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Military Establishments.

The military establishments of the city of London were considerably changed by an act of parliament passed in 1794; under which, two regiments of militia are raised in the city, by ballot, amounting together to 2,200 men. The officers are appointed by the commissioners of the king's lieutenancy for the city of London, and one regiment, may, in certain cases, be placed by the king under any of his general officers, and marched to any part, not exceeding twelve miles from the capital, or the nearest encampment; the other, at all such times, to remain in the city of London.

Three regiments of Foot Guards, containing about 7000 men, including officers, and two regiments of Horse Guards, consisting together of 1200 men, at once serve as appendages to the King's royal state, and form a general military establishment for the metropolis: but none of these troops, it must be observed, are permitted to enter the city, without especial leave from the chief magistrate. A body, called the Yeomen of the Guard, consisting of 100 men, remain a curious relic of the dress of the king's guards in the fifteenth century. Some light horse are also stationed at the barracks in Hyde Park, to attend his Majesty, or any other members of the royal family, chiefly when travelling; and to do duty on occasions immediately connected with the king's administration.

CHAP. IV.

The Religious Edifices of the Metropolis.

THE number of places of worship in London, belonging to the various sects into which the Christian world is divided, is one of the circumstances likely to interest and surprise the casual visitor, and therefore particularly deserving of notice.

These religious edifices amount to

several hundreds; of which about one hundred and eighty are episcopal churches and chapels; fifteen are appropriated to the Roman Catholics; eighteen are for the worship of foreign Protestants; and the remainder belong to the different sects of Protestant Dissenters. To complete the enumeration of the religious buildings in London, it may be added, that there are six synagogues of the Jews.

The churches, chapels, &c. of the metropolis will be noticed under the following arrangement: 1. Parochial Churches in the city. 2. Parochial Churches in the suburbs. 3. Episcopal Chapels. 4. Catholic Chapels. 5. Foreign Protestant Chapels. 6. Protestant Dissenting Places of Worship. But those grand national structures, the Cathedral Church of St. Paul, and the Abbey Church of St. Peter, Westminster, will first demand our attention

ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL

Holds the most distinguished place among the modern works of architecture which dignify and adorn the British empire. Even foreigners generally regard it with respect and admiration as only second to the pontifical fane of St. Peter, at Rome. It stands nearly in the centre of the metropolis, and has been supposed to occupy the site of an ancient Roman temple of Diana; but this notion is rejected by Sir Christopher Wren. A Christian church was erected here on the conversion of Sebert, king of Essex, who founded the bishopric of London, about the year 610: and the cathedral of the diocess has ever since been situated on this spot. It was more than once destroyed by fire, and re-edified previous to the Norman conquest. In 1086 it again experienced the same fate; after which Maurice, then Bishop of London, began to rebuild the noble pile, the destruction of which made way for the present fabric. The ancient cathedral was one of the most stupendous architectural remains of the middle ages. It was not the work of one period, but was gradually enlarged and improved by the successors of Maurice, till it became the most extensive and magnificent among the religious edifices of this country. It had in the middle a

grand tower, crowned by a spire, said to have been raised to the height of more than 530 feet. This tower was burnt, together with the roof of the church, in 1561, and subsequently, with the exception of the spire, rebuilt. The whole edifice, however, was in such a state of decay in the time of James L. as to require extraordinary repairs. A subscription to the amount of more than 100,000l. was collected, through the patriotic exertions of Laud, then Bishop of London, and others, and in the following reign the reparation was executed, under the direction of the celebrated architect, Inigo Jones. He added to the edifice a portico of the Corinthian order, at the west front, but this however beautiful in itself, formed a very incongruous addition to a structure in the ecclesiastical style of architecture. The completion of Jones's operations was prevented by the breaking out of the civil war, and during the period of anarchy which ensued, the sacred edifice was converted into barracks, for cavalry, and exposed to the wanton depredations and injuries of unprincipled spoilers. On the Restoration of Charles II. the reparation of the cathedral was recommenced; but after considerable expense had been incurred, the whole structure was so completely ruined by the fire of 1666, that it was ultimately deter mined to erect an entirely new edifice. The execution of this important work was committed to Sir Christopher Wren, who, after overcoming various obstacles in the progress of his undertaking, lived to see the completion of this magnificent edifice.

The length of the church, including the western portico, is 514 feet; the breadth 286; the height, to the top of the cross 370; the exterior diameter of the cupola 145; and the entire circumference of the building 2292 feet. A dwarf stone wall, supporting a balustrade of cast iron, surrounds the church, and separates a large area, which is properly the church yard, from a spacious carriage and foot way on the south side, and a foot-pavement on the north. The dimensions of this cathedral are thus seen to be imposing; but the grandeur of the design, and the beauty of its proportions, more justly entitle it to rank among the noblest edifices of the modern world.

The ground plan of the church assumes the form of the

Greek cross. Over the space where the lines of that figure intersect each other, rises a stately dome, or cupola; from the top of which springs a lantern, adorned with Corinthian columns, and surrounded at its base by a balcony; on the lantern rests a gilded ball, and on that a cross, forming the summit.

There are three porticoes: one at the principal entrance, facing the west, and the other two on the north and south, at the extremities of the transept, and corresponding in their architecture. The western portico consists of twelve lofty Corinthian columns below, and eight composite ones above, ranged in pairs, supporting a grand pediment; the whole resting on an elevated base, the ascent to which is by a flight of twenty-two steps of black marble, running the entire length of the portico. The entablature represents St. Paul's Conversion, sculptured by Francis Bird, in low relief.-At the upper point of the pediment is a gigantic statue of St. Paul, and on the sides are those of St. Peter, St. James, and the four Evangelists. The portico at the northern entrance consists of a demi-cupola, supported by six Corinthian columns, with an ascent of twelve half-circular steps, of black marble. The southern portico is similar, excepting that the ascent on that side consists of twenty-five steps, the ground there being lower.

The walls are wrought in rustic, and strengthened and ornamented by two ranges of coupled pilasters, one above the other, the lower being Corinthian, and the upper Composite. The angles of the west front are crowned with campaniles, or bell-towers, of a handsome and uniform character, and at the east end is a semi-circular projection.

The interior of St. Paul's, as to its general form, resembles the plan of the ancient cathedrals, consisting of three ailes divided by piers and arches, and covered with vaulting. The western division is a beautiful part of the building, separated from the ailes at each side by insulated columns and screens of iron railing, forming the Morning Prayer Chapel and Consistory Court. At the intersection of the nave and transepts there are eight openings from the central area instead of four; in which unusual mode of arrangement, this cathedral resembles that of Ely. The choir is of the same form and architectural style as the

body of the church, and is terminated by a semi-circular apsis. The stalls and enclosures are decorated with beautiful carvings, the work of Grinling Gibbons. The pavement consists of square slabs of black and white marble placed alternately; and near the altar these are interspersed with porphyry.

The interior of the grand cupola is adorned with a series of paintings by Sir James Thornhill, illustrative of the most remarkable occurrences in St. Paul's life: such as, his Miraculous Conversion; his preaching at Athens; the Judgment upon Elymas, the Sorcerer; Paul and Barnabas at Lystra; the imprisonment of Paul and Silas at Philippi, with the Conversion of the Gaoler; Paul defending himself before Agrippa and Berenice; and his shipwreck at Melita.

An attempt has, of late years, been made to relieve the naked appearance of the interior, by statues and other sepulchral monuments; and the plan deserves some praise, as departing from the ordinary taste of monumental architecture. The statues are many of them plain full length figures, standing on marble pedestals, with appropriate inscriptions; and among such are those of Dr. Johnson, Sir William Jones, and the celebrated philanthropist, Howard. Others, in a more exceptionable style, represent naval captains, &c. in a state of demi-nudity, or in Roman togas; but several are justly worthy of admiration. Among the most interesting are those of General Abercrombie, Lord Howe, Sir Joshua Reynolds, Captain Hardinge, Sir John Moore, Lord Rodney, Captain Westcott, Captain Duff, General Dundas, General Picton, Marquess Cornwallis, Captain Burgess, Colonel Cadogan, Generals Hay, Mackenzie, and Langworth, and the great naval hero of Britain, Lord Nelson, whose tomb is in the crypt below. This tomb, it may be noticed, stands centrically in its dusky mausoleum beneath the great dome of the cathedral, and consists of a sarcophagus and pedestal intended by Cardinal Wolsey to enclose his own remains: they were conveyed from the tomb house at Windsor, to be applied to their present at least equally honourable purpose. The crypt contains inscriptions to the architect, Sir Christopher Wren, and his daughters; Barry, Opie, Reynolds, and

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