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of nature, he 'reckons, 1. Those reptiles and infects which swarm about dead bodies, and feed upon their substance; 2. Those animals which attach themselves to the living bodies of others, and draw their' nourishineuit from thence; 3. Those birds which are employed in digging up, and destroying the reptiles and insects which live upon the surface of the earth, and upon trees and plants"; 4. Thofe which hover over the waters and feed uponiffish ; '5. The carnivorbus race which are confined to the land, fuch as lions, tygers, wolves, bears, among the qua. drupeds; eagles, vultures, cormorants, hawks, among the birds. Lastly, • Man himfelf, continues our author, is to be ranked among the species which exist in the animal system in confequence of this inititution. Does he not live chiefly upon fleth? And suppose there are some that are supported by vegetables only, yet is their number equal to the others ?' And is the vigor, strength, and courage of this class to be placed in competition with the vigor, strength, and courage of those that live upon animal food? Without such an institution of Providence, threefourths of the human species would be destitute of luftenance; for all the human race could not poflibly live upon the fruits of the tarth. The greateft part of her produ&tions are not fit for use before they have been digested, and converted into the fubftance of the animals which feed upon them."''And with respect to those who live immediately upon vegerable food, there are few countries that produce it in quantities sufficient to renderit the only support of their inhabitants. But let us'fuppose the earth to enjoy all the fertility requisite for this purpofe, it could not enjoy it, especially in some parts, but in confequence of cultivation. But this cultivation requires leisure, skill, improvements: it requires fome acquaintance with the operations necefsary for the production of plants: it requires the plow, the spade, the mattock, that is, a knowledge of inetals, and how to work then it fuppofes also fome established community, certain forms of government, and a favourable fituation with respect to the neighbouring nations. It requires that those who cultivate the earth, should be perfuaded of protection againit the injustice of individuals, and the rapine of a foreign eneiny. Where any one of these circumstances is wanting, it will be extremely difficult, not to say impracticable, to establiny agriculture, parti. *cularly in the colder climates, where the earth is fruitful for some few months in the year only, and where men are obliged, in consequence, to lay up store of provisions for the winter leafon.-- W at proof therefore can be more conclusive,' that men are destined hto feed upon the flesh of animals, and not merely upon the produce of the earth ? ' And accordingly this intention of Providence is deeply imprinted upon the manners, appetites,
and customs of the greatest part of the human species. Most spations are fond of hunting, and pursue it; inost regard the flesh of animals as their favourite food.'
It has been remarked, that the teeth in men are formed differently from those of the carnivorous race; and that therefore they cannot, according to the intention of nature, belong to this class of animals. . But, says our author 'in answer to this objection, they have four eye teeth, as they are termed, which is not the case with the animals that live entirely upon fruits... Suppose, however, the human species to be deftitute of this kind of instrument, which is appropriated to seize, and tear the food in-pieces, rather than to chew it, men do not, it is very apparent, stand in absolute need of such an invention, since nature has furnished them with more powerful methods of producing this effect.'
Having removed some other objections, he proceeds to prove, that the accession of these new species, so far from being in. jurious, is both advantageous, and effentially necessary.
. This second propofition, he says, must be considered, according as it relates to the two different classes of animals which live upon fefh; for some are carnivorous without destroying their prey; others both destroy and devour.
Our proposition is already proved with respect to the first class of carnivorous animals. -It is evident that an increase of life results from their existence, which is no ways injurious to the other species. A cursory examination of their origin, progress, , and employment, will immediately demonstrate, that they are created to gather the spoils of life in fome, and to preserve others in health and vigor. An animal no fooner expires, than we behold them affembled in swarms around the carcase. Some seem to have sprung froin the subitance itself; others are allured by the vapours exhaling from it, and which are scattered by the svind: the body quickly becomes a re animated mass; the different parts of which are afterwards dispersed, and refign in their turn the gift of life to other species, or preserve it according to their particular order and class. :., Such is the wonderful economy of nature ! Thus it is that by multiplying the species, the living substance suffers no di: minution! Its very destruction serves to re-produce it! Thus does the flame of life, after it is textinguished in one class of animals, immediately re-kindle itself in another, and burn with fresh luftre and strength,
But this is not the only advantage that results from their existence. By consuming these carcases, and that in fo fhort à time, they prevent them from infecting the air with their exhalations; and thus contribute to the life and health of all the
other animals. There is not, perhaps, a spot upon the globe where this effe&t is more apparent than in the neighbourhood of Carthage in South America. The climate here is extreme ly warm; the air is rendered humid by violent rains; the country is fertile, and covered with immense forests : all these cir, cumstances conspire to favour putrefaction, which would, in a short time, render the air extremely unwholfome, was it not for a prodigious quantity of gallinazos, which nature seems to have expressly commissioned to consume the carrion, and every kind of ordure. This bird is furnished with a large bag, or craw, under its bill, composed of a thick, fleshy, supple membrane, which distends "like leather. It is inconceivable the quantity of filth this will contain. So exquisite is the organ of smell, that this bird will scent its prey at the distance of three or four leagues; and such is its voracity, that it will never leave till it has intirely consumed it. In Egypt, when the waters retire from the Nile, and the lands are covered with frogs, and numberless infe&s, myriads of pelicans, cranes, and other birds of prey,
arrive from the red sea, and the coasts of Greece; which foon relieve the country of this super-abundance of life ; and thus render theinselves of the utmost utility to the inhabis tants. But without going fo far for examples, this species of animals are feen in every country; and particularly near large cities. To them it is that we are in part indebted for the purity of the air we breathe : considerations which ought doubtless to fecure them from every insult; and yet, in fome countries, the inhabitants not only destroy them, but think that they are removing a nuisance.'
The author goes on to fhew, that, in certain circumstances, the human race is always injured by its own increase. This notion he supports by remarks on the inhabitants of Canada, and of every nation in general where the arts and sciences are neglected. And with respea to the other species, he observes, that if they were left entirely to themselves, they would all, without exception, encrease to their own prejudice as well as to that of others.
• Providence has accordingly provided for the welfare of the animal system in this respect. Her first step has been to prescribe bounds to each species, which the does not permit any of its individuals to pass. Although this term is more remote in one class of animals than another, yet we may affert that it is of small duration with regard to those who live the longest. So that, whatever care an animal may take to preserve itself, whatever vigour it may possess at a certain age in life, there is a term it cannot exceed, and in proportion as this approaches, we see the animal change, weaken and vanilh: like those fires
which are kindled in the night, to burn no longer than the
• It is then clear to a demonstration, that the introduction of the carnivorous race into the animal fyftem, is by no means in-> jurious to the other species, but that, on the contrary, it is advantageous to thein. For they are no more than the barriersnature has opposed to those inundations of which we have been speaking. And since these barriers are absolutely neceffarý, what can be more conformable to the rules of wisdom, than to employ the living substance itself for this end? Thus does it a&t as its own counterpoise; and the excess of life in one species, serves to supply the want of it in another.
But you will object, thus to expose one animal to the fury of another is cruel. It is cruel above all to lay mankind under the necessity of destroying, or rendering each other miserable. The lot of animals would doubtless be deplorable were they endowed with reason, like ourselves, and could they foresee at a distance the evils which threaten them; but nature has cau.. tiously hid these from their fight, by giving thein inferior degrees of intelligence. And those of them which have so much fagacity as to apprehend danger, are accordingly endowed with a double portion of activity and address to avoid it. They have also their places of retreat. All these advantages inspire them with confidence. Monks and women consider the military. clafs as the most unhappy of men, because placing themselves in their situation, they judge of it by their own timid difpofi-' tions. Thus again, when we would judge of the state of the other species, which depend upon us, we place ourselves in the fame situation, and carrying with us all our knowledge and VOL. XXVI. July, 1768.
foresight, we conclude that they lead a miserable life. But the
truth is, Being destined to an end different from ours, they are * neither endowed with our penetration nor fenfibility. The lamb, which the wants of its matter condemns to bleed to-day,
continues' nevertheless to skip about, and browže the tender herb: he is happy and contented to the last. He caresses the hand armed for its destruction ; and the blow it receives comés like a thunderbolt, unexpectedly falling upon some devoted head.
• With refpe&t to wars, we have already observed that nature has mitigated their horrors by intermixing with the alarms
they create in the 'mind, the sentiments of anger and revenge, or a thirst for glory, that danger awakens, and that renders men fuperior to all the evils wars bring with them. But after all, if they prove the occasion of wretchedness to fome, the misery of such is no more according to the intention of Providence, than the pain which accompanies any operation upon the human body, is in that of the surgeon. They are no more than victims, which, after having enjoyed their portion of the sweets of life, suffer for the general good. Things, according to the actual state of affairs, cannot be otherways. Should any one still doubt of this, let him reflect that the law of propagation refpe&is men as well as other animals, and let him consider the effect which this law neceffarily produces. I fee no neceflity, you say, why animáls should devour each other, much less that men, in whatever circumstances they may be placed, should mutually take up arms to destroy each other. Well then, . abolish this law of nature, and revive in your imagination the golden age of the poets. Let universal peace and harmony succeed to those wars, which incessantly disturb the repose of Dations ; let swords be changed into plow-fares, and spears into pruning-hooks; instead of staining the earth with human göre, let them serve to render it' as fertile as possible. Let ravenous beasts, forgetting their natural fierceness, cease to perfecute the other species, and using their teeth to crop the grass, let them browze in the meadows with fheep and goats. In a word, let all the animals enjoy à profound peace : let them with one accord, and in perfect security, make the forests and mountains resound with the praises of their Creator. Aye, this you say is the state in which the world ought to be, and in which it would have been if- Senseless and stupid mortal!
Ye, would remove trifting evils, and you introduce the moft enorinous! Ye would preserve some useless individuals, and ye destroy the whole! As each species would no longer experience the obstacles proportionate to the effects of their increase, a universal inundation would ensue, threatening speedy destruction