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"The Wards of London," by Henry Thomas, Vol. 1. 8vo. 1828. This volume contains a plan of London, as supposed to be at the time the Romans occupied it as a station, also several wood-cuts. As expressed by the title, it is intended to contain an account of the Wards of the City, including Topography, History, Antiquities, Biography, &c.

It would occupy too much of our space to enter more minutely into notices of the numerous topographic works that have treated of London, generally, and of particular places in it; very copious lists of these will be found in the 1st and 5th volumes of "London and Middlesex," forming part of " The Beauties of England and Wales," and in Upcott's "Bibliographical Account of the principal Works relating to English Topography," three volumes,

8vo. 1818.





General Outlines of the Metropolis; Geographical and Relative Locality; Characteristic Features; Present Dimensions; Extent and Importance at different periods, and Gradual Augmentation; Population; Climate; Diseases; &c.

ALTHOUGH Our title is "A Picture of London," it must be apparent to the critical reader, that this volume is not sufficiently large to embrace all the varied, curious, important, and diversified objects, that necessarily constitute integral parts of this vast metropolis. Our pages can only profess to give sketches of the most prominent features and popular characteristics of London: we are, however, not a little solicitous to render these sketches faithful and appropriate, thereby calculated to afford the stranger clear and impressive images of the respective places and objects described. Incessantly occupied, as the generality of Londoners are, few of them have opportunities to study either the history or topography of this city; or have ever seen one tenth part of its streets, public buildings, and private luxuries. To such persons, also, our sketches may be both amusing and interesting; and, it is hoped, may tend to make them more closely examine,


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and more highly estimate their native spot, or adopted home. In the following pages we shall show what London has been at different periods, and what it is at present. Its progressive advancement in extent, wealth, and power, -the calamitous vicissitudes to which it has been subjected,—its unrivalled magnitude, and existing state of local and political influence, cannot fail of astonishing the cursory observer, and will be hailed with exultation and pride by the ardent "true born Englishman." He will be induced to compare it with other capitals of the modern world, and he may also endeavour to trace analogies between it, and the far-famed, but questionable, cities of antiquity. These enquiries must afford much useful information, and will also reflect additional interest and importance on the city which furnishes materials for the investigation.

London is situated near the south-eastern extremity of the county of Middlesex, on the borders of the Thames, at the distance of about sixty miles from the sea, calculated by the course of that river. Its geographical position is fifty-one degrees and thirty-one minutes of latitude, north from the equator, and five minutes and thirty-seven seconds of longitude, west from the meridian of Greenwich observatory. The following are its distances and relative bearings from the principal cities of Europe:-From Edinburgh, 395 miles, south; from Dublin, 338 miles, south-east; from Paris, 225 miles, north-north-west; from Amsterdam, 190 miles, west; from Copenhagen, 610 miles, north-west; from Stockholm, 750 miles, south-west; from St. Petersburgh, 1140 miles, south-west; from Berlin, 540 miles, west; from Vienna, 820 miles, north-west; from Constantinople, 1660 miles, north-west; from Rome, 950 miles, north-north-west; from Madrid, 860 miles, north north-east; from Lisbon, 850 miles, north-north-east.

The extended area of this vast metropolis is a gentle declivity on the northern bank of the Thames, in Middlesex, and an almost uniformly flat surface on the southern side

The longitude and latitude here given, refer to the meridian of St. Paul's Cathedral, which is nearly in the centre of the metropolis.

of that river in Surrey. In consequence of this disposition of the site, the buildings on the Middlesex shore stand higher as they recede from the water, so as to form a kind of amphitheatre, stretching from east to west. The Soil of this district is gravel and clay, with a mixture of loam and sand. As the ground rises, this substratum becomes covered with argillaceous loam or brick earth, extending frequently to the depth of several feet. To the abundant supply of this substance, the amazing extension of London may, in some measure, be attributed; as it has afforded to builders the materials for the composition of bricks, on or near the spot where they were afterwards used. London, considered in the aggregate, comprises the city and its liberties, the city of Westminster, and the borough of Southwark, with their respective suburbs, besides many villages in Middlesex and Surrey, which, though originally distinct, now form integral portions of this great capital of the British Empire. Its extent from east to west, i. e. from Poplar to Knightsbridge, is full seven miles and a half; and its breadth from north to south, or from Islington to Walworth, is above five miles. Within the last ten years, however, the metropolis has so rapidly and extensively increased in buildings, that we are at a loss to fix its boundary lines. The circumference of the whole, allowing for various inequalities in the extension of the streets, &c. at the extremities, cannot be less than thirty miles. It may, therefore, be fairly estimated that the entire buildings, &c. occupy an area of no less than eighteen square miles, including the space taken up by the river Thames, which extends about seven miles in length through London, with an average breadth of almost a quarter of a mile.

Independently of the various local and municipal divisions, London may be divided into six grand portions, of which the city, commonly so called, is to be considered as the nucleus, and the remaining five as so many suburbs ; forming altogether probably the largest assemblage of human habitations ever known; certainly the most extensive now existing in the world. 1. The City comprises the central and most ancient portion of the metropolis. This is the chief emporium of trade and commerce of every

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description, and is mostly occupied by shops, public offices, and dwellings of tradesmen and manufacturers. - 2. The Western Suburb, including Westminster, consists of the buildings extending westward from Temple Bar and from the western limits of the city, and bounded on the north by Oxford-street, and on the south by the Thames. In this portion are contained the royal palaces, the residences of some of the nobility, the houses of Parliament, courts of justice, many government offices, the theatres, &c. &c.— 3. The North-west Suburb includes the streets and squares to the north of Oxford-street and to the west of Tottenham Court Road. This may be considered as the most fashionable part of London, in which numerous habitations of the nobility and gentry are situated. These two divisions are termed the "west end of the town."-4. The Northern Suburb takes in all that portion of the capital which extends to the north of Holborn and the city, from Tottenham Court Road on the west, to Shoreditch and Kingsland Road on the east. It comprehends the once-detached villages of Hoxton, Islington, and St. Pancras, as well as the more recently erected districts called Pentonville and Somers Town. 5. The Eastern Suburb, sometimes denominated the "east end of the town," includes that part of the metropolis which is situated to the east of the city and of Shoreditch. The inhabitants of the southern portion of this suburb, bordering on the Thames, are devoted to commerce, ship-building, and all the necessary branches of trade and manufacture, connected with the importation and exportation of merchandize. Since the commencement of the present century, the construction of commercial docks and warehouses has given a novel character to this part of London.-6. The Southern Suburb is formed by the vast and heterogeneous mass of buildings, which, skirting the Thames from Vauxhall to Rotherhithe, also extends towards the centre more than two miles from the river side. This portion includes the ancient borough of Southwark, a distinguishing feature of which is the number of its manufactories of various kinds, as ironfoundries, glass-houses, dye-houses, shot and hat manufactories, breweries, distilleries, &c.

It has been computed that London at present contains

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