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MONTHLY MAGAZINE. No. 244.
AUGUST 1, 1813. [Price 2s.
Our Supplement, completing the 35th Volume, is published wilh the present Number.
ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. To the Editor of the Monthly Magasine. offences are associated with the daring SIR,
and desperate criminal. No money is F the degree of suffering, of useless given to prisoners arthe time of discharge,
t prevent an jinmediate recurrence to were generally kuown, it is impossible the predatory acts which brought them that the evil should not be remedied. thillier." By calling the attention of your nume FLEET PRISON.No medical attend. sous readers to some of the facts lately ance in case of sickness. No allowance published by Mr. Nield, entitled State of food, but the very poor prisoners parof the Prisons in England, Scotland, and take of the donations which are sent to Wales, you may do much to make it the prison, and the begging.grate. A known; and for that purpose, I hope yard' where strangers -are nimitted to you will allow a place in the next number play tennis, &c. with the prisoners. A of your widely circulating Magazine, lo a wine and beer club inice a week, to few of its interesting details.
which strongers are admitted. In the Boroug! COMPTER, SOUTH. King's BENCH PRISON.--Ni, medical WARK, there is no medical attendance in aid. No allowance of food whatever. ease of sickness, which so frequently at Every person who is obliged to partake of tends the altered situation of the prisoner. the charities, must take lis turn to hold The men and women debtors associate the begging. box at the door, which preLogether during the day. No coals are vents many who have lived in respectable allowed, no nops, brooms, or pails, to situations from applying for this relief. keep the gaol clean, no bedsteads, bed. There are instances of men, who, rather ding, wor even straw to lie upon ! llence than submit to this degradation, have the debtors are obliged to sleep in their shut themselves up for months in their clothes upon the boards, than which the rooms, and become so emaciated from very streets can hardly be more filthily the want of food, as to lay the foundation dirty. Soap and towels are not afforded; of disorders which ended in their death, a man may, for a debt of one guinea, re Staircases and lobbies in the most filthy main in this wretched place forty days, state iinaginable. No bedding provided. without once taking off his clothes or There are, on an average, from 500 to Washing his face and hands. The allow. 700 prisoners within the walls : the prie ance is a two-penny loaf a day; which is son will not accominodate more than 220, not sufficient to support the cravings of CAERMARTHEN Castle COUNTY GAOL nature. *
AND BRIDEWELL. The felows cells are CLERKENWELL.-In this crowded pri- dark, damp, and ill ventilated. No emson, two-t birds of the prisoners constantly ployment furnished. Transports have sleep in their wrelched habiliments on the not here the king's allowance, and from bare boards, without even straw. The sickness, want of water, and 6lth, were allowance of bread (one pound a day) is in a state bordering on desperation, and too scanty, in a place where there is no begging to be sent any where to get out opportunity afforded of earning any thing of so miserable a place. Several pri. by labour. Persons conimitted for lesser soners were ill, and one could not turn
This prison is within the jurisdiction This is a non-descript prison, over of the Borough Bailiff, and neither the She- which no controul was ever claiined by the ‘riffs of London, nor the Corporation of Lone Sheriffs of the county, except by one of don, have any coutroul over it. In 1807-8, them in 1807-8. The new Debtors' Prison it was frequently visited by one of the She- and the intended separate prison for commitriffs, and that Sheriff bad an interview and ments in Giltspur-street, ought to render a correspondence with the Borongh Bailiff this prison useless; but if used, the Sheriff's about its wretched state, but he fears to ought to insist on their jurisdiction over it. little purpose.-EDITOR.
Editur. MONTHLY MAQ. No, 242
herself in bed, yet the surgeon had not the floor. A man may thus suffer six for two months seen any of them. months imprisonment under the bare
CASTLE-Town, Isle or Man. Caso suspicion of a crime, from which, at the TLE Rusuten Gaol.--It contains only end of that dreary term, his country may three inhabitable rooms, in which felons perhaps honourably acquit him. and debtors are promiscuously confined. HULL. THE BRIDEWELL. Mr. Here no insolveni act bach erer reached, Nield felt himself almost suffocated from neither have the laws of this island ever the offensive state of it. provided any more of relief for the ho BRIDGEWATER.— The prison is only nest though unfortunate debtor. After one room, with straw upon the floor, a debtor has given up all his effects, there where, as Mr. Nield was informed, fifty is not any public provision of food, beds, prisoners had been confined for six days. fuel, or medicine, for persons confined ROTHWELL, YORKSHIRE. Prison for in this place, nor any parochial support debtors.-Fees on commitment 9s. 4d. afforded tu their wives and families. The on discharge 185. 4d., gamish 6d. 2d, 'court-yard of the prison is a part of the No chaplain, no surgeon, no allowance old fossé, and exceedingly damp, sure for food whatever; no firing allowed, nor rounded by high wais; seldom does the any employment provided, which can selsun shine upon any part of it; it is like. dom be procured by the prisoners ; prie wise intolerably offensive.
soners pay for their bed. Only one court DUMFRIES COUNTY GAOL.-The yarıl for men and women, The annual debtors
pay fees of two-pence or four. number in confinement about thirty-four. pence a night, though the felons pay SALISBURY COUNTY GAOL
AND none; the surgeon attends the selons BRIDEWELL.-Young novices in vice only; no chaplain. A large day-room and inveterate offenders, vagrants and for the debtors, converted into a dwelling faulty servants, are alike promiscuously for the turnkey's fanvily. The felons are confined here: when let out for airing, wever suffered to come out of their cells, it is but for one hour only out of the though there is a day-room for them. twenty four. Mr. Nield happened to be No coals are allowed.
there during that bour, in the wintry EDINBURGU CITY TOLBOOTII.-In month of January 1802. There was a three of the felons rooms, are stocks heavy fall of sleet, snow, and rain; it fixed on the floors, the upper part of was extremely cold, and yet upon opene which lifts up to receive the leg of the ing their door, the prisovers (17 felons prisoner, who must lie on his back till and 7 for misdemeanors) rushed out into relcased, and in these stocks they have the midst of it, eagerly gasping as it were been confined night and day. After for a mouthful of fresli vital air. sentence of death, a blacksmith fixes an TAUNTON COUNTY BRIDEWELL, iron strap to the criminal's leg, fastened Many of the prisoners were in irons ; again to a ring which encircles a strong and amongst them a very little boy, comiron bar running across the rooin, so that mitted for two months, had beavy he cannot lift up that foot from the floor; irons. in this situation the wretched sufferer has KINGSTON UPON THAMES, Town Gaol. been sometimes detained during six --Mr. Nield found here a man confined weeks, until the execution of his awful for six guineas for rent, and the costs sentence.
incurred against him had amounted to HERTFORD COUNTY GAOL AND BRIDE- 31. 3s. Id. The poor man told him he WELL.- The prisoners committed to the had maintained a wife and brought up felons ganl, (and some of them even for ten children without parish assistance; comparatively trivial offences, and before but having been in confinement eleven a trial,) are here' immediately put in weeks, his wife and three youngest child. irons; and at night are fastened two ton ren were then in the workhouse. Here gether down to the fooring of their cells, was no allowance whatever to provide by a chain passed through the main link needful food for this victim to misfortune, of each man's letter, and padlocked to nor even water accessible to him. In a a strony iron staple in the door, and, narrow passage he was standing to beg; with this additional aggravation of their and but for ihe casual interference of daily misery, are left to pass the hours sympathy in others, could no longer destined by nature to ease and refresh- have existed than human nature can ex. ment, upon dvose tire only scattered on ist without food,
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. by a constant unensy state of feeling, SIR,
which appeared to be rather gaining S it is the express duty of every ground, when I at length determined on
, of longing to the profession of medicine or native country: and, accordingly, I fol. not, through some channel, to communi- lowed my wife and family to England, cate to the public, for the benefit of so where I arrived in the course of April ciety, whatever fact his accidental ex. 1812. As, until latterly, my cough had perience may have discovered to him as not been attended with any expectora. likely to conduce to the preservation, or tion at all, which, also, when it did su. restoration, of the health of others; I pervene, betrayed nothing of a purulent shall make no apology for requesting you nature, and, as the symptoms of bepa. to insert in the Monthly Magazine, the titis, upon the whole, indicated a con. statement of the case, with which the paratively slight affection, doubtless one narrative I am about to enter upon com less severe than cases I had known by mences. With regard to the subsequent the same expedient recovered from, I detail and remarks, as not being necesa was not without hopes of ultimately reSarily connected with it, and having less gaining, in some degree, my pristine of utility than amusement for their ob- vigour of body and mind. ject, you would, notwithstanding, oblige For the first five or six months after me by bringing them forward through the my return, during which I resided prin. same respectable medium, as they, pos. cipally in Bath and its neighbourhood, sibly, may not provę uninteresting to if I did not derive decided benefit froin such of your general readers as, froin oc my change of climate, I cannot say that casional mental exhaustion or other I experienced any sensible alteration for causes, for a time, may happen to be in the worse. But, when the winter set in, disposed to engage in the perusal of the which, to me at least, appeared to be unmore profound communications and usually inclement, notwithstanding the more important disquisitions, with which employment, on my part, of every requis your valuable publication abounds. site precaution against such a vicissitude,
After a long residence in the island of especially the habitual wearing of Acecy Jamaica, where for between thirteen and hosiery next my skin from head to foot, fourteen years I exercised the different every uneasy symptom, with which I had departments of medical practice, upwards been comparatively slightly affected in of a twelvemonth ago I returned to Eng. the West Indies, now became aggravated land, in a state of vers indifferent health, tenfold. In addition to a pain in my designing to pass the remainder of my right hypochondrium, originally obtuse, life among my relations and friends, with now acute, I was almost incessantly tor. a view to the possible recovery, or, at mented with a severe, lancinating pain, any rate, improvement of my impaired shooting up to the shoulder-blade of the health. During my abode in Kingston, same side. My organs of digestion be. where I was harassed with the multipli- came altogether deranged; and my city of my professional avocations, I cough, which was now much increased had, in cammon with the majority of in frequency, was at length attended European settlers there, repeated attacks with a prodigious discharge from the of the endemic of the climate, hepatitis; lungs, of a matter disagreeable to the to alleviate which I was more than once taste, either actual pus, or high!y morbid obliged to have recourse to the employ- mucus, having altogether a purulent apment of the usual remedy of the com pearance, The tunica conjunctiva of plaint, the submuriate of mercury, taken my eye, as well as my whole countein the form of pills, and persisted in so nance, became such as distinguish the as to affect the gums and taint the breath. subjects of icterus;' and my strength In process of time, also, my lungs be. failed me daily. The submuriate of mer. came injured; as was indicated by a ha- cury, froin which alone I used to reccive bitual frequent, dry cough, which now benefit in the West Indies, I was debar. came on, and the burrying of my respin red from employing, on account of the ration on making any unusual exertion, violent derangement and griping of the as in speaking, or reading aloud, for any lowels, with which I invariably found length of time, ascending an acclivity, or ils exhibition to be attended in England. tbe like.
In short, after being aiflicted with these For more than four years of my life sufferings from the middle of November had my enjoyment been thus epbittered 1812, to the end of February followiny,
in the anxious hope that change of place hypochondrium, shooting up to the scau might effect something in my favour, I pula of the same side, was entirely relastly removed to London, where, during moved; my appetite and digestion were the prevalence of the bad weather, I completely restored; I scarcely coughed meant to confine myself to the house, at all in the course of the day, except on and determined to avail myself of the getting up in the morning, at which time, advice of the inost eminent physicians io and then only, I brouglit up an inconthe metropolis. The result of an early siderable expectoration of a yellow.co. consultation of several of the faculty, ac. loured malter, and of a thick and tena. knowledged to possess the most ample cious consistence. I so far regained my experience and the soundest judgment, formier strength, as to be able to samble was, that my only safety consisted in my over the hilly ground of the surrounding immediate return to the West Indies, neighbourhood, without any cough being the climale of which, in their opinion, excited, or my respiration materially from its having become to me a second accelerated. In conclusion, without nature, as it were, was now indispensable resorting to the aid of medicine,-of the to the prolongation of my life. Distres. inefficacy of which, in my own case, I sing as it was to nie once more to tear was well convinced, confining myself to myself from the bosom of iny family, and no particu ar regimen, but merely obo to bid a long, perhaps a last adieu to my serving moderation in all things, in the friends and native land, it was the only short space of between three and four alternative left for me to adopt in such months, I returned to the enjoyment of critical circumstances.
such vigour of health, and hilarity of Accordingly, early in the month of mind, as I had not known for the last March last, embarking at Portsmouth on seven years of my life. On stating these board of a ship bound for the West In particulars to a judicious medical praca dies, I proceeded to the Cove of Cork, Litioner in Cove, as well as to other men to join a fleet of merchantmen which had of sense in the place, not of the profesrendezroused there to place themselves sion, with whom I had contracted an in. under the appointed convog. During timacy, I received the gratifying and sathe detention of the fleet for more than tisfactory information from them, that six weeks, in consequence of being wind- there was nothing new nor singular in my bound, I experienced such relief, while case; as they had known instances of living in lodgings in the town of Cove, not a few, affected in their lungs simi. that, against the wind at length shifting larly to myself, who had accidentally put in our favour, I felt myself, so to speak, into Cove, with the view of proceeding in a great measure a new man. For the to Lisbon, Madeira, or elsewhere, after last three or four weeks, the weather, some stay there, having so far recovered considering the earliness of the season, as to relinquish their original design of had been remarkably mild, and seemned roaming abroad in quest of the bealth to be set in fair; so that, my hepatic they had lost. Were I a native of the symptoms being all by this tine consi. country, still more of the place, as the derably alleviated, my cough become Irish, in all probability, or rather cer. much less constant and severe, the ex- tainly, are the most national people on pectoration diminished, and no longer the face of the earth; or were I'an in. Tetaining the purulent appearance, and habitant, or what would be still inore my appetite and strength inuch im- questionable, a medical practitioner es. proved ;--I ventured to allow the ship to tablished in the town of Cove; the sail without me, and to try the effect of above statement of the important fact, a longer residence in a situation, which, which I have, in my own person, so judging from my late experience of it, happily experienced, might naturally bade fair, as the season advanced, to fur- enough be ascribed to prejudice, or ther the amelioration of my constitution, placed to the account of self-interest. already for me, so happily begun. Nor But no such objection affecting the cro. had I reason, as will appear in the sequel, dibility of my testimony, the impartia! to repent of embracing so unexpected a and discerning, to whom I address mydetermination,
self, and whom it may interest, are at By the time that I had continued three liberty to follow the dictates of their own montlis at the town of Cove, the jaun- judgment, and to avail themselves of the diced appearance of my eyes and face present compiunication. altogether disappeared; the pain in the
W, C. B.