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break is a 'partaking of the body of Christ, and

not only to be pure from all filthiness of the flesh and spirit, lest he eat and drink his own condemnation; but also to shew out evidently a memory of him, that died and rose again for us in this point; that he be mortified to sin. Hom. xxvii. 2.

e Now it followeth to have with this knowledge a sure and constant faith, not only that the death of Christ is available for the redemption of all the world, for the remission of sins, and reconciliation with God the Father; but also that he hath made upon his cross a full and sufficient sacrifice for thee, a perfect cleansing of thy sins, so that thou acknowledgest no other Saviour, Redeemer, Mediator, Advocate, Intercessor, but Christ only; and that thou mayest say with the Apostle, that he loved thee, and


himself for thee. For this is to stick fast to Christ's promise made in his institution, to make Christ thine own, and to apply his merits unto thyself

. Herein thou needest no other man's help, no other sacrifice or oblation, no sacrificing priest, no mass, no means established by men's invention, Hom. xxvii. 1.

The mean to receive the body and blood of Christ standeth upon faith. For when we believe that Christ died to deliver us from death, and that he rose again to procure us life, we are partakers of the redemption purchased by his death, and of his life, and all other his good things; and with the same conjoining wherewith the head and members are knit together, he coupleth us to himself by secret and marvellous virtue of his Spirit, even so that we be members of his body, and be of his flesh and bones, and do grow into one body with him. Nowell, p. 109.

Thus we see, beloved, that resorting to this table we must pluck up all the roots of infidelity, all distrust in God's promises, that we make ourselves living members of Christ's body. For the unbelievers and faithless cannot feed

upon that precious body. Whereas the faithful have their life, their abiding, in him, their union, and as it were their incorporation, with him. Hom. xxvii. 1.

Q. Declare then what is our duty, that we may come rightly to the Lord's supper? A. Even the same that we are taught in the holy Scriptures, namely, to examine ourselves, whether we be true members of Christ. Q. By what marks and tokens shall we manifestly find it? A. First, if we heartily repent us of our sins, which drove Christ to death, whose mysteries are now delivered us: next, if we stay ourselves, and rest upon a sure hope of God's mercy through Christ, with a thankful remembrance of our redemption purchased by his death. Moreover, if we conceive an earnest mind and determined purpose to lead our life godly hereafter. Finally, if, seeing in the Lord's supper is contained also a tokening of friendship and love among men, we bear brotherly love to our neighbours,

likewise the cup of blessing is a partaking of the blood of Christ.


that is, to all men, without any evil will or hatred.-Yet ought not the imperfection that holdeth us keep us back from coming to the Lord's Supper, which the Lord willed to be a help to our imperfection and weakness.-Yea, if we were perfect, there should be no more need of any use of the Lord's Supper among

But hereto these things that I have spoken of do tend, that every man bring with him to the supper repentance, faith, and charity, so near as possibly may be, sincere and unfeigned. Nowell, p. 112.

Q. What is the outward part or sign of the Lord's Supper? A. Bread and wine, which the Lord liath commanded to be received. Q. What is the inward part, or thing signified ? A. The body and blood of Christ, which are verily and indeed taken and received by the faithful in the Lord's Supper ? Catechism.

There are two parts in this sacrament also, as in baptism. The one part the bread and wine, the outward signs, which are seen with our eyes, handled with our hands, and felt with our taste; the other part, Christ himself, with whom our souls, as with their proper food, are inwardly nourished. Nowell, p. 108.

He severally gave the signs both of his body and blood, that it might be the more plain express image of his death' which he suffered, his body being torn, his side pierced, and all his blood shed, that ihe inemory thereof so printed in our hearts should strike the deeper. And moreover, that the Lord might so provide for and help our weakness, and thereby manifestly declare, that as the bread for nourishment of our bodies, so his body hath most singular force and efficacy spiritually to feed our souls: and as with wine men's hearts are cheered, and their strength confirmed, so with his blood our souls are relieved and refreshed; that certainly assuring ourselves that he is not only our meat, but also our drink, we do not any where else but in him alone seek any part of our spiritual nourishment and eternal life. Nowell, p. 109.

The cup of blessing which we Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ex. bless, is it not the communion of cept ye eat the Aesh of the Son of the blood of Christ? The bread man, and drink his blood, ye have which we break, is-it not the com- no-life in you. Whoso eateth my munion of the body of Christ? flesh and drinketh my blood, -hath

1 Cor. X. 16. I am that bread of eternal life; and I will raise him - life that a man may eat thereof -up at the last day. For my flesh is and not die. I am the living bread, meat indeed, and my blood is drink which came down from heaven; if indeed. He that eateth my flesh any man eat of this bread he shall and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in live for ever: and the bread that me, and I in him. 'As the living I will give is my flesh, which I will Father hath, and I live by give for the life of the world. the Father: -40 he that eateth me,


8 Transubstantiation, (or the change of the

Wherefore it is our duty to render most humble and hearty thanks to Almighty God our heavenly Father, for that he hath given his Son our Saviour Jesus Christ not only to die for us, but also to be our spiritual food and sustenance in that holy sacrament. -The benefit is great, if with a true penitent heart and lively faith we receive that holy sacrament; for then we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ, and drink his blood; then we dwell in Christ, and Christ in us; we are one with Christ, and Christ with us. - -Hear us, O merciful Father, we most humbly beseech thee; and grant that we, receiving these thy creatures of bread and wine, according to thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of his death and passion, may be partakers of his most blessed body and blood. Communion Serv.

Q. Is there then not an only figure, but the truth itself, of the benefits that thou hast rehearsed, delivered in the Supper ? A. What else? For sith Christ is the truth itself, it is no doubt but that the thing which he testifieth in words, and representeth in signs, he performeth also in deed, and delivereth it unto us ; and that he as surely maketh them that believe in him partakers of his body and blood, as they surely know that they have received the bread and wine with their mouth and stomach.

109. Thou hast received him-if in true faith and repentance of heart thou hast received him; if in purpose of amendment thou hast received him—for an everlasting gage, or pledge of thy salvation. Thou hast received his body which was once broken, and his blood which was shed, for the remission of thy sin. Thou hast received his body, to have within thee the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, for to dwell with thee, to endow thee with grace, to strengthen thee against thine enemies, and to comfort thee with their presence. Thou hast received his body, to endow thee with everlasting righteousness, to assure thee of everlasting bliss, and life of thy soul. “ For with Christ by true faith art thou quickened again," saith Saint Paul, “ from death of sin to life of grace, and in hope translated from corporal and everlasting death, to the everlasting life of glory in

Nowell, p.

even he shall live by me. John vi. his Son Jesus Christ. -If we walk 48–57. That they all may be one; in the light as he is in the light, we as thou, Father, art in me, and I in have fellowship one with another; thee, that they also may be one in and the blood of Jesus Christ his us ; that the world may believe Son cleanseth us from all sin. that thou hast sent me. John xvii. 1 John i. 3, 7. We are made par21. Ye were called unto the fellow- takers of Christ, if we hold the beship of his Son Jesus Christ our ginning of our confidence stedfast Lord. 1 Cor. i. 9. Truly our fellow- unto the end. Heb, jii. 14. ship is with the Father, and with


substance of bread and wine,) in the Supper of the Lord, cannot be proved by holy Writ; but

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heaven; where now thy conversation should be, and thy heart and desire set.” (Ephes. ii. 1–5.) Donbt not of the truth of this matter, how great and high soever these things be. It becometh God to do no small deeds, how impossible soever they seem to thee. Only bring thou faith to God's holy word and sacrament. Let thy repentance shew thy faith; (Luke xviii. 14.) let thy purpose of aniendment and obedience of thy heart to God's law hereafter declare thy true belief. Endeavour thyself to say with St. Paul, (Phil. iii. 20, 21.) “From henceforth our conversation is in heaven; from whence we look for a Saviour, even the Lord Jesus Christ; which shall change our vile bodies, that they may be fashioned like to his glorious body; which he shall do by the same power whereby he rose from death, and whereby he shall be able to subdue all things unto himself.” Hom. xxvi.

8 Q. Dost thou then, that this conjoining may be made, imagine the bread and wine to be changed into the substance of the flesh and body of Christ ? A. There is no need to invent any such change. For both the holy Scriptures, and the best and most ancient expositors, do teach, that by baptism we are likewise the members of Christ, and are of his Aesh and bones, and do grow into one body with him, when yet there is no such change made in the water. Nowell, p. 110.

We affirm that the bread and wine are the holy and heavenly mysteries of the body and blood of Christ, and that by them Christ himself being the true bread of eternal life, is so presently given unto us, as that by faith we verily receive his body and blood. Yet say we not this so as though we thought that the nature and substance of the bread and wine is clearly changed, and goeth to nothing; as many have dreamed in these latter times, and yet could never agree among themselves upon their own dreams. For this was not Christ's meaning, that the wheaten bread should lay aside his own nature, and receive a certain new divinity; but that he might rather change us, and (to use Theophylact's words) might transform us into his body. Jewell.

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h Christ himself said, not only after the blessing of the cup, but also after he had ministered the communion, « I will drink no more of this fruit of the vine.” It is well known that the fruit of the vine is wine, and not blood. Jewell.

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be fast

h I will not drink henceforth of shew the Lord's death till he come. this fruit of the vine, &c. Matt. 1 Cor. xi. 26. Whom the heaven xxvi. 29. As often as ye eat this must receive till the times of the bread, and drink this cup, ye do restitution of all things. Acts iii. 21.


is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture,

overtbroweth the nature of a sacrament, and khath given occasion to many superstitions.

The body of Christ is 'given, m taken, and

p. 112.

In both the sacraments the substances of the outward things are not changed, but the word of God and heavenly grace coming to them, there is such efficacy, that as by baptism we are once regenerate in Christ, and are first, as it were, joined and grafted into his body; so when we rightly receive the Lord's supper, with the very divine nourishment of his body and blood, most full of health and immortality, given us by the work of the Holy Ghost, and received by us by faith, as the mouth of our soul, we are continually fed and sustained to eternal life, growing together in them both into one body with Christ. Nowell, p. 110.

Q. Why dost thou not grant that the body and blood of Christ are included in the bread and cup, or that the bread and wine are changed into the substance of his body and blood ? A. Because that were to bring in doubt the truth of Christ's body, to do dishonour to Christ himself, and to fill them with abhorring that receive the Sacrament, if we should imagine his body either to be inclosed in so narrow a room, or to be in many places at once, or his flesh to be chewed in our mouth with our teeth, and to be bitten small, and eaten as other meat. Nowell,

For the sacramental bread and wine remain still in their very natural substances, and therefore may not be adored, (for that were idolatry, to be abhorred of all faithful Christians ;) and the natural body and blood of our Saviour Christ are in heaven, and not here; it being against the truth of Christ's natural body, to be at one time in more places than one. App. to Com. Serv. We do expressly pronounce, that in the Lord's supper

there is truly given unto the believing the body and blood of our Lord, the flesh of the Son of God, which quickeneth our souls, the meat that cometh from above, the food of immortality, of grace, truth, and life: and that the same supper is the communion or the body and blood of Christ: by the partaking whereof we be revived, strengthened, and fed unto immortality; and whereby we are joined, united, and incorporated unto Christ, that we may abide in him and he in us. Jewell,

Christ did then principally give himself to us to be the author of our salvation, when he gave himself to death for us, that we should not perish with deserved death. By the Gospel also he giveth himself to the faithful, and plainly teacheth that he is that lively bread that came down from heaven to nourish their souls that believe in him. And also in baptism Christ gave himself to us effectually for that he then made us Christians. Nowell, p. 111.

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