Imágenes de página


LANGUAGE. Noons and verbs are its only indifpenfable rcquifites, 29

Its principle and canons. See Use.
Sec Engiish language.
LEARNING. Its elements fhould be occasionally blended with moral and
religious mftruction, ix, Exercises, v, 162

Its happieft application, 289, 371—376

LET f ERS. bee Vowels and Consonants.

Several letters in the Englifh alphabet fuperfluous, , 6



MEANS. The phrafes this mians and that means, vindicated, 162..,.165

MELODY, harmony, and expreffion, with regard to Verfification, 261. ..j6,t

As they regard Profe. See Harmony.
MEMBER of i fentence diltinguifhed from a Claufe, 141

Members how to bt pointed, *72, 373

Sec Arrangement and Sentences.
METAPHOR. The nature of it—Rules to be obferved in uCng it, 337—341
ME I ONYMY. The nature of this figure of fpeech, 345

MODE of parfing adapted to produce a radical knowledge of the rules,

Exercises, 18....*5
MOO OS. Their nature and variety explained, 63, 64

The extent and limitation of Englifh Moods, 67, 95

The Potential mood in Englifh fupported, 67

The Potential mood fumifhed with four tenfes, 81

The Potential converted into the Subjunctive, 83

The Subjunctive mood when, and how, varied in its form, from the Indicative,

80, 81, 89, 94, 210
The exiflence of a Subjunctive mood, in Englifh, proved, . 94,05,111

Various opinions of grammarians, reflecting the exiftence, nature, and extent, of
the Englifh Subjunctive mood, 210. 211

In what cafes conjunctions require the Subjunctive mood, 205....209

When contingency and futurity concur, the termination of the verb is varied,

Thefe two points largely exemplified, Exercises, 73—75, Key, 206....209

Indicative mood different from the Potential, 66, 67

Indicative different from the Subjunctive, 66, 8c, 94

Infinitive mood. It* great fimplicity, 64, 65

How the infinitive is governed and applied, 183, 184

The fign to is often mifapplied, 183

When the present and when the perfect, of the infinitive, is to be ufed,


This point elucidated by examples, Exercises, 64, 65, Key, 198, 199

The Infinitive mood further explained, 184

The Infinitive mood often made abfolute, 184

How it is to be pointed, 271

Imperative mood, varioufly applied, 63, 78, 142

Extent of the Imperative, ftrictly confidered, 78, 234

A verb in this mood, is not affirmative, 61, 62

The fame moods connected by conjunctions, 204, 205

This connexion exemplified, Exercises, 72, Key, 206, 207

MOVEMENT and mcafure, how diftinguifhed, 259

MULTITUDE. Noun* of this kind operate varioufly on the verh, i<2

Erroneous opinions reflecting them, 153

MUST and ought, Thefe verbs fhown to have both a prefect and part

fignification, 108, 109


NATIONS. Different nations have ufc>! various contrivances to mark the

moon's, tenles, and cafes, 44, 95, 00, ico, no

NAT IONAL USE, whit it is, 361

NEGATIVES. Two, in J-Jngiifli. form an affirmative, 19S

Two of them arc often uicd in Head of one, 199

This point elucidated, Exercises, 69, Key, 203

NEUTER pronoun it, very varioufly applied, '158

NEUTER verb. See Verb.

NOMINATIVE cifc. Its nature explained, 43

It follows the verh, in interrogative and imperative ftntences, 142

It agrees with the verh, in number and perfon, 143

This point varioufly exemplified. Exercises, 43, 44, Key, 179, liio

The infinitive mood, or part of a fentencc, is olten the nominative cafe to a verh,


NOMINATIVE cafe. Every verb has a nominative cafe, except, &c. 144

Every nominative belongs to fome verh, except, &c. 144

Thefe three rules elucidated by examples, Exercises, 45, 46, Key, 180. _i8i
In certain circumftances, a verb between two nouns, may have either for its
nominative, 145

It may alfo have either of two claufes for its nominative, 145

A nominative before a participle, &c. forms the cafe abfokte, 143

The nominative is commonly placed brfare the verb— in what cafes aft,r it, 140
In the conftruction of the phrafes as follows, as appears, grammarians are di-
vided, 146, 147
A plural verb improperly applied in certain conftructious, 147, 148
A lingular verb improper in other conltructions, 149
The nominative to the verb is fometimes not eafily afcettained, 150, i.(i
Various examples of this pofition, Exercises, 47, K,y, lis, t&;
In what infHnce the relative is. the nominative to the verh, i<o
When there are two nominatives of different pcrfoni, to which Ihould the

verb apply,
Rules for pointing the nominative.
See Case.'

NOUNS. Their nature and divifions,

Three modes of diftinguiming their gender,
But few in Englifh, with variable terminations,
The number of nouns how formed,
Englifh nouns have but three cafes.

Two fucccflive nouns in the poffeflive cafe to be avoided,
Nouns are often formed by participles,
They are often derived from verbs and adjectives,

Singular nouns joined by a copulative, require their verbis, &c. to be in the plu-
ral number, 149
This required even when the nouns are nearly related, 149
Thefe two rules elucidated, Exercises, 46, Key, 182, 1S3
Cafes of difficulty dated, and rcfolved, 130
Thefe cafes further ilkftrated, Exercises, 47, Key, i82, 183
When the nouns are of different perfons, which is to be preferred, 131
Singular nouns connected by a disjunctive, require the verh, &c. to be in
the fingular number, iji
This rule varioufly exemplified, Exercises, 47, Key, 183, 184
When the disjunctive noun and pronoun are of different pcifons, the verb
agrees with the nearer, 1.1
A disjunctive between a fingular and plural noun, requires the verb to be
plural, 132
Nouns of multitude fometimes require a fingular veth, fometimes a plural
otK, 15*. i53
This point exemplified, Exercises, 49, Key, 185


Erroneous opinion reflecting nouns of multitude, 153

One noun governs another in the poffcflive cafe, 173

If the nouns fignify the fame thing, there is no variation of cafe, 174

The nuuns are then in apposition, 174

This conftruciion changed by a relative and verb, 174

Rules for applying, or omitting, the lign of the poiTefiive cafe, 175—I 79

Thcfe rules elucidated by examples, Exercises, 59, 60, Key, 194, 195

The prcpofition of is frequently preferred to the fign of the poffeflive cafe,

177, 178
A noun may be formed by the article and participle, and by the pronoun and
participle, 192—<94

This point largely exemplifieit, Exercises, 6j, 66, Key, zoo, 201

In what cafes the noun is omitted, in what repeated, 218

How to be pointed, 269, 271, 27*

See Case. Declension.

NUMBER. The nature of it ihown, 40

How the piural number of nouns is formed, 40—43

Applicable to nouns, pronouns, and verbs, 40,31, 62


OBJECTIONS to this fyftem of grammar, obviated, ix

Objections to the ftudy of Grammar ar.fwered, 288, 289, 365

OBJECTIVE cafe. Part of a fentence may be termed an objective phrafe, 180
See Case.

OBbUURlTY. It arifes from a wrong choice of words, 296—300

And from a wrong arrangement of them, 306—311

Three chief caufes of writing obfeurely, 298, 299

OPPOSITION. Words oppofed how to be pointed, 27*

Sentiments oppofed how to be expreffed. 324

ORDJ.'R of words and members. See Arrangement.


Far from being uniform, in Englilh, 2$

Rules for forming primitive and derivative words, 22—25

The orthography of Dr. Johnfon not to be altered on flight grounds, 2J

Orthography not to be regulated by pronunciation, 26
See Alphabet, Syllables, fowets and Consonants, tsV.


PARAGRAPHS. Rules for dividing a work into paragraphs, 285—287

PARENTHESIS. In what cafes it is proper, in what improper, 2S0

The point to be ('laced within the marks, 281

PARSING. Its nature and uie, 225

Etymological parfing, 225—227, Exercises, 1—8

Syntactical parting, 227—234, Exercises, 9—25

Etymological parfing table, Exercises, I

Syntactical parfing table, Exercijis, 8, 9

Mode of parfing fentences verbally, Exercises, 18—25

PARTICIPLE. Its nature and properties explained, 64, 65

J'erfcct and pallive participle diflinguilhed, 65

It is not a diftinct part of fpeech, 93

Its ufe in conjugating both the active and paflive verbs, 93, 96, 99

The participle and its adjuncts form a substantive pbrase% 194, 234

The participle has the fame government as its verb, 192

It becomes a fuMUntive, by means of the article, 193

And alfo by means of the pronoun, 193
Numerous examples of thefe two rules, Exercises, 65, 66, Kty, joo, sat


The perfect participle and imperfect teNfe not to be confounded, 194

The participle often appears independent of any noun or pronoun, '195

The participle with its dependences, how to be pointed, 270

Reafons for afligning it a diftinct place in Syntax, 193

PARTICLE as, is not always equivalent to the pronoun it, or that, or vehicb, 213

PARTS of fpeech. Varioufly enumerated by grammarians, 29

The fame word forms different parts of fpeech. See Words.

PAUSES. Their nature, kinds, and ufes, 248. 249

Rules for applying them properly, 449, 2J0

The clofing and fufpending paufes diftinguifhed, 150

Poetical paufes of two forts, 259—261

PERIOD. Directions for ufing it, 277

Thefe directions exemplified, Exercises, 106, 107, Key, 238, 139

PERSONIFICATION. Its nature and ufe, 346—348

PERSONS. Applicable to nouns, pronouns, and verbs, 37, 51, 6:

Three neceffary in each number, 51, 62

The fecond takes place of the third, and the firft of both, 151

The fecond perfon Uthe object of the Imperative, 78

The nominative and verb agree in perfon, 143

How to avoid the confufion of perfons, 131

Relative and antecedent are of the fame perfon, 134

The perfon is variable when the relative is preceded by two nominatives of
different perfons, 160

Perfons of the verb when to be varied, when not, 94, 205—an

This point amply illuftrared, Exercises, 73—75, -Key, 20y, 210

PERSPICUITY and accuracy: Rules to promote them, »93—371

See Purity, Propritty, Precision, Clearness,' Unity, and Strength,

PHRASE. Its nature, 142, **7

How to be pointed, 268, 269

Diverfity of opinion refpecting the phrafe "asfollows," 146, 147

The phrafe, "if he defire it," is properly arranged under the prefent tenie, 21 r
The phrafe, "every leaf and every twig," requires a lingular verh,

Exercises, 190, the Note.
The phrafe, "averse to," u more correct than averse from, 201

POETICAL feet Why called Feet. aja, 253

Formed, in Englifh, by accented and unaccented fyllables, 253

Their kinds, diviftons, and fubdivifions, 953—259

Poetical harmony. See Harmony and Melody.
Poetical paufes. See Pauses.

POSITION of words. Great importance of the fituation, in which words are

placed in the fentence, 326—328

The place of adverbs, relatives, and circumftances, neceffary to the clearness

of a fentence, 306—310

Numerous examples explaining this rule. Exercises, 125—129, Key, 256—260

See Arrangement.

POSSESSIVE cafe. The fign of it when and where to be applied, 175—177
In what inftances, both the fign and the prepofition of are to be ufed, 178

This cafe is fometimes governed by the claufe of a fentence, 178, 195

His, bers, ours, &c proved to be poffeflives, 5*

POTENTIAL mood. See Mood.

PRECISION of language. In what it confifts, 301

Three faults oppofed to prccifion, . 301

Words termed tynonimous are the great fource of a loofe ftyle, 302—304
Precifion of language exemplified, Exercises, 124, Key, 256

PREPOSITIONS. Their nature and office, 117

They often give verbs a new meaning, 117

Certain fyllables improperly termed infeparable prepofitions, 117

The peculiar ife of prepofitions fhowri, 117, 118

Variety of meaning attached to prepofition for, 119, 12©

Prepofitions derived from the Latin and Greek, 120—122

Prepofitions arc often properly omitted, 199, 219

They are not, in general, to be feparated from the relative, or the noun,

199, 200
They govern the objective cafe, 1519

This point elucidated, Exercises, 69, Key, 204

Different relations require different prepofitions, though connected by the lame
verb, 200

Aversr to is more correct than averse from, 201

A copious lilt of errors in applying the different prepofitions, 201—203

The correct life of the prepofitions exemplified Exercises, ;o, 71, Key, 204— zc6
"What prepofitions are proper before nouns of place, 203

When the prepofirion is to be omitted, 219

How to he pointed, 272

PRESENT TIME conGderaNy extended, 69

I'RESENT USE, what it is, 36*

PRONOUN. Its general narure and ufe, 50

It fometimes represents an aujtctivc, fomctimes a phrafe or fentence, 50

Three kinds of pronouns, 51

Three perfons to each number of the pronoun, ti

Why the third perfon only is marked by gender, 31

The Personal pronouns how declined, - 33

The Relative pronoun and its varieties explained, 53, 34

The Relative and Interrogative not diftiuct fpecies, 5J

The Adjettint pronoun and its four fubUivifiuns explained, 55—58

Various opinions, refpecting the Adjective pronouns, and the articles, 58, 59
I'ronouns agree with their antecedents, in gender and number, 154

The pronoun what often represents two cafes, 134

Relatives, though in the objective cafe, are placed before the verb, 153, 179
Pcrfonal pronouns are unneceffary, when the noun itfelf is exprefftd, 155

The pronoun tbat is frequently applied to perfons as well as to things 136

This is fometimes indifpenfable, 136

The pronouns -whichsoever, &c maybe elegantly divided, 136

The objective cafe of the pcrfonal pronouns, is improperly ufed inftead of
these and those, 136

What is improperly ufed for tbat, 136

Tne pronoun -who is often mifapplied for tnhicb, t%f

The relative •wbowax. applicable to little children, 137

When the name of a perfon is ufed, merely as a name, which fhvuld be ufed
inftead of irho, 137

The relative often attended with amhiguity, "58, 310, 311

'J he preceding rules illuftrated by examples, V.xtrcisis 50—$",-eKey, 183—187
It is and it ivas, are often ufed in a plural couftruction 138

What cafe of the pronoun does the Interjection require 138

The neuter pronouB it often refers to the mafculiue, and the feminine gen-
der, 15S, 159
The pronoun it has various applications, 139
The relative is fometimes the nominative to the verb, 139
In what cafes it has a different conftruction, 159
When the pronoun is interrogative, what cafe follows it, 160
This point further explained by examples, Exercises, 33, Key, 188
The relative may agree with either of two nominatives of different perfons, 160
Inflames of this agreement, Exercises, 53, Key, 188
Adjective pronouns agree in number with their nouns, t6i
'This mtam, means, are correct phrafes, 162—163
That refers to the former, ihis to the latter, 165
F.ocb, every, either, refer to the fingular number, 163
'I nis rule exemplified, Exercises, 24. 54, SS, K"yi i8y
The copulative and makes no difference, with regard to this rule.

Exercises, IOO, the Note.
In what cafes the pronoun fhould be omitted; in what cafes repeated, 218
How to be pointed, 273

Vol. II. P p

« AnteriorContinuar »