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certain fixed proportion of the expense. These orders are always addressed to the Secretary, at the office in Lincoln's-inn-fields, and must receive his signature, previously to their being executed by the society's highly respectable booksellers, Messrs. Rivington, of St. Paul's Churchyard, whose establishment there nearly vies in antiquity with the institution itself. This society reckons among its members all the archbishops and bishops, and other principal dignitaries of the establishment, together with a great number of the chief nobility of the kingdom.

The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, was incorporated in 1701, for the purpose of furnishing the colonial possessions of the British crown with ministers of the established church. Its members consist of the Archbishop of Canterbury, several of the Bishops and other ecclesiastical dignitaries, and numerous other subscribers. The operations of the society have been principally carried on in North America and the West Indies.

Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland. — The objects of this institution are chiefly promoted by means of instruction afforded to youth. More than 300 schools are conducted under the society's patronage, and upwards of 20,000 children educated. Royal charters of incorporation were granted in 1709 and 1738.

The British and Foreign Bible Society, Earl Street, Blackfriars, has been established within the present century, and has for its sole object the circulation of the sacred Scriptures, without note or comment,' confining its efforts to no countries, Christian or Pagan, and being supported by the benevolent of all religious denominations.

The activity of this society, the progress it has made, and the amount of its expenditure, since its institution, afford a theme for surprise and admiration. The receipts of the charity, from annual subscriptions, legacies, sale of books, &c. is about 95,000l.; and the number of bibles and testaments it has circulated amounts to above two millions five hundred thousand. There are also auxiliary societies

in almost every part of the empire, which purchase of the parent institution at prime cost; and the example has been followed in many foreign countries, which have their several " Bible Societies," some in immediate co-operation with, and others independent of the one under notice.

The exertions of this society, in procuring and publishing translations of the Holy Writ into numerous languages, are particularly deserving of praise. Independently of their editions of the bible in Welsh, Gaelic, Irish, and Manks, for the service of the British Isles, they have published others in French, Dutch, German, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Danish, modern Greek, Arabic, Ethiopic, Syriac, and many other languages.

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The Prayer Book and Homily Society, Salisbury Square, Fleet Street, was instituted in 1812, by members of the establishment, with a view to distribute, both at reduced prices and gratuitously, the authorised formularies, &c. of the Church of England, without note or comment,' like the Scriptures dispersed by the Bible Society. The society has distributed about 92,500 prayer books since its institution, together with above 705,000 homily tracts, 10,500 psalters, and complete copies of the homilies to a less extent. The income of this society is at present about 2000l. a-year; but its efforts are carried to the very extent of its funds, and are neither the less zealous nor the less commendable.


Methodist Missions, commenced by the celebrated Wesley, are now conducted on an immense scale, and extend their operations to all the four quarters of the globe. The receipts of the Wesleyan Missionary Society, in 1820, were upwards of 51,000l. The office is in Hatton Garden.

The Church Missionary Society for Africa and the East, was established in the first year of the present century. This society expends annually considerably more than 5,000l. in furtherance of its benevolent objects. The

Missionary Register, published monthly under its auspices, gives an interesting periodical view of its proceedings.

The Missionary Society of the Calvinistic Methodists was instituted in 1795. The islands in the Pacific Ocean were first visited by the emissaries of this establishment, the design of which has been prosecuted on a very extensive scale. Their attention has since been directed to North America, the East Indies, &c. The publications of persons employed by the Missionary Society contain much curious information, relative to the countries and people they have visited. The society's office is in the Old Jewry.

There are also Missionary Societies conducted respectively by the French Protestants, the Moravians, the Baptists, and the Swedenborgians; besides the Home Missionary Society, an establishment of the Calvinistic Dissenters, and the Continental Society, instituted in 1818, by the Evangelical Episcopalians. The annual receipts of the Baptists' Missionary Society amount to about 15,000l.

The other institutions, which have for their object the promotion of religion, or the cultivation of good morals, are the following:

Queen Anne's Bounty, for the Augmentation of small Livings of Clergymen.

Rev. Dr. Bray's Charity, for providing Parochial Libraries, instituted in 1696.

The Society for Promoting Religious Knowledge by distributing books to the poor, was instituted in 1750.

Naval and Military Bible Society, established in 1780. Society for the Support and Encouragement of Sunday Schools, throughout the British Dominions, instituted in 1785, Little Moorfields. Its object is to assist in the formation of Sunday Schools, by affording information, by pecuniary aid, and by furnishing books, &c.

Sunday School Union, an association of gratuitous Sunday School teachers.

London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews, Wardrobe Place, Doctors' Commons. This society,

which was formed under the patronage of the present Bishop of St. David's, sends missionaries to various parts of the world to convert the Jews, by preaching, and by the distribution of books. Within the last twelve months, 8,824 copies of the New Testament, and 74,000 tracts were distributed; and the total amount of subscriptions for the past year exceeded 10,000l., of which sum Ireland contributed 1000l.

Episcopal Jews'-Chapel Ladies' Association, in aid of the fund for sending missionaries amongst the Jews.

Society for the Relief of Poor Clergymen of the Establishment, resident in the Country, instituted in 1780. The disbursements from the foundation to 1821, have been more than 37,000l.

Unitarian Fund, established in 1791, for the purpose of printing and distributing books written on the principles of Unitarianism.

Society for Promoting the Enlargement and Building of Churches and Chapels. This society, since its establishment in 1818, has been instrumental in providing accommodation for 80,526 persons who are in the habit of attendng the public worship of the church of England, and the amount of donations received up to May 1823, was 61,282., besides annual subscriptions amounting to 630l.

Society for the Conversion and Religious Instruction of Negro Slaves, incorporated by royal charter, 1794. This institution derives its origin from a charitable donation of the Hon. Robert Boyle; and was incorporated at the instance of the late Bishop Porteus.

Society for the Relief and Instruction of Poor Africans and Asiatics, instituted in 1805.

Society for the Protection of Religious Liberty.
Religious Tract Society, instituted in 1799.
Dissenters' Book Society, instituted in 1750.

The Endeavour Society, established in 1794, for the purpose of forming a library of books relating to the doctrines of the Established Church, of distributing religious works among the poor, &c.


Institutions and Establishments connected with Science, Literature, and the Arts: comprehending those for their furtherance and encouragement; Lectures; Exhibitions; and principal Literary Associations.



THE Royal Society originated from the private meetings of a few scientific members of the University of Oxford, and others, who, during the government of Oliver Cromwell, assembled in that city, to enjoy the benefits of improving conversation. The chief subject of their investigations was experimental philosophy, which, by tracing effects to their causes, and renouncing abstract reasonings and hypothetical speculations, tended to the advancement of genuine science. The meetings of these literati were adjourned to Gresham College, London, in 1658, for the purpose of attending the lectures there established; but the death of the Protector occasioned a serious interruption to their progress, as the College was then converted into barracks for soldiers. On the restoration of Charles II. the society assembled with fresh ardour; persons of rank were added to the list of members, and a charter of incorporation was granted by the king, on the 22d of April, 1663. When Sir Isaac Newton became its president in 1703, it attracted the notice of all Europe.

The society is governed by a president and council, consisting together of twenty-one persons. There are two secretaries, who conduct the correspondence, take minutes, read papers, register all experiments, and publish the transactions. Candidates for admission into the society, must be recommended by three fellows; their names and qualifications are then posted in the meetingroom, and, after ten meetings, a ballot takes place, when

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