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that degree as to be an exception; for no man here is without complaints, and life and death are so suddenly exchanged, that medicines have not time very frequently to operate before 'the latter prevails. This is generally the case in malignant fevers, which are here termed pucker fevers, meaning (in the natives language) 'strong fevers.

• The rains have set in since 'the 4th of June. We call this the unhealthy season, on account of the salt petre impregnated in the earth, which is exhaled by the sun, when the rain admits of intervals. Great fickness is caused thereby, especially when the rains fubfide ; which generally happens about the middle of O&tober. The air becomes afterwards rather more temperate, and, till April, permits of exercise, to recover the human frame, that is relaxed and worn out by the preceding season; for in the hot periods every relief is denied, except rifing in the morning, and being on 'horse-back by day-break, in order to enjoy an hour, or little more, before the fun is elevated : it becomes too powerful by six o'clock to withstand its influence; nor can the same be attempted that day again till the sun retires, so that the rest of the twenty-four hours is par sed under'the most severe trials of heat. In such season it is impossible to sleep under the suffocating heat that renders refpiration extremely difficult; hence people get out into the virando's and elsewhere for breath, where the dews prove cooling, but generally mortal to such as venture to fleep in that air. In short, this climate foon exhausts a person's health and strength, though ever so firm in constitution, as is visible in every countenance, , after being heré twelve months. I have been lately informed by an officer of distinction, who was formerly engineer at this place, that he being sent 'out to survey a falt lake in the month of September, he found the fulphureous vapours so stagnated and gross, that he was obliged to get up into the tallest trees he could find, 'to enjoy the benefit of respiration every now and then; he added, that he constantly had recourse to smoaking tobacco, (except during the hours of fleep) to which and to swallowing large quantities of raw brandy (though naturally averse to strong liquors) he attributed his lafetý. However, on his return, he was seized with an inveterate fever of the putrid kind, which he miraculously survived, though others, who attended him on the furvey, and had lived many years in the climate, were carried off, at the same time, by the like fever."

[To be concluded in our next.]


II. An Accuunt of the Manners and Customs of Italy ; with Ob

fervations on the Mifi akes of some Travellers with regard to that Country. In Two Vols. By Joseph Baretti. 8vo. . Pr. 1os. Davies.

R. Sharp, whole Travels into Italy we have already

reviewed with approbation, is the capital author whom Mr. Baretti attacks in this account of his own country and its inhabitants. When a difference in matters either of fact or opinion happens between two persons of equal probity and capacity, nothing can be more difficult than to pronounce with certainty upon which fide the truth lies. Mr. Sharp's moral chara&er, it is well known, stands unimpeached. The fortur:e he has so worthily acquired by his eminence in a liberal and useful profeffion, places him above all suspicion of writing for bread; and the account he has given us of the Italians entitles him to a considerable rank among men of letters and discernment. As we are utter strangers to the moral as well as personal character of his antagonist, we shall leave him and his friends to answer for both ; but without violating the laws of impartiality, or trespaffing upon the rules of candid criticism, we can safely assert, that in England he is a foreign adventurer, in Italy a despicable bigot ; that his work appears with every character of being a job either for a party or a bookseller, perhaps for both : nor is the knowledge he discovers either of men or things, comparable to that of the gentleman whom he attacks.

The difference between Mr. Sharp and Mr. Baretti confifts chiefly in facts, or inferences deducible from them : the former lie within the province of truth, as the latter do within that of reason. We shall for once let aside the criterios of both, and examine the account before us by its own intrinsic characters, and the author's self consistency, when set in opposition to Mr. Sharp.-We are afraid that the generality of our readers will not agree in the truth of Mr. Baretti's first fentence. Few books (says he) are so acceptable to the greatest part of mankind, as those that abound in flander and invective.' If this oblemation is meant to be applied to Enge land, we will venture to pronounce it equally unjust as illiberal; and the writer would have come much nearer to the truth, had he reversed his proposition. A dunce may call true fatire slander, and a generous indignation invective; but the public of England know how to distinguish between both :

• See Vol. XXII. p. 284. Vol. XXVI. July, 1768.



and these is no country in Europe, where works which have nothing but Nander and invective to recommend them, meet with so great contempt and neglect as in England.

Our author, with the fame dull monotony, tells us, that Mr. Sharp, in the work he undertook, lay * under three mof capital disadvantages; that is to say, he was ignorant of the Italian language, was of no high rank, and was afflicted with bodily disorders.' To prove Mr. Sharp ignorant of Italian, Mr. Baretti informs us, that • throughout his work he has spelt several names of families, of saints, and of towns erroneously. A most excellent proof! and we will venture to fay, that the best English author alive may be proved, by the fame argument, not to understand a word of English. Few families have, from their originals, spelt their names in the fame manner ; and it has been frequently observed, that fome of our best English writers, lord Clarendon particularly, are in their original manuscripts deficient in the orthography of the most common words. We have seen original signatures of the great Lord Burleigh, in which he fometimes spells his. name Cecil, and fometimes Cecyl. Is a man to be pronounced ignorant of the English language, if he should spell the name of a noble lord, Littleton, instead of Lyttelion? The same observation holds, perhaps, fill more generally as to the names of towns and places. Mr. Baretti mentions Mr. Sharp's inability in catching sounds when orally uttered, as being another proof of his ignorance in the Italian language. We have nothing to reply to this argument, till he shall produce a sheet of sounds and oral utterance fairly printed, to prove his allegation.

The second proof, of Mr. Sharp being of no high rank, infinuates as if he had been thereby precluded from all opportunities of keeping good company, and consequently of informarion. If the lye direct is not a sufficient confutation of this charge, all we can say is, that it proves Italy to be a nation of barbarians, swelled with conceit of their own nothingness, and without the smallest taste or regard of liberal endowments in any man (for the charge is not particularly levelled against Mr. Sharp) whose station in life does not anfwer their vulgar ideas of greatness and robility. As to the third charge, of Mr. Sharp being afflided with bodily disorders, if true, it was his misfortune, and not his fault; though it was a crime in Mr. Baretti to mention it, unless he could have brought instances where Mr. Sharp's personal infirmities affect either his ftile, his narrative, or reasoning. But indeed this infinuation is as false as the former. Mr. Sharp was not afflicted with any bodily distemper that could at all disqualify him


from making such obfervations as he has published ; and in every part of Italy where he resided, his house was ever the rendezvous of Italians and foreigners of all ranks and nations.

Intending (says our author) to throw a ridicule on the Italians, Mr. Sharp fays, that they give the name of palaces even to their country-houses. But he is himself ridiculous in saying fo. Un palazzo means in Italian the building where the Sovereign refides, or the houfe in wbich a nobleman lives. Thus Marlborough-house or Devonshire-house would, in Italian, be distinguished from common houses, and be called palazzo's. What in England is a privale-man's habitation, or a building in which many common families live, in Italian is called una casa. The least knowledge of our language had shewn Mr. Sharp the distinguishing propriety of these two words, and had kept him from stealing this blunder, along with many others, from Miffon's Travels through, Italy. Miffon was not able to separate the idea annexed by the English to their word palace,

from that annexed by the Italians to their word palazzo. He thought they both excluded littleness, which our word palazzo does not; and betrayed his unskilfulness in our language many years ago, as Mr. Sharp does now.'

This is one of the most unaccountable passages we have met with for some time, because we cannot see, according to this writer's own account, the least difference between him and Mr. Sharp. The word palace in English does not exclude litlenefs ; for every bishop has his palace, several of which are not comparable, either for magnificence or conveniency, to the dwelling-houses of many of our middling gentry. But (after all, we are by no means satisfied that Mr. Baretti's ipfe dixit destroys the fact advanced by Mr. Sharp, that the Italians give the name of palaces even to their paultry country-houses.

The second chapter of this notable production mentions a journey which our author performed from Venice to Ancona, in 1765 ; part of which we shall lay before the reader, because both Mr. Baretti and his friends have made the fact contained in it a capital charge againit Mr. Sharp.

• I had been there about three months without ever having had the pleafure of seeing an English traveller go through or by the place; when lo ! on a morning betimes, one Signor Cecco Storani came to me in a hurry, and told me, that late the preceding night an English gentleman, with three young ladies, had put up at the poft. house ; and as he did not understand English, he desired. I would introduce him to these krangers, that he and his fainily might thew them fome ci. vilities.

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• This Signor Cecco is the son of an Anconitan nobleman decorated by the pope or the pretender (no matter which) with the title of English Consul in that town. The British consulThip there is, certainly, not very profitable in point of interest: but the nobility of Ancona look upon it as 'very honourable, and they are fond of it, as it gives them fome confideration in the place, besides affording them an opportunity of being liberal of their dinners to many strangers, and especially the English, of whom they are enamoured to a degree of enthufiaľmi Hd

If Mr: Sharp knew me personally, he would certainly do me the honour to believe me, when I aver that I was much pleased with this piece of intelligence from Signor Cecco.

Now, faid I, I fhall see an Englishman again; and what is ftill ' infinitely better, fome Englih wonen, whose conversation will -renew those pleasing ideas of which I have been so long de

prived. But alas, what a disappointment! Though it was searcely eight o'clock, as far as I can remember, on my reaching the inn with my friend, I found that the gentleman and the ladies were gone. · They had got an hour before into their coach, and were hastening towards Loretto, in their way to Rome.

• No man in his senses can suppose that a gentleman who travels *with such precipitancy along the Romagna and the Marca, is a fit person to meddle with the business of describing the manbners and customs of their inhabitans. ' Yet Mr. Sharp has boldly meddled with that business, for the gentleman who tra*velled with those young ladies was Mr. Sharp himself. ar 1* On his arrival at Loretto the fame evening of that day in which he left Ancona, Mr. Sharp fat gravely down to write a long letter to an inaginary correspondent in England, and in

formed him of the disadvantages that Ancona lies under, from the infinite concessions made to the church by the commercial and military

parts of the nation. A fine period, and in the true political stile ! But did Mr. Sharp understand it himself, when he had written it ? For my part I do not,' as I never heard at Ancona of any commercial or military parts of the Anconitan nation. The church at Ancona is the absolute temporal sovereign as well as the fpiritual : and what conceffions do absolute fovereigns want from any part of their subjects ? . It is true, that there are at Ancona many commercial people ; that is; fome dozen of merchants : -- and it iỹ true there are some military people, thät is about two score of soldiers • but neither of these two parts of thatinarión do, or can, conftirute lány diftinct political body Endowed with any power independant of the fovereign, as the Arift of Mr. Sharp's emphatical period imports, when he says ,717 171 :), 3rd buna

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