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horoscope of his fate. Subucagi being alleep at the time of his birth, dreamed that he beheld a green tree springing forth from his chimney, which threw its shadow over the face of the earth, and screened from the storms of heaven the whole ani; mal creation. This indeed was verified by the justice of Mamood ; for if we can believe the poet, in his reign the wolf and the sheep drank together at the fame brook. In the first month of his reign a vein of gold, resembling a tree of three cubits in circumference, was found in Seiftan, which yielded pure gold till the reign of sultan Musaood, when it was lost in consequence of an earthquake. 7. When sultan Mamood had settled his dispute with his brother, he haftened to Balich, from whence he sent an ambafiador to Amir Mansur, emperor of Bochara, complaining of the indignity which he met with in the appointment of Bu&usin to the regency of Chorrassan: it was returned to him for anfwer, that he was already in possession of the territories of Balich, Turmuz, and Herat, which held of thé empire ; and that there was a necessity to divide the favours of Bochara among her friends. Buctufin, it was also insinuated, had been a faithful and good servant.

• But fultan Mamood, not discouraged by this answer, fent Abul Hassen Jemmavi with rich presents to the court of Bochara, and a letter in the following terins : " That he hoped the pure spring of friendship which had flowed in the time of his father should not now be polluted with the ashes of indignity, nor he himself reduced to the necessity of divesting him. self of that obedience which he had hitherto paid to the imperial family of Samania."

• When Abul Hassen delivered his embassy, his capacity and elocution appeared fo great to the emperor, that defirous to gain him over to his interest by any means, he bribed him at last with the honours of the vizarit, but never returned an anfwer to Mamood. Sultan Mamnood having received information of this tranfaction, through necessity turned his face towards Nefhapoor ; and Buctusin, advised of his intention, abandoned the city, and sent the emperor intelligence of his situation. Amir Munsur, upon this, exalted the imperial standard, and in the rashness of inexperienced youth, haftened towards Chorraffan, and halted not till he arrived at Sirchus, Sultan Mamood, though he well knew that Amir Munsur was in no condition to oppose him, yet gratitude to the imperial family of Samania wrought so much upon his mind, that ashamed of measuring spears with his lord, he evacuated the country of Neshapoor, and marched to Murghab. Buctusin, in the mean time, treacherously entered into a confederacy with Faeck, and forming a conspiracy in the camp of Amir

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Munsur, seized upon the person of that prince, and cruelly put out his eyes. Abdul, the younger brother of Munsur, who was but a boy, was advanced by the traitors to the throne. Being however afraid of the resentment of fultan Mamood, the conspirators haftened to Murve, whither they were pursued by the fultan with great expedition. Finding themselves, upon their march, hard pressed in the rear by Mamood, they halted and gave him battle. But the fin of ingratitude had darkened the face of their fortune, so that the gales of victory blew upon the standards of sultan Mamood. Faeck carried off the young king, and fled to Bochara, and Butusin was not heard of for some time; but at length he found his way to 'Faeck, and begun to collect his scattered troops. Faeck, in the mean time, fell fick, and foon went into the regions of death. Elich Chan seizing upon the opportunity offered him by that event, marched with an army from Kashgar to · Bochara, and rooted Abdul Mallick and his adherents out of the empire and the soil of life. Thus the prosperity of the house of Samania, which had continued for the space of one hundred and twentyseven years to illuminate the firmament of empire, set for ever in darkness.'

Notwithstanding the extensive conquests of Mamood, and his becoming the most powerful emperor of his time, he still owned the calif of Bagdat for his superior, and paid him all the respect which was due from a tributary. This submission arose from his zeal for the laws of Mahomet; and he seems to have adopted the doctrine of that great impoftor, that nonconformity with Mahometanism is a sufficient warrant for waging the moit unjust wars, and perpetrating the most inhuman massacres. It is of no great importance whether Mamood was a real or pretended zealot, but he was at the head of enthusiasts who einbraced his doctrine, and performed wonders under his command. His first expedition to Hindoftan was about the year of Christ 1000. We cannot enter into particulars; but his success was great, and his acquisitions incredible. His second expedition foon succeeded the first ; and his third was undertaken in 1004. The rajas or Indian princes opposed him with great spirit : nothing, however, could with. stand the valour of Mamood, and the enthusiasin of his fol. lowers

In his fourth expedition, which he undertook about the year 1006, he had a great battle with a raja, one Elich Chan, whom he at last defeated, chiefly by his own personal valour. *. The sultan (says our author) after this victory, proposed to pursue the enemy, which was thought unadviseable by his generals, on account of the inclemency of the season, it being then winter, and the troops hardly capable of motion : but

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the king was positive in his resolution, and marched two daya after the runaways. On the third night, a great storm of wind and snow overtook the army of Mamood in the defart. The king's tents were with much difficulty pitched, while the army was obliged to lie in the snow. Mamood having ordered great fires to be kindled around, bis tents, they became fo warmo that many of the courtiers begun to turn off their upper garments is, when a facetious chief, whose name was Dilk, came in fhivering with cold. The king observing him, fajd, Goa

Dilk, and tell the Winter that he may burft his cheeksi with blustering, for here we value not his resentment.. Dilk went out accordingly, and returning in a short time, kissed the ground, and thus presented his address : “ I have delivered the sultan's message to Winter ; but the surly season replies, that if his hands cannot tear the skirts of the king and his attendants, yet he will fo execute his power to night on his army, that in the morning his majesty thall be obliged to faddle his own horses."

The king smiled at this reply, but it presently rendered him thoughtful, and determined him to proceed no farther. In the morning forne hundreds of men and horses were found to have perished with the cold.'

Mamood's fifth expedition was undertaken about the year 1908, or the year of the Hegira 399, at which tiine he was obliged to entrench himself and his troops against a confederacy of the rajas. The consequences are remarkable.

! The king having thus secured himself, ordered a thousand archers to his front, to endeavour to provoke the enemy to advance to the entrenchments. · The archers accordingly were attacked by the Gickers, who, notwithstanding all the sultan could do, pursued the runaways within the trenches, where a dreadful scene of laughter ensued on both sides, in which five thousand muffelmen in a few minutes drank the wine of martyrdom. The enemy at length being slain as fast as they ad vanced, the attack became fainter and fainter, when on a sudden, the elephant upon whichs Anniodpal rode took fright at the report of a girl, and turned his face to flight. st. This circumstance ftruck the Hindoos with a panic, for thinking they were deserted by their sovereign, they immediately followed the example. Abdulla Tai, with fix thoufand Arabian horse, and Arhilla Hajib, with ten thousand Turks, Afghans, and Chillages, pursued the enemy for two days and nights; so that twenty thousand Hindoos were killed in their flight, together with the great multitude which fell on the field of battle,

This circunstance of the elephant being frightened, at that time, by, the noise ofja gun, is taken notice of by Mr. Dow, who observes, that they are mentioned by many Eastern wri.

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ters of this period ; and, indeed, there can be no doubt of the fact, that the Chinese, long before this date, knew the use of great artillery and gunpowder. It was probably introduced into Germany by some of the European soldiers who had ferved under Tamerlane; and it is poffible that the materials of the composition might have been discovered by a German monk or chemifti come

Mamood, after this, proceeded with irresistible rapidity in his conquests; but a reader who is not acquainted with the Eastern manner of computing, must be at a loss to form proper ideas of the plunder he made in gold and jewels. - We inay eafily, however, conceive it to have been immense ; for it happened very conveniently for him, that the breaking and carrying away the massy idols of the Hindoos formed part of his creed, and therefore became with him a religious duty.

His fixth expedition was in the year of Christ. 1o11, and his seventh in 1013. His eighth was in 1016 ; and upon

his return from it to Ghizni, covered with victory and loaded with Spoil, he ordered a magnificent mosque to be built of marble and granate, of such Beauty and structure, as struck every beholder with astonishment and pleasure. This mosque he af. terwards adorned with such beautiful carpets, chandeliers, and other ornaments of silver and gold, that it became known by the name of the Celestial Bride. In the neighbourhood of this mosque he founded an university, which he furnithed with a vast collection of curious books, in various languages, and with natural and artificial curiosities. He appropriated a sufficient fund for the maintenance of the students, and learned men who were appointed to instruct the youth in the sciences:

It is not to be diffembled, that however entertaining this work is, and whatever its authenticity may be, yet the Englifh reader is under great disadvantages from the very coinmendable punctuality of Mr. Dow in retaining the original names of men and places. We think, in.fo.ne passages, he would not have violated his fidelity, if he had contracted the barbarously-founding appellations of his originals into any fingle name, so as the person or the place might be known by 'it, instead of multiplying fo ferupulously as he has done their de. fignations in the Persian tongue. The authors of the Modern part of the Universal History have, in this particular, exceeded Mr. Dow, by a tenacious attachment to names, some of which are a line and a half long. The practice, however, is natural in writers, who being completely masters' of a language, are not bound to reflect, that what is familiar to them may sound uncouth to their readers.

Ferishta describes the city of Ghizni, at this time, as the Jichest and most pompous in the world. ' of this we must en.

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tertain some doubt, because we have heard of none of those ftupendous ruins which ftill mark the glories of Rome and Athens, and other cities of far greater antiquity than Ghizni. We shall not tref afs farther upon the reader, in giving the particular dates of Mamood's subsequent expeditions (which were above twelve) into Hindoftan. It is sufficient to say, that the hiftory of his fucceffes, conquests, and acquisitions, would appear fabulous, were they not rendered credible by those of the East India company in the same country. Had Mamood encountered any other than the effeminale Hindoos, we should have entertained higher ideas of his prowess and 'valour. It is not, however, to be doubted that he was a brave, indefatigable prince, and endowed with many noble qualities for government. Upon his last victorious return to his capital, he died of the stone in the fixty-third year of his age, and in the year 1028 of the Christian ära.

Mamood's succession was disputed between his' two fons, Moliummud and Musaood. They were twins, and Musaood, who was the elder, prevailed.

[ To be continued.]

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II. Philosopbical Transaktions, giving some Account of the present Un

dertakings, Studies, and Labours of the Ingenious, in many confiderable Paris of the World. Vol. LVII. For the Year 1767. 410. Pr. 155. Davis and Reymers. Concluded.

RTICLE XXVI. contains experiments on the Peruvian

bark, by Thomas Percival, M. D. F. R. S.formerly published

Number twenty-seven is an inquiry into the probable parallax and magnitude of the fixed stars, from the quantity of light which they afford us, and the particular circumstances of their situation, by the Rev. John Michell, B. D. F. R. S.

The hypothetical method here propofed, is to inquire what would be the parallax of the sun, if he were removed so far from us, as to make the quantity of light, which we should then receive from him, no more than equal to that of the fixed stars.

In this paper we find the following solution of the twinkling of the fixed stars.

Having never yet seen any folution of the twinkling of the fixed stars, with which I could rest satisfied, 'I shall offer the following, which may not perhaps be found an inadequate cause of that appearance; at least it has undoubtedly some Ihare in producing it, especially in the smaller stars.

• Vide Critical Review, vol. xxv. p. 105.

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