Communicating Science: The Scientific Article from the 17th Century to the Present

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Oxford University Press, 11 abr. 2002 - 280 páginas
This book describes the development of the scientific article from its modest beginnings to the global phenomenon that it has become today. Their analysis of a large sample of texts in French, English, and German focuses on the changes in the style, organization, and argumentative structure of scientific communication over time. They also speculate on the future currency of the scientific article, as it enters the era of the World Wide Web. This book is an outstanding resource text in the rhetoric of science, and will stand as the definitive study on the topic.

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Índice

Introduction
3
1 Communicative and Argumentative Development Illustrated
17
2 Style and Presentation in the 17th Century
31
3 Argument in the 17th Century
48
4 Style and Presentation in the 18th Century
68
5 Argument in the 18th Century
92
6 Style and Presentation in the 19th Century
117
7 Argument in the 19th Century
139
9 Argument in the 20th Century
187
10 Explaining the Development of the Scientific Article
214
Past Present Future
229
Method for Sampling Scientific Texts
235
Method for Analyzing Scientific Texts
243
NounPhrase Analysis
249
References
253
Index
263

8 Style and Presentation in the 20th Century
161

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Página 68 - To perform my late promise to you, I shall without further ceremony acquaint you, that in the beginning of the Year 1666 (at which time I applyed my self to the grinding of Optick glasses of other figures than Spherical,) I procured me a Triangular glass-Prisme, to try therewith the celebrated Phenomena of Colours.
Página 38 - And, in few words, I dare say that, of all the Studies of men, nothing may be sooner obtain'd than this vicious abundance of Phrase, this trick of Metaphors, this volubility of Tongue, which makes so great a noise in the World.
Página 69 - It was at first a very pleasing divertisement, to view the vivid and intense colours produced thereby; but after a while applying...
Página 69 - I placed my prism at its entrance, that it might be thereby refracted to the opposite wall. It was at first a very pleasing...
Página 65 - Years mentioned, viz. from 87 to 91 inclusive, there were born 6193 Persons, and buried 5869; that is, born per Annum 1238, and buried 1174; whence an Encrease of the People may be argued of 64 per Annum, or of about a 20th part, which may perhaps be ballanced by the Levies for the Emperor's Service in his Wars. But this being contingent, and the Births certain, I will suppose the People of Breslaw to be encreased by 1238 Births annually.
Página 68 - And in order thereto, having darkened my chamber, and made a small hole in my window-shuts, to let in a convenient quantity of the sun's light, I placed my prism at its entrance, that it might be thereby refracted to the opposite wall.
Página 65 - Breslau, which for various reasons he selected, from the imperfect data at his disposal, "as the most proper for a standard, and the rather for that the births did a small number exceed the funerals." He was aware that he wanted the number of the whole people for an accurate calculation ; but Halley's T., constructed upon nearly the same hypothesis as the Northampton T., represented the mort, of mankind with as little inaccuracy, and was upon the whole as...
Página 96 - ... them with one hand, and holding my other on his breast at the left pap, I blew again my breath as strong as I could, raising his chest fully with it, and immediately I felt six or seven very quick beats of the heart ; his thorax continued to play, and the pulse was felt soon after in the arteries. I then opened a vein in his arm, which, after giving a small jet, sent out the blood in drops only for a quarter of an hour, and then he bled freely. In the meantime I caused him to be pulled, pushed,...
Página 38 - Studies of men, nothing may be sooner obtain'd than this vicious abundance of Phrase, this trick of Metaphors, this volubility of Tongue, which makes so great a noise in the World. But I spend words in vain, for the evil is now so inveterate that it is hard to know whom to blame, or where to begin to reform. We all value one another so much upon this beautiful deceipt, and labour so long after it in the years of our education, that we cannot but ever after think kinder of it than it deserves.
Página 112 - If random chance has stumbled on so many improvements, what might industry and experience have effected, when guided by elementary knowledge? The misfortune is that few dyers are chemists, and few chemists dyers. Practical knowledge should be united to theory, in order to produce the most beneficial discoveries.

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