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1. That the blockade will be strictly enforced upon the principles recognized ly the law of nations.

2. That armeil vessels of neutral states will have the right to enter and depart from the interdicted ports.

3. That merchant-vessels in port at the time the blockade took effect will be allowed a reasonable time for departure.

I avail, C.,
(Signed)

W. H. SEWARD. The blockade declared by the foregoing proclamations was actually iustituted, as to the ports within the State of Virginia, on the 30th April :' and was extended to the principal ports on the sea-board of the other Confederate States before the end of May. A considerable number of neutral ships and cargoes were captured for breaches or alleged breaches of blockade, some at or near the mouths of blockaded ports, others on the high seas. Vessels or cargoes so captured were carried before, and condemned by, courts of the United States exercising jurisdiction in matters of prize; and the validity of the sentences thus pronounced was upheld by the Supreme Court of the United States, which is the highest court of appeal in such matters. Mr. Justice Grier, in delivering the judgment of the court on this question, said: * To legitimate the capture of' a neutral vessel or property on the high seas, a war must sist facto, and the neutral must have a knowledge or notice of the intention of one of the parties belligerent to use this mode of coercion against a port, city, or territory in possession of the other.

In a subsequent part of the same judgment he added : Whether the President, in fulfilling his duties as commander-in-chief in suppressing an insortertion, las met with such armed hostile resistawce, and a civil war of such a'arming proportions as will compel him to accoril to them the character of belligerats, is a question to be slecided by him; and this court must be governed by the derisions and acts of the political department of the Government to which this power was intrusted. He must deterinine what degree of force the crisis demands. The proclamation of the blockade is itself official and conclusive evidence to the court that a state of war existed which demanded and authorized a recourse to such a measure ander the circumstances peculiar to the case. The correspondence of Lord Lyons with the Sceretary of State admits the fact, and concludes the question. C *On the 311 May, 1861, President Lincoln directed that the

naval force of the United States should be increased by the enlistment of 18,000 additional seamen, and their land forces by fifty additional regiments, partly of regular troops and partly of volunteers, with an aggregate maximum of 61,748 men.

It is needless to refer particularly to the subsequent history of the war waged on the American continent. It is well known that the forces of the l'nited States, attempting to penetrate into Virginia, encountered a serere (lefeat; that great armies were raised on both sides; that hostilities were carried on over an immense area, with varying fortune, for nearly four years; and that the contest terminated, in 1865, in the complete reconquest of the eleven Confederated States, which, after being held for a considerable time under military control, were finally re-admitted to their original position in the Union.

The events stated above are matters of general notoriety, recorded in the history of the period.

On the 30th April, 1861, Mr. Jefferson Davis, as President of the Confederated States, addressed to the congress of those States a message, which contained the following passage:

The operations of the navy department have been necessarily restricted by the fact that sufficient time has not yet elapsed for the purchase or construction of more than

Appendix, vol. iii, p. 10.

a limited number of vessels adapted for the public service. Two vessels have been prepared and manned, the Sumter and McRae, and are now being prepared for sea at New Orleans with all possible dispatch.

On the 1st May, 1861, Mr. Seward, Secretary of State of the United States, addressed to the British Minister at Washington a dispatch of that date, which contained the following passage:

The so-called Confederate States have waged a insurrectionary war against this Government. They are buying, and even seizing, vessels in several places for the purpose of furnishing themselves with a naval force, and they are issuing letters of maryno to privateers to be employed in preying on the commerce of this country. Yon are aware that the President bas proclaimed å blockade of the ports, included within the insurgent States. All these circumstances are kuown to the irorld.

On the 6th May, 1861, the congress of the Confederate States passed an act entitled "An act recognizing the existence of war between the United States and the Confederate States, and concerning letters of marque, prizes, and prize-goods." The first section of this act was as follows:

The congress of the Confederate States of America do enact that the president of the Confederate States is hereby authorized to use the whole land and naval force of the Confederate States to meet the war thus commenced, and to issue to private vessels commissions or letters of marque and general reprisal, in such form as he shall think proper, under the seal of the Confederate States, against the vessels, goods, and effects of the United States, and of the citizens or inbabitants of the States and Territories thereof; provided, however, that property of the enemy (unless it be contraband of war) laden on board a neutral vessel, shall not be subject to seizure under this act; and provided further, that vessels of the citizens or inhabitants of the United States now in the ports of the Confederate States, except such as have been since the 5th April last, or may hereafter be in the service of the Governmeut of the United States. shall be allowed thirty days after the publication of this act to leave said ports and reach their destination ; and such vessels and their cargoes, excepting articles contraband of war, shall not be subject to capture umder this act during said perioil, unless they shall bave previously reached the destination for which they were bound on leaving said ports.

The act then proceeded to lay down in detail regulations as to the conditions on which letters of marque should be granted to private ressels, and the conduct and behavior of the officers and crews of such vessels, and the disposal of prizes made by them, similar to the regula tions which have been ordinarily prescribed and enforced with respect to privateers in the United States and by the maritime powers of En. rope.

The fourth and seventh sections were as follows: 4. That, before any commission or letters of marqne and reprisal shall be issued as aforesaid, the owner or owners of the ship or vessel for which the same shall be requested, and the commander thereof for the time being, shall give bond to the Con. federate States, with at least two responsible sureties not interested in such vessel, in the penal sum of $5,000, or, if such vessel be provided with more than 150 men, then in the penal sum of $10,000, with condition that the owners, officers, and crew who shall be einployed on board snch commissioned vessel shall and will observe the laws of the Confederate States, and the instructions which shall be given them according to law for the regulation of their conduct, and will satisfy all olamages and injuries which shall be done or committed contrary to the tenor thereof by such vessel during ber commission, and to deliver up the same when revoked by the president of the Confederate States.

7. That before breaking bulk of any vessel which shall be captured as aforesaid. or other disposal or conversion thereof, or of any articles which shall be found on board the

same, such captured vessel, * goods, or effects, shall be brought into some port of the [7] Confederate States, or ot'a nation or state in amity with the Confederate States, and

shall be proceeded against before a competent tribunal; and after condemnation and forfeiture thereof shall belong to the owners, officers, and crew of the vessel capturing the same, and be distributed as before provided; and in the case of all captured vesels, goods, and etlects which shall be brought within the jurisdictiou of the Confed| Appendix, vol. iii, p. 12.

• Ibid., p. 13.

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erate States, the district courts of the Confederate States shall have exclusive original cognizance thereof, as the civil causes of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; and the said courts, or the courts being courts of the Confederate States into which such cases shall be removed, in which they shall be finally decided, shall and may decree restitution in whole or in part, when the capture shall have been made without just cause. And, if made without probable cause, may order and decree damages and costs to the party injured, for which the owners and commanders of the vessels making such captures, and also the vessels, shall be liable.

A further act, entitled "An act regulating the sale of prizes and the distribution thereof," was likewise passed by the Congress of the Confederate Siates on the 14th of May, 1861.1

Many persons who had served as officers in the Navy of the United States offered themselves for employment in the naval service of the Confederate States, and those for whom employment could be found were received and employed in such service.

In and soon after the month of May, 1861, a number of armed ships, mostly of small tonnage, were fitteil out in and sent to sea froin ports in the Confederate States, and a considerable number of captures were made by them. Some of these were commissioned as public ships of war of the Confederate States, and commanded by officers in the naval service of the confederacy; others as private ships of war or privateers. Among the armed vessels which were so fitted out and made prizes were the Calhoun, a steamer of upwards of 1,000 tons, sent to sea in May, 1861; the Jeff. Davis, Savannah, St. Nicholas, Winslow, and York. More than twenty prizes were made by these vessels. The Sumter (to which reference will be made hereafter) went to sea in June, 1861; the Sallie and Nashville in October, 1861; the Echo in 1862; the Retribution and Boston in 1863; the Chickamauga, Olustee, and Tallahassee in 1864. These vessels are said to have taken from sixty to seventy prizes.

It appears from an oflicial report of the Secretary of the Navy of the United States that the number of vessels captured and destroyed by vessels of the United States during the war, for breach of blockade or in battle, exceeded 1,200.

NEUTRALITY OF TIIE VARITIME POWERS. The maritime powers, on receiving information of the outbreak of the war, resolved to maintain a strict and impartial neutrality in their relations with the belligerents, holding that it did not belong to them, as yovernments, to decide on the questions which had unhappily divided the American people, nor to take any part in the contest on which the future of the American Commonwealth appeared to depend.

Of all the nations of the worll, Great Britain, by reason of her geograpbical position, the activity of her manufacturing and trading industries, her vast commerce with America, the extent and number of her transatlantic possessions, the magnitude of her military and commercial marine, and its dispersion, not only over the seas bordering on the American coast but over every part of the world, was the power most immediately and profoundly affected by a civil war in the United States. The European power which, after Great Britain, possessed the largest marine was France.

On the 14th May, 1861, Her Britannic Majesty's government issued the following proclamation, intended for the information of the officers of the governient and of British subjects in general: ? VICTORIA R.

Whereas we are happiiy at peace with all sovereigns, powers, and states; And whereas hostilities bave unhappily commenced between the Government of the 1 Appendix, vol. iii, p. 15.

Ibid., p. 17.

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United States of America and certain States styling themselves the Confeilerate States of Anierica;

And whereas we, being at peace with the Government of the United States, have declared our royal determination to maintain a strict and impartial nentrality in the contest between the said contending parties;

We therefore have thought tit, by and with the advice of our privy council, to issue this our royal proclamation.

And we do hereby strictly charge and command all our loving subjects to obser: e a strict neutrality in and during the aforesaid bostilities, and to abstain from violating or contravening either the laws and statutes of the realm in this behalf, or the law of nations in relation thereto, as they will answer to the contrary at their peril. And whereas in and by a certain statute made and passed in the fifty-ninth year of

His Majesty King George III, entitled "An act to prevent enlisting or engage[] ment of His Majesty's subjects * to serve in a foreign service, and the titting out

or equipping, in His Majesty's dominions, vessels for warlike purposes, without His Majesty's license," it is among other things leclared and cuacted as follows:

" That if any natural-born snliject of His Majesty, his heirs and successors, without the leave or license of His Majesty, his heirs or successors, for that purpose tirst had and obtained, under the sign mannal of His Majesty, his heirs or successors, or signified by order in council, or by proclamation of His Majesty, his heirs or successors, shall take or accept, or shall agree to take or accept, any military commission, or shall otherwise enter into the military service as a commissioned or non-commissioned officer, or shall enlist or enter himself to enlist, or sball agree to enlist or to enter himself to serve as a soldier, or to be employed or shall serve in any warlike or military operation in the service of, or for, or under, or in aid of any foreign prince, state, potentate, colony, province, or part of any province or people, or of any person or persons exercis. ing or assuming to exercise the powers of government in or over any foreign country. colony, province, or part of any province or people, either as an ofticer or soldier, or in any other military capacity; or if any natural-born subject of His Majesty shall, without such leave or license as aforesaid, accept, or agree to take or accept, any commission, warrant, or appointment as an officer, or shall enlist or enter himself, or shall agree to enlist or enter himself, to serve as a sailor or marine, or to be employed, or engaged, or shall serve in and on board any ship or vessel of war, or in and on board any ship or vessel nised or titted out, or equipped or intendeel to be used, for any warlike purpose, in the service of, or for, or under, or in aid of any foreign power, prince, state. potentate, colony, province, or part of any province or people, or of any person or persons exercising or assuming to exercise the powers of government in or over any foreign country, colony; province, or part of any province or people; or it any vaturalborn subject of His Majesty sholl, without such leave and license as aforesaid, engage. contract, or gree to go, or shall go, to any foreign state, contry, colony, province or part of any province, or to any place beyond the seas, with an intent or in order to enlist or enter himself to serve, or with intent to serve in any warlike or military operation whatever, whether by land or by sea, in the service of, or for, or under, or in aid of any foreign prince, state, potentate, colony, province, or part of any province or people, or in the service of, or for, or under, or in aid of any person or persons exercising or assuming to exercise the powers of government in or over any foreign country, colony. province, or part of any province or people, either as an officer or a soldier, or in any other military capacity, or as an officer or sailor or marine in any such ship or vessel as aforesaid, although no enlisting money or pay or reward shall have been or shall be in any or either of the cases aforesaidi actually paid to or received by him, or by any person to or for his nse or benefit; or if any person whatever, within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, or in any part of His Majesty's dominions elsewhere. or in any country, colony, settlement, island, or place belonging to or subject to His Majesty, shall hire, retain, engage. or procure, or shall attempt or endeavor to hire. retain, engage. or procure, any person or persons whatever to enlist, or to enter or engage to enlist, or to serve or to be employed in any such service or employments as aforesaid, as an officer, soldier, sailor, or marine, either in land or sea service, for, or under, or in aid of any foreign prince, state, potentate, colony, province, or part of any province or people', or for, or under, or in aid of any person or persons exercising or assuming to exercise any powers of government as aforesaid, or to go, or to agree to go. or embark from any part of His Majesty's clominions, for the purpose or with intent to be so enlisted, entered, engaged, or employed as aforesaid, whother any enlisting money, pay, or reward shall have been or shall be actually given or received, or not: in any or cither of such cases, every person so ottending shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon being convicted thereof, upon any information or indictment. shall be punishable by tine and imprisonment, or either of them, it the discretion of the court before which such offender shall be convicted." And it is in and by the said act further enacter :

• That if any person within any part of the United Kingdom, or in any part of his Majesty's dominions beyond the seas, shail, without the leave and license of His Majesty

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for that purpose first had and obtained as aforesaid, equip, furnislı, fit ont, or arm, or attempt or endeavor to equip, furnishi, fit out, or arm, or procure to be equipped, furpishcl, fitted ont, or armed, or sball knowingly aid, assist, or be concerned in the equipping, furnishing, fitting out, or arming, of any ship or vessel, with intent or in order that such ship or vessel shall be employed in the service of any foreign prince, state, or potentate, or of any foreign colony, province, or part of any province or people, or of any person or persons exercising or assuming to exercise any powers of govesoment in or over any foreign state, colony, province, or part of any province or people, as a transport or store-ship, or with intent to cruise or commit hostilities against ang prince, state, or potentate, or against the subjects or citizens of any prince, state, or potentate, or against the persons exercising or assuming to exercise the powers of government in any colony, province, or part of any province or country, or against the inhabitants of any foreign colony, province, or part of any province or country, withi whom His Majesty shall not then be at war; or shall, within the United Kingdom, or any of His Majesty's dominions, or in any settlement, colony, territory, island, or place belonging or subject to His Majesty, issue or deliver any commission for any ship or vessel, to the intent that such ship or vessel shall be employed as aforesaid, every snch person so oftending shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, upon conviction thereof upon any information or indictment, be punishable by fine and imprisonment, or either of them, at the discretion of the court in which such offender shall be convicted: and every such ship or vessel, with the tackle, apparel, and furniture, together. with all the materials, arms, ammunition, and stores, which may belong to or be on board of any such ship or vessel, shall be forfeited ; and it shall be lawful for any officer of His Majesty's customs or excise, or any officer of His Majesty's navy, who is by law empowered to make seizures for any forfeiture incurred under any of the laws of customs or excise, or the laws of trade and navigation, to seize such ships and vesels aforesaid, and in such places and in such manner in wbich the ofiicers of His Maj

esty's customs or excise and the officers of His Majesty's pavy are empowered [9] respectively to make seizures under the laws of customs *and excise, or under

the laws of trade and navigation; and that every such ship and vessel, with the tackle, apparel, and furviture, together with all the materials, arms, ammunition, and stores which may belong to or bo on board of such ship or vessel, may be prosecuted and condemned in the like manner and in such courts as ships or vessels may be prosHeated and condemned for any breach of the laws made for the protection of the revenues of customs and excise, or of the laws of trade and navigation."

And it is in and by the said act further enaet ed: - That if any person in any part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, or in any part of His Majesty's dominions beyond the seas, without the leave and license of His Majesty for that purpose first had and obtained as aforesaid, shall, by adding to the number of the guns of such vessel, or by changing those on board for other guns, or by the addition of any equipment for war, increase or augment, or procure to be increased or augmented, or shall be knowingly concerned in increasing or augmenting, the warlike force of any ship or vessel of war, or cruiser, or other armed vessel which at the time of her arrival in any part of the United Kingdom, or any of His Majesty's dominions, was a ship of war, cruiser, or armed vessel in the service of any foreign prince, state, or potentate, or of any person or persons exercising or assuming to exercise any powers of government in or over any colony, province, or part of any province or people belonging to the subjects of any such prince, state, or potentate, or to the inhabitants of any colony, province, or part of any province or country under the control of any person or persons so exercising or assuming to exercise the powers of government, every such person so ottending shail be deemed guilty of a misdepeanor, and shall, upon being convicted thereof upon any information or indictment, be punishable by fine and imprisonment, or either of them, at the discretion of the court before which suich offender shall be convicted.” Now, in order that none of our subjects may unwarily render themselves liable to the penalties imposed by the said statute, we do hereby strictly command, that 110 person or persons whatsoever do commit any act, matter, or thing whatsoever contrary to the provisions of the said statute, upon pain of the several penalties by tie said statute imposed, aud of onr high displeasure,

And we do berely further warn all our loving subjects, and persons whatsoever antitled to our protection, that if any of them sball presume, in contempt of this our royal proclamation, and of our high displeasure, to do any acts in derogation of their duty as subjects of : neutral sovereign in the said contest, or in violation or contravention of the law of nations in that behalt; as, for example, and more especially, by" entering into the military service of either of the said contending parties as commissioned or non-commissioned otticers or solliers; or by serving as officers, sailors, or marines on board any ship or vessel of war or transport of, or in the service of, either of the said contending parties; or by serving as officers, sailors, or marines on board any privateer bearing letters of marqne of or from either of the said contending parties; or by engaging to go or going to any place beyond the seas with intent tê

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