« AnteriorContinuar »
suitors shall proceed in a fummary way, examining the parties and witnesses on oath, without the formal process antiently used; and fhall make fuch order therein as, they shall judge agreeable to conscience. 4. That no plaints thall be removed out of this court, by any procefs: whatsoever, but the determination herein shall be final.-15That if any action be brought in any of the fuperior courts against a person resident in Middlesex, for a debt or contract, upon the trial whereof the jury shall find less than forty shillings damages, the plain, tiff ihall recover no costs, but shall pay the defendants double cofts; unless upon some special circumstances, to be certified by the judge who tried it. 6. Laitly, a table of very moderate fees is prescribed and set down in the act; which are not to be exceeded upon any account whatsoever.. This is a plan entirely agreeable to the constirution and genius of the nation : calculated to prevent a multitude of vexatious actions in the superior courts, and at the same time to give honest creditors an opportunity of recovering small funs; which now they are frequently deterred from by the expence of a suit at law: a plan which, in short, wants only to be generally known, in order to its universal reception.'
The last species of private courts Mr. Blackstone mentions, is the chancellor's courts in the two universities of England, of which he gives us a historical deduction. An appeal lies from the chancellor's court at Oxford to delegates appointed by the congregation; from thence to other delegates of the house of convocation ; and if they all three concur in the fame sentence it is final, at least by the statutes of the univerfity, according to the rule of the civil law.
We have thus, for the benefit of such of our readers as are not profest lawyers, reviewed the historical part of this excel lent work. As to the scientifical part, it is adapted both to the theory and practice of the profesion. The learned author treats of all the wrongs and inconveniences which can arise to the subjects of England from the abufe or disregard of the law, together with the remedies and forms of proceeding. It is paying Mr. Blackitone too poor a compliment to call him the English Cujas, or the modern Coke, as perhaps neither of these authors have equalled him in that perspicuity and order, which has been so much wanting in the study of the law. He has cleared it from technical terms ; so that we can venture to affert, that every gentleman of tolerable good sense, though he is no scholar, by carefully perusing this work, may become no contemptible lawyer. 1.
V. A Treatise on the Management of Bes; wherein it contained the
Natural Hiftory of those Infees; with the various Merbods of La cultivating them, bob Ancient and, Modern, and the improved - Treatment of thema. To wbicb. are added, the Natural Hiftony shop Wasps and Hornets, and obe Meers of deftroying tbem. Illuf 3:1 rated witb Copper-Plates. By Thomas Wildman. . 410. Pro 103.60. Cadell. 37,1
THERE is scarce any creature that has so much drawhi
the attention of naturalists as the bees, or from the industry of which mankind receive such extraordinary advantage: their regular provision for futurity, the curious workmanship of their combs, and the polity of their government, have been the subject of admiration through every age. In refpe&t, however, to the existence of such an instinctive government, we must acknowledge, for our own part, that, notwithstanding the opinion of preceding naturalists, we had ever been inclined to a degree of scepticism; regarding it rather as poetical fiction, or the suggestion of fancy, than the real observation of nature, till we found it ascertained by experiment.
It has long been regretted, both on principles of humanity and intereft, that no method could be introduced of procuring from these industrious creatures the fruit of their labour with out receive with pleasure a proposal which is calculated to supply this defect, and is now offered to the public, by the author of the performance before us, whose command over bees 'has been proved by repeated experiments, and excited universal admiration. As the observations and facts exhibited by this writer are the best authenticated of any' on the subject, we Thall present our readers with an abstract of such parts of the Treatise aś lay the greatest claim to attention, either in point of curiosity or importance. The first article, then, which we take notice of, is the origin of bees.
The bee that is named the king is in reality the mother of all the others. She is so prolific, that, as far as one can judge,
for she is commonly a part of the year fingly in a hive, and at the end of summer 'the hive is as full of bees in the best
oth and sometimes two or three of ten or twelve thousand each it follows, therefore, that this royal bee must produce a part of those different swarms: I fay, a part, because it is possible that the new king, who goes out with the fresh fwarm, may pro• duce likewise a part of them before the migration.
The royal bee is most commonly concealed in the most secret part of her palace, and is never visible but when the would lay her young in the combs that are exposed to fight.
• It was on those rare occasions that we perceived her indeed she is not even then always visible, for most commonlythere is at those times a great number of bees that fastening themselves one to another, hang downl in the form of a veil from the top to the bottom of the hive, which hinders your fight, and they do nor retire till the bee hath laid her young
* Whenever the hath appeared to us unveiled, the was ale? ways atiended by ten or twelve of the stouteft bees' amongst the common fort, that make a kind of retinue, and follow her wherever the goes with a sedate and grave tread,
* Præterea regem non fic Ægyptus, et ingens
Illum admirantur ; et omnes
Him all admire, and him their guardian own, :, Crowd round his court, and buz about his throne,
Before the lays her young, she puts, for a moment, her head' into the cell where ihe designs to lay them; if she finds this cell empty, and there is not in it either honey, wax, or any embrio, he turns herself immediately to introduce the posterior part of her body into the same cell, and sinks into it till she touches the bottom. At the same time the bees, her attendants, who are disposed in a circle round her, having all their heads turned towards her's, pay a fort of homage with their proboscis and feet, caress her, and give her all kinds of entertainment, which lasts however but a very little while; after that the bee leaves the cell, and you may difcern a little white egg, very small, about half a line long, or three quarters of a line at molt, yet four or five times' longer than it is big, a little more pointed at one extremity than at the other, and planted by its leaf extremity on the basis in the folid angle of the cell. This egg is formed of a membrane, thin, white, fmooth, and full of a whitish liquor.
• Immediately after the pregnant bee hath laid an egg in *one cell, The goes with all the same circumstances, and escorted by the same number of bees, 'to lay another egg in a neighbouring cell; and we have seen her lay in this manner eight or ten in different cells successively one after another. After having finished her delivery the withdraws, attended by the
fame bees, into the secret apartments of the hive; where she is loft out of sight.
• The egg which remains on the basis of the cell continues four days in that state without changing figure or situation ; but after the four days you see it changed in the manner of the caterpillar, divided into several rings, laid and applied on the same bafis, and twisted -round, so that the two extremities touch each other. It is tben furrounded by a little liquor, which the bees take e care at the end of the four days to put in the solid angle of the basis. We could never discover the nature of this liquor, op account of its small quantity 5 which hath left us in some doubt, whether it might be honey that. the bees carry thither for the nourisņment of the einbrio, or rather foine inatter proper to fecundate the sperm; for, it ap. peared to us more whitish, less liquid, and less transparent than honey,
• Of whatever nature this first liquor may be with which the little worm is surrounded, it is certain that afterwards the bees bring it honey for nourishment. In proportion as it grows they fupply it with a greater quantity of food, quite to the eighth day from its birth, when it is increased in such manner that it occupies the whole breadth of the cell, and a part of its length. After that, the care of the bees for the young ones ceales, for they Itop up with wax all the cells, where these worms continue still shut up for twelve daysa During that time, there happen to the embrios inclosed divers changes; which we have discovered by opening these cells one different days from the time they had been stopped. At first thet worms change their situation, and from being twisted round, as they were before on the basis of the cell, they exo, tend themselves along its whole length, and place themselves with the head turned towards the mouth of the cell; the head of the worm begins to thew. itself a little, and you fee a. small extension, which is, in my opinion, the beginning of the proboscis. You see likewise upon the origin of the head a black point, and at a little distance from this point 4 black streak upon the back, which doth not reach quite to the ex tremnity of the worm; the fwft lineaments of the feet likewise appear, but very small. 151
After the head is formed, and the proboscis lengthened, all the other parts display, themselves fucce lively; do that the whole worin is changed into an aurelia on nymph, which is the fly almost perfect, except that it is yet white and soft, and that it hath not that kind of crust with which it is covered af, terwards, Hinn en 09 10 11"
By this transformation the worm ftrips himself of a white and very fine pellicle, which is fó perfectly attached to the internal fides of the cells, that it takes even the turns and bendings of the angles as well of the bafis as of the fides, and appears to form but one body with them, ron RC" theit si:
• The bee being Aripped of this pellicle, and all the parts unfolded by degrees, and changed through fucceffive colours from a yellow to a black, arrives at perfection by the twentieth day from the birth. From thence the endeavours to iffue from the cell, and makes the opening herself, by cutting round with her jaws or "talons the cover that stopped up the mouth of the cell, which the bee's had made to inclofe her. The new bee, when she first quits the cell, appears a little drowfy ; but fhe foon affumes the natural agility, for we have seen her the fame day iffue from the cells and return from the fields loaded with wax like the rest. You may distinguish these young beeg by the colour, which is a little more blackish, and by the hairs, which are somewhat whiter.
As soon as tħe young bee hath fallied from the cell, there come immediately two of the old bees; one draws out the cover, kneads, and employs the wax elsewhere of which it was composed ; the other labours to repair the breach ; for the cell having been disordered-by the new-flown bee, an old one restores its fymmetry: gives it its former hexagonal figure, fortifies it with the usual border, and cleanses it by taking away the little pellicles of the young bee which have remained there."
We halt row relate the grand discovery of the method of taking away the honey without destroying the bees, which is tas follows:
Remove the hive from which you would take the wax and choney into a room, into which admit but little light, that it may at arft appear to the bees as if it was late in the evening, Gently invert the hivę, placing it between the frames of a
chair, or other steady fupport, and cover it with an empty chive, keeping that side of the empty hive raifed a little, which sis text the window, to give the bees sufficient light to getuup cintuit.. While you hold the empty hive fteadily supported on 2 the edge of the full; hivę, between your side and your sleft
arm, keep-ftriking with the other hand all round the full hive from top to bottom, in the manner of beating a drumqi fa that the bees may be frightened by the continued noife from all quarters ;-and they walk in f consequence mount out of the full hive into the empty onel Repeat the ftrokes rather quick than furong round the hive, till all the bees are got out of it,
019. minin 61 23 ani do ) which