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igovernment a fair opportunity of effecting every practical anieliocration before they resorted to the hazardous alternative of an appeal to the public. The West India proprietors, on the other hand, have been, in a great measure, silent, and whatever may be the imperfection, or, in some points, the error of their views, they have given comparatively little cause of interference to the guardians of the press. Still we have said enough to show, that we by no means contemplate the present system of negro labour as conformable to the enlightened spirit of the age; and to those among the colonists who appear to dislike or dread free discussion, we would add that if the word emancipation, so needlessly and injudiciously brought forward, be omitted, our opinion is that their case cannot fail to gain by continued discussion. Among other results of free inquiry would probably be a conviction, on the part of both the planters and the public, that the security of West India property rests on a firmer basis than is generally supposed in this season of disquietude and alarm.
Art. IX.—Sketches taken during Ten Voyages to Africa, between the Years 1786 and 1800; including Observations on the Country between Cape Palmas and the River Congo, fyc. Sic. Sic. By Captain John Adams. 8vo. pp. 265. London. 1823. HPHE two great problems which have long divided the attention •A of the world, namely, the course and termination of the Niger and the North-west Passage, we may now pronounce, with some confidence, are both in a fair way of being speedily solved; events which, whenever they happen, will overthrow many a beautiful theory, many a.plansibie speculation. Yet the labours of the speculative geographer are not to be despised, even though they should eventually prove erroneous; we should always remember that we owe the discovery of America to false conclusions drawn from a true theory;* and that the belief in a Terra jJustralis incognita led to the brilliant discoveries of Cook.
The speculations to which we allude have at least kept alive the spirit of inquiry. It was enough indeed, of late years, for a traveller to set within the Arctic circle, to raise a theory on the existence of the one; or to iuhale the warm breezes of Africa, to discuss the mystery of the other. Even Captain Adams, who traded for slaves and palm oil in the year 1786, long before the Niger had risen to importance among the learned, or been heard of by the vulgar,
• Columbus knew the earth to be a globe; he knew that to the westward of Europe was a great sea, and to the eastward of J he Moluccas, a great sea; and he therefore concluded, that he should be able to reach the Indies, and greatlv shorten the distance, by (ailing westerly.
. asks, asks, for the first time, in 1823, f Where does the Nker terminate i' That it does riot terminate in the bight of Biafra or Benin, his knowledge \n the slave koffilas and the uegrp p!)ysjognon)y way, for aught we know, enable him to decide; though l)js ground, vyjlj scarcely be deemed tenable by those \vho have adopted the contrary hypothesis. (now Major) Denham, who was educated at the Royal Military College, and served in the Peninsular war. To these was added a carpenter from the dock-yard at Malta, by name John Hillman. From the private correspondence of these gentlemen with their friends, we shall be able to glean some little account of their proceedings.
Had these ' ^ketches' been given to the public when first faken, they might have been found sufficiently interesting; (tut »o much has been said of this part of Africa within the last tw enty or thirty years, that they uo longer possess the advantage of novelty; and we Suspect that few readers will now turn for amusement to the trite details of blind and brutal superstition, or wanton and promiscuous slaughter. To the African trader, however, who may be interested in the customs of King Cootry, King Pepple, and King fjole; or jybo may wish to know the relative value which a certain quantity of gold-dust, ivory or palm-oil may bear to a given portion of Bejulapauts, Negampauts, Sastracundies, or Calawapores, the Jittle volume of Captain Adams will, we doubt pot, prove a valuable guide, and obtain for the writer's commercial speculations more .credit than we incline to allow him for his geographical ones.
Leaving the work, therefore, to be studied by those whose occupation leads them to the coast of Africa, between ' Cage JPalmas and the River Congo, ' we hasten to Jay before our readers some authentic information respecting a portion of the interior pf Africa, hitherto unexplored and untrodden by Christian foot; the perusal of which, we think, will not only be highly interesting, bu,t will be found very considerably to add to the present state of Albican geography, as well as to correct many errors in it.
It may be recollected that, after the death of Mr. Ritcljie? and the jeturn pf Lieutenant (now Captain) Lyon.bis Majesty's goveriunent, .With the laudable intention of promoting science, and extending the British name and character, ajid evei^jiisdly ^ts commerce? into countries little known and difficult of access, a,s WjejJ as to encourage ithat spirit of enterprise w hich has t,ended i» nP small deg/ee tp raise -this country to the proud emjnence on which it s,tands, resolved to sfollow up that unsuccessful mission. Th,e Bashaw of Tripoli had signified to the Br>Ush eonjsul his readiness jto escort as far as Borflqu, with the Sidtari of whifih he was in^rict aHjance, apy British .travellers who might be accredited hj .tj'eir government. Of so good an opportunity Lord Bathur^t readjly availed hirnself, and Jiiree gentlemen volunteers y»ere appointed for tlus service— Doctor Oudnej, a we>ll-inforjn,ed ISorth B.'U9i}, <md a naval surgeon; Mr. Clapperton, a lie.ujte.na.ujt \W the na\y» fmd Lieutenant
They were kindly received by the Bashaw, and, after the usual delay in preparing for the journey, set out with an escort for Mourzouk. They had been advised by the Bashaw to clothe themselves, as all former travellers had done, in Moorish or Arab dresses; but this disguise is so easily seen through, that they determined to wear their own dress, and openly to avow themselves Englishmen and Christians wherever they might go: and the result has been, that they have never experienced the slightest insult or inconvenience among any of the numerous tribes with whom they have had intercourse.
Another tedious delay of a whole year at Mourzouk had at least one good'effect, that of enuring them to a still warmer climate; while their frequent journeys to various parts of Fezzan brought them acquainted with the manners, the language, and the disposition of the natives. During their long residence here, they experienced no ill effects either from climate, want of provisions, or badness of water. The doctor's fame spread rapklly into every part of Fezzan and beyond it, and patients poured in from every side to enjoy the benefit of his advice and his physic.
At length the time of their departure arrived; and Boo Khaloom, a particular friend of the Bashaw of Tripoli, was appointed to command the escort, consisting of 300 Arab horsemen—far more than were necessary, but ordered out of the abundant care of the bashaw for the subjects of his cousin of England. In the month of November, 1822, they left Mourzouk, following the route laid down by Captain Lyon, as far asTegherry. From this place they crossed a dreary desert, occasionally somewhat enlivened by little hollows or valleys, in which wells were found for themselves and their cattle, consisting of a multitude of camels in addition to the horses. In the course of four or five hundred miles, they passed a few villages and several towns inhabited by the Tibbos, whose territories cover a large extent of this wild region, and who consider themselves entitled to a certain tribute for keeping the wells in repair. These people, the most harmless perhaps of the numerous tribes whom a life of precarious subsistence has thrown upon this miserable country, treated our travellers with great kindness, and in their whole conduct fully justified the character given of them by Captain Lyon. Yet they are not safe nor unmolested even in their deserts, being subject to the depredations of the Tuaricks, a fiercer
race, race, who plunder the unprotected villages situated in the valleys, or little Oases; but seldom venture to attack the larger towns, erected on the tops of detached and naked brown hills, which here and there rise out of the gray surface, like rocks out of the sea. Of these towns our travellers passed four, whose names are Kishbee, Ashanumma, Dirkee, and Bilma.
Bilma is the great mart of salt for a considerable.part of Soudan, 30,000 camel loads of which are said to be carried away yearly by the trading part of the Tuaricks. This is not dug out of the earth in masses, as has been represented; but manufactured by a very simple process: shallow pits, banked round with sand and mud, are dug, after the rains, which soon fill by water oozing in from below. The heat of summer evaporates the water, and leaves behind an incrustation of good culinary salt.
From Bilma to Agades one desert of sand succeeded another, with here and there ridges of dark sandstone peeping out of the dreary surface, exhibiting neither plant nor living creature, nor any other object to rest or relieve the wearied eye. One single wadey, or valley, near Bilma, about half-way between Mourzouk and Bornou, produced grass and shrubs, and a few date trees. There was no want, indeed, of frequent wells, the water of which was tolerably good; and near these generally were found a few tufts of grass; great numbers of their camels, however, perished for want of food.
On the 4th February, twenty days after 4:heir departure from Bilma, they reached Lari, the frontier town of Bornou. Here the country suddenly changed for the better. Large herds of antelopes were bounding over the plains; guinea fowls and turtle-doves were most abundant, and grass and accacia trees clothed in some degree the surface. Several villages also made their appearance, the houses of which, like those of Lari, consisted of bell-shaped huts .formed of the straw of dhurra. Lari is situated in about 14° 40' north latitude, and nearly on the same meridian with Mourzouk.
Here our travellers suddenly got sight of the great lake of Bornou, called the Tsaad, which, extending easterly, receives the little streams of those northerly valleys in which most of the Kanem villages are situated. Hence they continued their route in a southern direction for seven days, without leaving the Tsaad at any great distance, the road mostly lying within sight of its waters or banks; the former presenting numerous bays and inlets, and islands covered with thickets and tall reeds; the latter was low, though a sandy embankment of forty or fifty feet in height ran parallel to the margin of the lake at the distance of one and sometimes two miles from it, having apparently formed, at one time, the bank of the Jake, and still, perhaps, forming it in the rainy season; as the . .,- l L 3 ground ground between this and the lake was in many blacec bbsef vetl fb be ov'erfittw^di feven frbnl ihe effect, as it appeared, Of the northers! wind; Several elbpHiirits were seen simony the accacla woddJ, and twb Or three were observed brbwsiilg amottg the rfebdy islands. The whole nfeighbburhodfl was well stocked with tillages, among which was one of a larger kind, named Butted; With mud walls, whose houses and huts were observed Id be neat and clean, and all its inhabitants decbnlly clothed.
Leaving Iiari, and at the distant frbni it of about sixly mites beyond the commbdcemerit of the lake, they crdssfcd the river Fabk (the Zail of Hbrriemarin arid the 'lW'l bf BurekhaWt); fldwing frbm the westward Ihtb trie lake; being How a stream1 of about a hundred feet wide, add ruririiug at the rate of a mile an hour, between high sandy banks from two to three hundred feet ajsbrt. It is this river which is said tb overflow id thfe raltiy season, and intfci which Burckhardt says a female slave is thrbwh bh the occasion by order of the king.
At thfe fdrd where bllr travellers brosseH; twb Hide ill-shapefa boats Were lying bn the batik: Tneir gratification Hi meetidg with such a river, after a thousand nWii Ifefiriy bf desert} "will readily fete iniaglribd. In all their letters they sp^ai warmly of its beat!ties> thfe calmrifesfc tirid ifoMrieis df its waters) fH§ cdHifort it seerned to add tb 'the hamerorjs little villages scatterbd along its banks, arid the pp§sibility of its being the far famed Niger,—which it unquestionably fs. A walled town bf the same name,' Yi'dit; istbbd bn its banks. Frohi this place to Kouka, the residericb of the Sheik, is a fide beaten track, covered with k'ofilas bf bullocks transporting me?Chandiize; arid with fotit passbrigers mostly armed with spears; anftf cheerfully trooping along. Apprdachirig within bne day's jourriey of the residence of the Sheik, bur travellers received a message from hini, iti answer to one announcing their arrival; that he would receive Hifedt at Kouka the next day. The accounts of this personage had been sd contradictory, that they approached his capital in an interesting state of uncertainty; whbther they should find him at the head of thousands, or whether tie Would reteeive them under a tree, surrounded by a few hegrbbs;
They Were sbbn, however, relieved froin their suspense; for^ oh arriving within a few milbs of Kouka, they Were astonished with the appearance of about four thdusarid cavalry drawn tip to receive them, well arriied with spears; and a body of negroes, called the Sheik's guard; these latter were clothed in coats of ifoh chaih-wOrk, fctosed at the neck and drawn Over the head like la Guernsey frdck, which; dividing both before arid behind, fell oil each side Of the horse, and protected the thighs also. Gil their heads tbey wore skull-cabs of iron br brasb; fastened on With