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person who first bore it. In 1195, the king received from the corporation, the sum of 1500l. as the price of a new charter, confirming former privileges and bestowing on the citizens the jurisdiction or conservatorship of the river Thames. The year 1196 was distinguished by a violent sedition, which seems to have been occasioned by the unequal pressure of the taxes on the lower classes of the metropolitans. It was at length suppressed, and William Fitz-Robert, alias Longbeard, a factious leader of the mob, was taken and executed. Such, however, was the credit he had acquired, that his relics were long revered by the populace, as those of a sainted martyr. In the reign of John, several charters were granted to the city, under which the corporation approached to its present form; and its influence and authority were considerably augmented. This king, by one of his charters, empowered the "Barons of the City of London" to elect a fresh mayor annually, or to continue in office the same indivividual from year to year, a right exercised so lately as the years 1816 and 1817, in the case of Mr. Alderman Wood. This charter is the earliest known document in which the head of the corporation is called the mayor, though the appellation is supposed to have been assumed, as already stated, in the preceding reign, by Henry FitzAlwyn. During the disputes between King John and the Pope, London suffered much from the interdict laid on the kingdom by his holiness, and when it was taken off, the citizens paid 2000 marks, in part of the sum of 40,000 exacted by the pope from his majesty. In 1212 a dreadful fire broke out on the south side of London bridge, and 3000 persons are said to have been drowned, or burnt to death. In the disastrous civil war, which occurred towards the close of the reign of John, the Londoners joined the associated barons against the king; and in the Magna Charta extorted from that prince, it is expressly stated, that "the City of London should enjoy all its ancient privileges and free customs, as well by land as by water." -The reign of Henry III., extending from 1216 to 1272, was distinguished by few events of importance in which the citizens of London were interested, excepting popular tumults, the leaders of which suffered the penalty of

their crimes, and the inhabitants in general were' punished for their participation or connivance, by severe fines and imprisonment. On St. Valentine's eve, 1247, the shock of an Earthquake was felt in several parts of England, and especially in London, near the banks of the Thames. In 1248, the king having been refused a subsidy by his parliament, was obliged to offer for sale his plate and jewels, which were purchased by the Londoners. Highly displeased at what he considered as the arrogance of the metropolitan citizens, he angrily exclaimed, "If Octavian's treasure were to be sold, the City of London would store it up." To punish the presumption, and reduce the wealth of the "rustical Londoners," the king granted to the Abbot of Westminster the privilege of holding an annual fair in Tothill Fields, for fifteen days, during which "all trade should cease within the city." In 1258, a scarcity of grain occasioned a famine, in consequence of which 20,000 persons are said to have died in the metropolis, only. One valuable benefit, was conferred on the corporation by this king, who granted it permission to present the mayor, on his election, to the Barons of the Exchequer, instead of to the King in person. Thus the citizens were relieved from the inconvenience and expence of attending the royal court at any part of the kingdom, where the monarch might happen to reside. The charters of the city were repeatedly renewed in the course of Henry's long reign.

Edward I. instituted the division of the city into twentyfour wards (to which two have since been added), appointing a magistrate to preside over each of them, with the old Saxon title of Alderman. The inhabitants were also permitted to choose common councilmen as at present, to assist the aldermen in the administration of civic affairs. The Jews, who in the last reign had suffered from the fury of the mob, were in 1279 harshly treated, and many of them put to death for debasing and clipping the current coin of the realm. The disafforestation of the great forest of Middlesex occasioned the suburbs of London to be much improved in the reign of Edward I. in 1306 the use of sea-coal, then becoming general, was forbidden by proclamation. In the reign of Edward II.,

between the years 1514 and 1317, a famine distressed the whole kingdom, the consequences of which are described by Stowe in terms shocking to humanity. In 1320, the Londoners assisted the king with a body of troops, with which he captured Leedes-castle in Kent, and subdued the barons who had rebelled against him. For this service, he gave the city a charter of indemnity. Two years after, Edward, being involved in new disputes with his nobility, again applied to the city for aid, and met with a refusal. The measures taken to punish the citizens occasioned an insurrection, in which Walter Stapleton, bishop of Exeter, Robert de Baldock, the chancellor, and others of the king's partisans lost their lives.

Two new charters were granted to the city at the beginning of the reign of Edward III. One was a charter confirming ancient privileges and bestowing new ones; the other annexed to the city, in perpetuity, the "village of Southwark." In 1348, a terrible pestilence, said to have begun in India, desolated Europe. In England, says Stowe, it "so wasted and spoyled the people, that scarce the tenth person of all sorts was left alive." Such were its ravages in London, that the burying-grounds were filled, and various fresh pieces of land, without the walls, assigned for receiving the dead. Among these was the waste land now forming the site of the Charter House and its precincts, purchased for the purpose by Sir Walter Manny, and in which more than 50,000 persons, who then died, were interred. This plague did not quite subside till nearly ten years after. On the 24th of May, 1356, Ed. ward the Black Prince entered London, on his return from the victory of Poictiers, accompanied by John, the captive king of France, with a numerous and splendid cavalcade. In 1363, a very magnificent entertainment was given in the city by Henry Picard, (lord mayor in 1357,) to the kings of England, France, Scotland, and Cyprus, with Edward the Black Prince, and a large company of eminent and noble guests.

The reign of Richard II. is memorable for the insurrection under Wat Tyler, which was suppressed by the rasa courage of Sir William Walworth, lord mayor of London, and the presence of mind of the king, then a mere youth.

In 1593, the courts of judicature, which the king, when offended with the city, had removed to York, were restored to London. It was also about the same time enacted, that the aldermen, who had heretofore been chosen annually, should continue in office during their good behaviour.

Henry IV. at the commencement of his reign, granted to the city an extension of former privileges; and at the same time some obnoxious statutes were repealed. In 1401 the Act of Parliament for " Burning of obstinate Heretics" was passed; and William Sautre, a parish priest of the city, was the first who suffered under it. A dreadful Plague ravaged the kingdom in 1407, when nearly 30,000 persons died in the metropolis only.

The reign of Henry V. is chiefly distinguished for his successful wars with France. On his return to England, 1415, after the victory of Agincourt, he was received by the citizens of London with the utmost demonstrations of joy, and the streets, at his entry, were splendidly decorated, as they were also in 1421, when he brought home his Queen, Katharine of France.

In the long and unfortunate reign of Henry VI. oc curred the insurrection under Jack Cade, an Irishman, who, assuming the name of Mortimer, pretended to be heir to the crown, and having collected a body of followers, with which he defeated the king's troops sent to oppose him, he entered the city in triumph. Here the insurgents committed many excesses, the lord treasurer, Lord Say, and other persons of distinction being sacrificed to their fury. At length, with the assistance of the governor of the Tower, the citizens succeeded in expelling Cade with his adherents; and the latter dispersing, the rebel leader fled into Kent, where he was soon after discovered and put to death. From the institution of the mayoralty till the year 1454, the annual procession of the mayor and aldermen to Westminster had taken place on horseback; but Sir John Norman, then chosen mayor, built, at his own expense, a handsome barge, in which he was rowed to Westminster, attended by such of the city companies as then possessed barges, in a splendid manner; this practice has been continued by

all his successors. In 1457 a composition for offerings was entered into between the clergy and laity of London, whence it appears, that the annual rents of houses, within the city and in the suburbs, were from six and eight pence to three pounds. In the disastrous contests for the crown, between the houses of York and Lancaster, the Londoners generally favoured the party of the Yorkists. During these commotions in 1467, Smithfield was the scene of a grand tournament, in honour of an embassy from the Duke of Burgundy, to demand the Lady Margaret of York in marriage for his son. After the decisive battle of Barnet, which established Edward IV. firmly on the throne, he bestowed the honour of knighthood on the mayor, the recorder, and twelve of the aldermen of London. The reign of Edward is memorable for the introduction of the art of printing into England. The first printing press was set up at Westminster, in 1472, by William Caxton. Previous to 1475, the right of election of the lord mayor had belonged to the common council; but by an act of the council then made, the election of the mayor and sheriffs was vested in the lord mayor for the time being, the aldermen, common council, and the master, wardens, and livery of each of the city companies. This regula. tion having been subsequently confirmed by act of Parliament, continues in force to the present day.

Soon after the accession of Henry VII. to the crown, a new and singular epidemical disease first made its appearance in this country. It was termed, from one of its principal symptoms, the sweating sickness, and generally proved fatal within twenty-four hours after the first attack. From Hall's " Chronicle" it appears, that two mayors and six aldermen died, in one week, of this complaint. In 1487, an act of Parliament was passed, authorizing the freemen of London to carry their wares to any fair or market in the kingdom, notwithstanding any bye-laws to the contrary. The citizens of the me tropolis repeatedly suffered by the severe exactions of Empson and Dudley, the arbitrary ministers of the king, who, by their means, drew vast sums from the

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