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which in general will be in about five minutes. It is to be observed, that the fuller the hive is of bees, the fooner they will have left ito As foon as a number of them have got into the empty hive, it thould be raised a little from the full one, that the bees may not continue to run from the one to the other, but rather keep ascending upon one anotheront
. So soon as all the bees are out of the full hive, the hive in which the bees are must be placed on the stand from which the other hive was taken, in order to receive the absent bees as they return from the fields.
* If this is done early in the season, the operator Should examine the royal cells, that any of them that bave young in them may be faved, as well as the combs which have young bees in them, which should on no account be touched, though, by sparing them, a good deal of honey be left behind. Then take out the other combs, with a long, broad, and pliable knife, such as the apothecaries make use of. The combs should be cut from the sides and crown as clean as possible, to save the future labour of the bees, who must lick up the shoney spilt, and remove every remains of wax: and then the sides of the hive should be scraped with a table spoon, to clear away what was left by the knife. During the whole of sthis operation, the hive should be placed inclined to the side cfrom which the combs are taken, that the honey which is spilt may not daub the reinaining combs. If some combs were unavoidably taken away, in which there are young bees, the parts of the combs in which they are fhould be returned into the hive, and secured by sticks in the best manner pofa fible. Place the hive then for some time upright, that any remaining honey may drain out. If the combs are built in a direction oppofite to the entrance, or at right angles with it, the combs which are the furtheft from the entrance are to be preferred ; because there they are best stored with honey, and have the feweft young bees in them. V Having thus finished taking the wax and honey, the next business is to return the bees to their old hive; and for this purpose place a table covered with a clean cloth, near the Atand, and giving the hive in which the bees are a sudden fake, at the same time striking it pretty forcibly, the bees swill be thaken on the cloth. Put their own hive over them immediately, raised a little on obe side, that the bees may nthe more easily enter, and when all are! entered place it on o the stand as before. If the hive in which the beese are, ibe turped bottom uppermoft, and their own hive be placed over it, the bees, will immediately i afcend into it, especially if the lower hive is struck on the sides to alarm them.
• As the chief object of the bees, during the spring and beginning of the summer, is the propagation of their kind, honey during that time is not collected in such quantity as it is afterwards : and on this account it is scarcely worth while to rob a hive before the latter end of June ; nor is it safe to do it after the middle of July, left rainy weather may prevent their restoring the combs they have lost, and laying in a stock of honey sufficient for the winter, unless there is a chance of car. rying them to a rich pasture.
When we have reviewed the various means made use of both by the ancients and moderns in taking honey, it appears somewhat surprising, that a method so simple as the above did not occur to them: and especially that M. de Reaumur did not think of extending to general use, what he had frequently praised in the course of his experiments. It seems he did not reflect on the effects of the fear impressed on the bees by the continued noise, and how subservient it renders them to our wills : indeed to such a degree, that afford them but a quiet retreat, they will remain long attached to any place they are settled upon ; and will become so mild and tradable, that they will bear any handling which does not hurt them, without the least shew of resentment. On these occafions their only defire seems to be a wish to avoid such-another disturbance as has reduced them to their present forlorn state, A person who has familiarized himself to bees can, by means of the passion of fear thus impressed upon them, and by that dex-:, terity in the management of them, which can only be acquired by practice; I say, such a person can, in this situation, manage the bees as he pleases.
• Spectators wonder at my attaching the bees to different parts of my body, and wis much to be possessed of the secret means by which I do it. I have unwarily promised to reveal it; and am therefore under a neceflity of performing that promise: but while I declare that their fear, and the queen, are my chief agents in these operations, I muft warn my readers that there is an art necessary to perform it, namely, practice, , which I cannot convey to them, and which they cannot speedily attain; yet till this art is attained, the destruction of many hives of bees must be the consequence; as every one will find on their first attempt to perform it.
• Long experience has taught me, that as soon as I turn up a bive, and give it some gaps on the sides and bottom, the): queen immediately appears, to know the cause of this alarm : but soon retires again among her people. Being accustomed to see her fo often, I readily perceive her at the first glance and long pradice has enabled me to seize 'her instantly, with a
tenderness that does not in the least endanger her perfon. This is of the utmost importance ; for the least injury done to her brings immediate destruction to the hive, if you have not a spare queen to put in her place, as I have too often experienced in my first attempts. When poffeffed of her, I can, without injury to her, or exciting that degree of resentment that may tempt, her to sting me, flip her into my other hand, and, returning the hive to its place, hold her there' till the bees, missing her, are all on wing, and in the utmost confusion. When the bees are thus distressed, I place the queen wherever I would have the bees to settle. The moment a few of them discover her, they give notice to those near them, and these to the rest; the knowledge of which foon becomes so general, that in a few minutes they all collect themselves round her; and are so happy in having recovered this fole support of their state, that they will long reinain quiet in their situation. Nay, the scent of her body is so attractive of them, that the flightest touch of her, along any place or substance, will attach the bees to it, and induce them to pursue any path The takes.
« My attachment to the queen, and my tender regard for her precious life, makes me most ardently with that I might here close the detail of this operation, which I am afraid, when attempted by unskilful - hands, will cost many of their lives; but my love of truth forces me to declare, that by practice I am arrived at so much dexterity in the management of her, that I can, without hurt to her, tie a thread of lilk round her body, and thus confine her to any part in which the might not naturally wish to remain: or I sometimes use the less dans gerous way of clipping her wings on one side.
! I shall conclude this account in the manner of C. Furius Crefinus, who being cited before the Curule Edile, and an assembly of the people, to answer to a charge of forcery, founded on his reaping much larger crops, from his small spor of ground, than his neighbours did from their extensive fields ; produced his strong implements of husbandry, his well fed oxen, and a hale young woman, his daughter; and, pointing to them, said, “ These, Romans, are my instruments of witchcraft: but I cannot shew you my toil, my sweats, and anxious cares." So may I say, “ These, Britons, are my instruments of witchcraft ; but I cannot few you my hours of attention to this subject, my anxiety and care for thele useful insects ; nor can I communicate to you my experience, acquired during a course of years."
Besides the articles above-mentioned, the author treats at Jarge of several others relating to his subject, which, as our
limits will not permit us to enter upon, we fhall only enume. rate These are, of the apiary and hives, of the situation of the apiary, of hives, of boxes, of swarming, of the management of bees in hives and boxes, of shifting the abodes of bees, of separating the honey and wax, of discovering bees in wood or buildings, and putting them into hives ; of enemies to bees, of the diseases of bees, of feeding bees, and of the care of them during the winter ; of wasps and hornets, and of the means of destroging them.
We cannot conclude without expressing the greatest satisfa&tion, at the discovery of a method of obtaining the honey consistently with the preservation of the bees. It is probable, however, that the practice of it may be attended with some difficulty, at the beginning, and Mr. Wildman offers, that *s if any of his subscribers do not chuse to manage their bees themselves, he will undertake it for the yearly sum of three guineas."
VI, A Philosophical Survey of the Animal Creation, an Elay. ! W bersin the general Devafiation and Carnage that reign amang
the different Classes of Animals are considered in a new Point of
the fpeculation of the curious. The various creatures which inhabit this globe are innumerable. i 'Air, earth, and sea, are impregnated with life. Not to mention the larger species, there is hardly a clod of the valley, a drop of water, or a blade of grals, which is not occupied by different forms of animated beings. These are all productions of the Deity, and formed for wife and useful purpofes. It is the bufiness of the philofo pher to explore and elucidate the design, beauty, and harmony of this amazing system." Many celebrated naturalists have written upon this fubje&t ;- but few of them have ledł uslinto more important and pleasing reflections that the ingenious aut thor of this efTay." He does not indeed pretend to communicate any recent difcoveries of natural history; those which he recites are universally known; but he places them in a new light; he brings the different fpecies of animals into one view, and points out the ends which they were intended to aniwer in the
great fcale of nature,
111, 9010 100 He divides the fubject into three parts. In the first he treats of the nature of life in general, its ends, extent, and variety in the second he confiders the opposition which perpetually fub
fifts between animals of a different race, with the advantages arising from this opposition; in the third he answers fome ob jections which may be alleged against his theory; and treats of the law of multiplication, its origin, and effe&s.
The general hostility which prevails in the animal system is a phenomenon with which many have been greatly embar, raffed. How to reconcile it with the idea of a beneficent Providence, who watches over the happiness and preservation of all his creatures, is the difficulty. Some have supposed, that it is a necessary consequence of that universal corruption, in which they imagine all nature to be involved since the fall of Adam, Others have thought that there must be a future state, a paradise provided for the wretched martyrs among the brutal race, as well as for thofe, who merit this title among the human. • But, says our author, not to observe that these hypotheses are void of foundation in the actual constitution of things; they do not remove the difficulties, but only substitute one in the place of another. It is very evident that Providence not only permits, but has designed, that animals should devour each other. From whence arifes that desire apparent in most men to feed upon flesh or if you fufpect human nature to be depraved in this respect; examine the other species. See how fome animals thirst after the blood of others; how nature has armed them with claws and teeth to put their bloody purpose in execution; while she has only endowed the victims of their fury with vigilance and activity; and to others, she has left no other means of defence than cries and groans. Consider the voraciousuels of the eagle, the furprizing strength of its bill, and its piercing eye, that darts swift as lightning upon the most distant objects: contemplate the spider's web, with what truth is it constructed, and with what address do they employ it to entangle their prey. It is evident, I say, that animals are in a fate of perpetual war, and that it is the will of their Creator that one should live upon another. And what is the consequence? That the works of the Omnipotent are defective? Or that the world, which was created perfect, has since fallen into a general depravity ?. These by no means follow. Proofs of the depravity of nature may be sought after elsewhere. It is no less certain that the law which enjoins the destruction of one animal for the advantage of another, contributes to the increase and happiness, of life." inte evince the truth of this affertion the author endeavours to prove, that this law introduces several new species, which could not otherwise exist; and that the accession of these
new species is not, in any respect, prejudicial to the other ; but on the contrary, afeful, and in some respects, necessary, in Among the animals which are thus introduced into the system