children of God's wrath :" Eph. ii. 3. but we are not able to make ourselves the children and inheritors of God's glory.

sheep that run astray :” 1 Pet. ii. 25. but we cannot of our own power come again to the sheepfold, so great is our imperfection and weakness. Hom. ii. 2.

We must beware and take heed, that we do in no wise think in our hearts, imagine or believe, that we are able to repent aright, or to turn effectually unto the Lord by our own might and strength. For this must be verified in all men, “ Without me ye can do nothing.” (John xv. 5.) Again, “ Of ourselves we are not able as much as to think a good thought.” (2 Cor. iii. 5.) And in another place, " It is God that worketh in us both the will and the deed. (Phil. iii. 13.) And therefore that holy writer and ancient father Ambrose doth plainly affirm," that the turning of the heart unto God is of God," as the Lord himself doth testify by his prophet, saying, “ And I will give thee an heart to know me, that I am the Lord; and they shall be my people, and I will be their God; for they shall return unto me with their whole heart." Hom. xxxii. 1.

Create and make in us new and contrite hearts. Coll. for Ash-Wednesday.

Cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love thee, &c. Com. Service.

O God, make clean our hearts within us; and take not thy Holy Spirit from us. Morn. Prayer.

O Lord, from whom all good things do come; grant to us thy humble servants, that by thy holy inspiration we may think those things that be good, and by thy merciful guiding may perform the same. Fifth Sunday after Easter.

them, even so the Son quickeneth to the Gentiles granted repentance whom he will. John v.21. And you, unto life. Acts xi. 18. The prebeing dead in your sins, and the parations of the heart in man, and uncircumcision of your flesh, hath the answer of the tongue, is from he quickened together with him. the Lord. Prov. xvi. 1. Turn us, Col. ii. 13. Whose heart the Lord O God of our salvation, and cause opened, that she attended unto the thine anger toward us to cease. things which were spoken of Paul. Ps. lxxxv. 4. Turn thou me, and Acts xvi. 14. Him hath God ex- I shall be turned; for thou art the alted with his right hand to be a Lord my God. Surely after that I Prince and a Saviour, for to give was turned I repented. Heal me, repentance to Israel, and remission O Lord, and I shall be healed; of sins. Acts v. 31. They glorified save me, and I shall be saved; for God, saying, Then hath God also thou art my praise. Jer. xvii. 14.

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