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fructive of all society, humanity, and liberty, and keeps its votaries to this day in slavery and ignorance.
In the sequel his lord ship's tutor lays great stress on the points of antiquity and univerfality ; ' Because (says he) they consist so necessarily and aptly with the divine providence, which cannot justly be supposed to be so defective, as to leave any age or country wholly destitute of means to know and serve him
; so that, if not in their religion (which commonly was the invention of their priests) the gentiles might yet in the laws of their country, (cominanding a good life) and the notions in their fouls, find some means to keep a good conscience, and from thence to affure themselves of the obtaining of a better life hereafter, w This (to speak candidly) seems to be the ground-work of
all our author's arguments ; for afterwards his work branches out into particular modes of faith and worship practised by different nations, of antiquity, beginning with those of the Egyptians, to whom he pays particular deference. I approve (says his tutor) much your beginning at. Egypt, for if Abraham and Moses himself, who seemed first to institute religious worship according to the rites and ceremonies observed among the Jews, were thought to be learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians; it cannot be amiss to enquire, what this wisdom was, especially since it is thought so ancient in that nation, as whether in the observation of the stars, or the principles of their philosophy, or the grounds of their religious worship, according to the several degrees thereof, or the magic arts, if lawful, practised among them, or of alchymy, which one Hermes is said to have invented, and Sethosis and the Egyptian priests to have practiled till the time of Dioclesian, anno 294, who commanded all the books he could get concerning that art to be burnt, because they made gold, if we may believe Suidas in that particular,',
We cannot think the turn his lordship gives to the words of Suidas is quite candid. Any reader must naturally conclude, in perusing the above quotation, that Suidas said the Egyptian art of alchymy enabled their prieits to make gold; but, in fact, he says no more than that Dioclefian ordered all the writings concerning the fusion, of filver and gold to be burnt, left the Egyptians, being enriched by that art, and relying upon their wealth, hould rebel.
Our readers may perceive that there is nothing affirmative here spoken by Suidas; and undoubtedly Dioclesian acted the part of a wise and a great prince, in ordering those foolish, romantic books, which might induce the Egyptians to rebel, to be burnt. ITo be continued and concluded in our next.]
VIII. An Abridgment of Sacred and Ecclefiaftical History, from the
Creation to the End of the XV1Iih Century of Chriftianity. Together wild a short Catechetical Explanation of the Principles of Natural and Revealed Religion. To which are added an Appendix to the second Chapter of Sacred Hiftory; and 10 the fixth Century of the Ecclefiaftical History. By the Rev. Jaines Pelletreau, M. A. Pr. 55. Johnston.
He use of such abridgements as this, in which the
transactions of many centuries are crouded into a small volume, is rather to refresh the memory, than to instruct the vnexperienced and unlearned reader. In this respect the present work may be of service; but it is far from being either an elegant, or an accurate compilation. For what can be said for the accuracy
of a writer, who reckons the two days of Purim in the number of Jewish fafts? when, on the contrary, they are fefivals, which have been usually kept with such extra. vagance, that they have been called the Bacchanalia of the Jews. If the author had only looked into the book of Esther, he might have avoided this mistake.
But he has even misrepresented the well-known account which Pliny has given of the Christians in Bithynia. That writer says,
Affirmabant hanc fuiffe fummam vel culpæ fuæ, vel erroris, quod effent soliti stato die ante lucem convenire; carmenque Chrifto, quafi deo, dicere fecum invicem ; seque facramento non in fcelus aliquod obftringere, fed ne furta, ne iatrocinia, ne adulteria committerent, ne fidem fallerent, ne depositum appellati abnegarent: quibus peractis morem fibi discedendi fuiffe, rursusque coëundi ad capiendum cibum, proiniscuum tamen, & innoxium.”
Here Pliny fimply relates the confeffions of those christians who had been brought before him. But the author of this Abridgement makes him say, "I have inquired carefully into the tenets and life of those who are called Christians, and I find that they frequently allemble in feasts of temperance and reciprocal amity; especially that they have a folemn alfembly on the first day of the week, in which they mutually bind themselves by oath (probably by receiving the sacrament) to be pious, jast, and temperate; and accordingly their life and conversation is more regular, holy and equitable, than that of other men." hii
The last sentence in this paragraph is an extraordinary testimony in favour of the Christians ; but one of those pious frauds in ecclesiastical history, which never did any real honour to Christianity. It is, in fa&t, nothing but an impertinent addition to the words of Pliny, who only reports the account which
the Christians had given him of the true design of their assem. blies, and does not say, that they were more regular, boly, and equitable than other men.
Mr. Pelletreau tells us, that the two first centuries were the golden age of Christianity ; but the superior lustre of that period, like that of the golden age of the poets, is perhaps altogether imaginary. Cave, speaking of those times, iays, Turpiffima Gnofticorum bærefis, Valentiniani, Carpocratiani, Menandriani, Marcionitæ, &c. Scholæ Simonianæ ex præcedenti fæculo propagines, latius fe diffundunt. Succedunt bærefes Tatiani, Mon:ani, Theodori, ut alias impurisimas festas taceam. Under these circumstances, can this be considered as the golden age of the church? We mention this as a matter of doubt, not as an error ; for many are of Mr. Pelletreau's opinion.
At the conclusion he has subjoined some useful chronological tables, with observations, relative to ecclesiastical history.
The catechisın is a plain system of Christian doctrines, upon ibofe principles which are usually stiled orthodox.
IX, The Doktrine of Inflammations founded upon Reason and Experi
enee ; and intirely eleared from the contradictory Systems of Boerhaave, Van Swieten, and Others. By Daniei Magenise, M. D. 8vo. Pr. 35. Owen.
HE doctrine hore invalidated is contained in the 371st
with the remarks of this author upon it.
Eftque fanguinis rubri arteriosi in minimis canalibus stagnantis preffio & attritus a motu reliqui fanguinis moti, & perfebrem fortius acti.”
• Several incoherencies occur in this definition of our celebrated author; for he supposes a stagnation, an obstruction, a pressure, and an attrition of the same red arterial blood violently moved and agitated in an inflamed part; these are indeed opposites which can never subhít together in the same place; for the inflamed vessels are obstructed, or they are not; if they are obstructed, the blood must stagnate in them, and remain without motion; on the contrary, if they are not obftructed, an obstruction should not be accounted one of the causes of an inflammation, as it is a fierted in the foregoing aphorism. Moreover, an obstruction excludes all motion, for it is a stoppage of one or many veisels, which hinders the distribution of the fluids in the part so affected so that it is a gangrene in miniature, with this difference, that the obstructed matter does not destroy the veffels, so soon as the former ;, but every one believes, that a gangrene excludes the distribution of the
Auids in the affected part; therefore it follows very plain, from the true notion we have here given of an obstruction, that the same must happen wherever it takes place.'
• Our author supposes the obstructed or stagnated blood to be violently moved by attrition. Indeed, he might as well say, that the blood was, at rest, and violently moved at the same time, which re two contradictories.
• Hence it is evident, that the doctrine of inflammations, which may be reckoned the basis of physic and furgery, has been founded hitherto upon a contradiction, and received as a truth by most of the physicians and surgeons in Europe.'
It inust be acknowledged that the definition of an inflammation, in the aphorism above cited, is apparently inconsistent : but it ought to be remembered, that in speaking of an inflammation arising from obstruction, we do not confine our idea to the vessel originally affected, but include the aggregate of all the circumjacent arteries in which the velocity of the fluids is increased: in that definition, therefore, a partial stagnation is not incompatible with a more general, and increased attrition.
Dr. Magenise endeavours farther to invalidate the doctrine of Boerhaave, as being repugnant to the curative indications; alledging that, if an inflammation proceeded from a ftagnation, or siziness of the blood, serum, or lymph in the capillary versels, the medicines properly called aperients and attenuants, as safsafras and lignum guaiaci, would be very effectual' in the cure of the disease, even in its more advanced state ; but on the contrary, they are found to increase it, by their stimulating quality. In regard to this 'observation, it proves only the impropriety of attempting to cure a phlogistic and phlegmatic vilcidity of the blood by the same medicines. But that attenuating medicines, if not too stimulating, are not injurious, even in acute inflammations, nay, on the contrary, are highly advantageous, both experience and established practice authorise us to maintain : nor can it be admitted as an argument against the supposed proximate cause of a disease, that the symptoms should be increased by the use of a remedy adapted to one intention, while at the same time it is repugnant to a concomitant indication of importance.
The proper definition of an inflammation, froin its proxi, mate and immediate causes, is, according to this writer, an erethism of the refels, with the velocity of the fluids preternaturally increased. It is admitted, that in all violent inflammations of membranous and irritable parts, an erethism, or general ftricture of the vascular system takes place: but though in inflammations arising from external irrita:ion, such an erethifin might be the cause of the diseafe, yet the fapposition of that prin
ciple being the universal and only possible cause of internal infiammations, is contrary to our conceptions of the laws of the animal economy, which evince not only the plausibility of obstructions happening in the capillary arteries, but likewise an increased velocity of the fluids in the contiguous vefsels, consequent to such accidents.
Upon the whole, therefore, it feems evident, that the opinion of an inconsistency in the definition of Boerhaave, proceeds from not distinguishing properly an obstruction, from the inflammation which is propagated by it. We acknowledge, however, that the treatise is ingenious, and that the author discovers a capacity for abftrufe investigation.
X. The Summer-House ; or, the History of Mr. Morton and Miss
Bamsted. z Vols. 1 2 mo. Pr. 6s. Noble.
his novel are but faintly, and sometimes unnaturally marked, deserves approbation for the fimplicity and uniformity of his story.
Mr. Bamsted, a severe, unfeeling father, is going to turn his daughter out of doors for refufing to marry Mr. Shipton, an old batchelor. The young lady is protected and comforted by her amiable mother; but finding the father relentless, a scheme of elopement is còntrived and executed between them; and Miss escapes to the house of Mrs. Haynes, who is a mighty good fort of a woman. While they are deliberating on this scheme, a poor woman, with extreme marks of anisery in her person and attire, but with an appearance which discovered that she had seen better days, applies to Mr. Bamfted for relief, who drives her away in a barbarous, vociferous manner. Mrs. Bamsted, however, contrives matters so, that, unknown to her husband, the unfortunate ftranger is lodged in a neighbour, ing farm-house ; and, after paying her some visits, Mrs. Bamsted discovers in her a woman of excellent sense and polite educa. tion, but reduced to the most wretched circumstances, by the cruelty and infidelity of her husband, Mr. Morton, whom she had left in America, together with a young son whom she bad by him, and whom she gave over for loft, as thinking he had been carried away by fome ruffians who had robbed her
house. * tiu
In the mean time Mr. Shipton understanding how cruelly Mr. Bamsted had used bis daughter, generously gives up all his pretensions to her hand; and Miss Bamsted, thinking that her elopement was an undutiful step, was preparing to return to her father's house, when the received a visit from one Mr.