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public and prominent nature than the above, which immensely swell the list of charitable institutions; so that the sums annually expended in the metropolis, in charitable purposes, independently of the private relief given to individuals, have been estimated at 900,000l.
Many of the London hospitals are edifices which, in regard to their extent and external architecture, do honour to the metropolis; and their internal arrangements are correspondently praiseworthy. The medical assistance is generally the best the profession can supply; the attendance ample; the rooms cleanly and as wholesome as care can render the abodes of a multitude of diseased persons; and the food such as is proper for the condition of the patients. In the alms-houses and other buildings for the maintenance of indigent old persons, there is an air of competency and ease that cannot be too highly commended.
HOSPITALS, AND OTHER PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS FOR THE SICK, DISEASED, MAIMED, AND AFFLICTED.
(For the Royal Hospitals at Greenwich and Chelsea, see "Environs" at the end of the volume.)
St. Bartholomew's Hospital, West Smithfield. This royal foundation is now a handsome and capacious edifice of stone, situated between Christ's Hospital and Smithfield. It originally belonged to a priory, dedicated to St. Bartholomew, founded by Rahere, minstrel or jester to Henry I. That house was given to the citizens of London, after the suppression of the monasteries, by Henry VIII., who bestowed upon it a charter of incorporation. It escaped the great fire of 1666, and was repaired by the governors about twenty-five years afterwards; but, in consequence of its subsequent ruinous state, it was rebuilt, in its present form, from designs by James Gibbs, in 1730, Sir Richard Brocas, knight, then being Lord Mayor and President of the hospital. The principal entrance, however, is of an earlier date, having been erected in 1702. It fronts Smithfield, and consists of a rustic basement, in which there is a large archway. A statue of Henry VIII. is placed on a pedestal in a niche over the key-stone, having on each side two Corinthian
pillars. Below the statue is the following inscription: "St. Bartholomew's Hospital, founded by Rahere, Anno 1102, refounded by Henry VIII., 1546."— Above it is an interrupted semicircular pediment,on the segments of which recline two emblematic figures, designed to represent Lameness and Sickness. Ionic pilasters, with festoons suspended from the volutes, support this pediment. The whole is surmounted by a triangular pediment, the tympanum of which is ornamented with the royal arms. The hospital consists of four piles of building, surrounding a square court, and connected by stone gateways. The interior is conveniently arranged.
The grand staircase was painted, gratuitously, by Hogarth. The subjects are The Good Samaritan; The Pool of Bethesda; Rahere, (the founder) laying the foundationstone; and A sick man carried on a bier, attended by Monks. In the great hall, at the head of the staircase, is a fulllength portrait of Henry VIII., and another of Dr. Ratcliffe, who left 200l. per annum to this hospital, for the improvement of the patients' diet, and for providing linen. In this room also is a picture of St. Bartholomew, with a knife (the symbol of his martyrdom) in his hand, and a very fine portrait of Percival Pott, many years surgeon of the hospital, painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. In one of the windows is Henry VIII. delivering the charter to the Lord Mayor.
There belong to this establishment three physicians, three surgeons, three assistant-surgeons, an apothecary, and chaplain, besides dressers, &c. The institution affords a most excellent practical school of medicine and surgery for young men, who walk the hospital, (as it is termed, both in this and the other great hospitals,) with a view to acquire a knowledge of the healing art. There is also a theatre, in which lectures are delivered to the students by the most eminent practitioners.
All indigent persons, maimed by accident, may be taken into St. Bartholomew's Hospital at all hours of the day and night, without previous recommendation. Diseased persons are received only on petition, signed by a Goveror a Committee of Governors attends every Thursday, to determine on such petitions.
To the south wing of the hospital, a handsome stone building, with a vestibule, &c. has been recently added, for the sole use of "The Medical Establishment." The number of In-patients received here in the course of one year is about 4,500; that of Out-patients about 7000.
St. Thomas's Hospital, High Street, Southwark. - This edifice is another royal foundation, endowed for purposes similar to that of St. Bartholomew.
An Hospital or Alnis-house, connected with the Priory of St. Mary Overey, was founded here in 1215, and surrendered in 1538 to Henry VIII. To this establishment then belonged a master and brethren, and three lay sisters, who made forty beds for poor infirm people, and provided them also with victuals and firing. But the hospital was neglected, and became ruinous; when in 1552, Bishop Ridley, by a well-timed sermon preached before the young king (Edward VI.), awakened the monarch's benevolence, and the. fruits of this discourse are said to have been Christ's Hospital, Bridewell Hospital, and the Hospital of St. Thomas, as now constituted. For, the lord mayor and citizens having purchased, from the king, the manor of Southwark, of which this building formed a part, they repaired and enlarged it at an expense of 1100l., and Edward granted to them a charter for its incorporation.
The edifice was rebuilt by subscriptions, collected by the governors, in 1699, and by the liberal assistance of various benefactors, on a more extensive and commodious plan. It then consisted of three handsome squares, to which the governors, in 1732, at their own expense, added a fourth. Though no estates appear to have been originally annexed to it, yet the bounty of the corporation of London and that of other benefactors, has proved the means of raising such a fund, as not only to insure its permanency, but to extend its objects; so that the annual number of patients may now be estimated at 11,000, and the expenditure at upwards of 10,000l. The Governors are, the Lord Mayor, and court of Aldermen; and those who, on giving 50%., or upwards, to the charity, receive a governor's staff.
The front of the chapel, in the second court, is decorated with four lofty pilasters, of the Corinthian order, and a pediment. In the centre of this court is a bronze statue of Edward VI., by Scheemakers, of considerable merit. A broad passage, on the east side, leads into the third court, the superstructure being supported on pillars. A colonnade entirely surrounds this court, and the fronts of the wards above are ornamented with Ionic pilasters. Here is a stone statue of Sir Robert Clayton, Knt, Lord Mayor, who gave 600l. towards rebuilding the hospital, and endowed it, by will, with 2,300l. The laboratory is very complete: and here are also a museum, a dissecting room, and a new theatre for 300 students, designed by Mr. Robinson, for public lectures. The professional officers of this establishment are three physicians, three surgeons, with dressers and pupils, and an apothecary, who resides on the spot. It contains 18 wards, and 485 beds.
The poor, maimed by accident, are received here as in St. Bartholomew's, at all hours of the day and night, without recommendation. The diseased poor are admitted on petition, signed by a Governor; and a Committee of the Governors sits every Thursday to receive petitions, as at St. Bartholomew's.
Guy's Hospital, St. Thomas's Street, Southwark. This noble institution was the work of one man, a citizen and bookseller, from whom it is justly and appropriately denominated. Mr. Guy commenced business at the house which forms the angle between Cornhill and Lombard Street, with a stock of 2001. value, in 1668; and, by industry and extreme frugality, joined to some very successful speculations, in the purchase of seamens' tickets, and in the South Sea Scheme, he acquired a very large property, for the application of which to charitable purposes, (says Highmore, in his "History of the Public Charities of London,") "the public are indebted to a trifling circumstance. He employed a female servant, whom he had agreed to marry. Some days previous to the intended ceremony, he had ordered the pavement before his door to be mended up to a particular stone, which