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The vessels were chiefly Brazilian, and the remainder Spanish and Dutch. We are sorry to observe an intimation that the British government are about to abandon their establishments on Cape Coast, as such an abandonment will throw open a wide field, which is now closed against the detestable traffick in slaves-It is said that in Egypt the cotton crop of the present year has almost entirely failed. The Pasta appears, as yes, to be faithful to the cause of the Grand Senior; but bis defection is Jooked for, if war slıould ensure between the Turks and the powers allied for the pacification of Greece. It has been notified to bim that the reinforcement sent by bin against the Greeks, could not be permitted to pass into that country-It appears that the Algerines have determined to capture all vessels under the flags of Prussia and the Hanseatick towns,

AMERICA. Brazil AND Buenos Aybes,—Notwithstanding the rejection by the Republick of Buenos Ayres of the treaty of peace lately negotiated, it appears that at the date of the last advices, the war was likely to be speedily terminated. It is stated that the emperor of Brazil had consented to declare the Banda Oriental independent, and that a treaty, embracing an article to this effect, was likely soon to be ratified by both the belligerents. The last accounts say that the whole sea coast of Brazil is lined with Buenos Ayrean privateers, that their captures are surprisingly numerous, and their booty immense. One privateer had taken sixteen prizes, and had on board 200,000 milreas in specie. The new congress of Buenos Ayres was convened in the latter part of June, and warmly approved the rejection of the treaty negotiated by Garcia. On the 7th of July, a new president, Dr. Vicente Lopez, was inaugu. rated. He is said to be a distinguished scholar. He at first refused the Presidency, but eventually consented to accept it. Hopes are entertained that this choice will have a good effect in healing the animosities which exist among the several states which compose the confederation denominated, “The United Provinces of South America,” or the Argentine Republick.

COLOMBIA.— Information that may be relied on is at length received of the arrival of the Liberator Bolivar at Bogota, on the 10th of September, of his reception there, of the speech he delivered at the opening of the general congress, and some of the ipcipient proceedings of that body. The character of the Liberator, although assailed by a party, does not appear to have suffered in the opinion of his countrymen in ga neral, nor his influence to be greatly diminished-it still seems to be dominant, ad be has pledged himself to maintain the existing constitution, with only such sound reforms or amendments as shall be sanctioned by a General Convention, to be called for the purpose. The dissentions which have arisen in this extensive republick, sill not easily be quieted; but we think the prospect brightens of returning order and pros. perity. The speech of Bolivar, in reply to the address of the Vice President of the Con gress, concludes with the following strong expression-"In spite of the dismember ment with which the Republick bas been threatened, in spite of the almost anarchucal condition of the South of Colombia, I hope and even promise the Congress to deliver over into the hands of the Grand Convention, the Republick of Colombia, Free and United.—The Grand Convention is to meet on the 12th of February next.

GUATEMALA.--The last accounts from this republick, represent civil discord and civil war as yet prevalent, and not likely soon to be terininated.

Mexico.-It appears that the unfavourable impressions prevalent in this republick in regard to our country, of which we have heretofore taken notice, bave been in a considerable degree removed. They appear to have been made, and for a while che risbed, by those who wished to secure a monopoly of commercial advantages to Ari tain; but the unfounded jealousies and prejudices which existed are vanishing under the influence of truth and time.-We perceive by an article in one of the laiest pa pers from Britain, that Mexico bas not been able to pay the interest on her loan ia London. The financial concerns of all the new American republicks are in a bad state. But this is not wonderful-it would be wonderful if it were otherwise. A tev years since the United States had a heavy debt and little credit. Now we are probably the richest state in the world—if our debt, our expenses, our credit, and our re sources, be viewed in the aggregate. We hope that a few years may place our sister republicks in a similar situation.

UviteD STATES.—The happiness of our own country leaves v« little to wish for except that we had more gratitude to God, and less disposition to cherish party vio lence and slander, in reference to the uext presidential election.

THE

CHRISTIAN ADVOCATE.

DECEMBER, 1827.

Heligious Communications.

LECTURES ON THE SIORTER CATE

TO YOUTH.

LECTURE XX 11.

attain to this assurance, we have CHISM OF THE WESTMINSTER AS- unequivocal evidence.

Holy Job SEMBLY OF DIVINES—ADDRESSED speaks on this subject without

doubt-"I know that my Redeemer liveth” -- Asaph in like manner

“God is the strength of my heart, My young friends - You have and my portion forever.”—The heard an explanation of the great Apostle Paul to the like effect-"I and interesting doctrines of justifi- am now ready to be offered, and cation, adoption and sanctification. the time of my departure is at In the answer of the Catechism that hand-I know in whom I ve befollows, the effects of these graces lieved,” &c. And that this attainon the practical Christian, are thus ment was not peculiar to inspired traced out—" The benefits which, men, but ought to be humbly dein this life, do accompany or flow sired and sought after by Chrisfrom justification, adoption, and tians in general, we learn from its sanctification, are, assurance of being spoken of in scripture as God's love, peace of conscience,joy something to which all believers in the Holy Ghost, increase of grace, may aspire; although it is not reand perseverance therein to the presented that all actually acquire end." Here are five benefits, it, or that our salvation depends on springing from the sources speci- its acquisition. Yet it certainly is fied. A whole lecture 'might be represented as an object which all spent on each, but we must endea- should aim at, which it is possible vour to bring the whole within the to obtain, and which some do in limits of the one on which we have fact obtain. The Apostle Paul, in entered.

his Epistle to the Hebrews, calls " Assurance of God's love,” is it once, “the full assurance of the first benefit which the answer hope;" and in another instance, states, as flowing, in this life, from “the full assurance of faith ;" and justification, adoption and sanctifi- in both cases he recommends it, as cation.--By assurance of God's love an attainment for which all behere, we are to understand an un- lievers should earnestly strive. doubting persuasion in the minds The Apostle John wrote his first of believers, grounded on evidence epistle, as he says towards the furnished by God, that they are the close, with a leading view to enaobjects of his special love. That ble Christians to learn the certainmany of the scripture saints did ty of their state—“ These things VOL. V, -Ch. Adr.

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have I written unto you that be- fore us contemplates-It is, I relieve on the name of the Son of peat, of importance to know and God, that ye may know that ye remember, that this blessed hope have eternal life. And he also may exist in a great variety of desays-"He that believeth on the grees, of which the highest only is Son of God, hath the witness in assurance. It is also to be noted, himself.” The Apostle Peter ex that the same Christians may have pressly enjoins— Give all dili- different degrees of hope at difgence to make your calling and ferent times, and that assurance itelection sure."

self may be repeatedly lost and reIn addition to this scripture tes gained. timony, consider, also, the nature There are two ways in which we of the subject. The point directly may have such clear evidence of in view is, that the assurance we our justification, adoption, and speak of flows from justification, sanctification, that the assurance adoption, and sanctification. Now, of God's love may flow from suppose a person to have satisfac it. The first arises from the influ. tory evidence that he is justified ences of Divine grace, immediately before God through the imputation and powerfully communicated to of the Saviour's righteousness; that the soul. The believer then, so he is adopted into the family of sweetly, and unreservedly, and God; and that he is sanctified by sensibly, commits his soul to Christ, the Holy Spirit,--suppose he has that he cannot doubt that he does satisfactory evidence of all this, it: the Spirit of adoption breathes and assurance of the love of God on his soul, and he cries, “ Abba will necessarily flow from it, or Father:” the Spirit of sanctificabe its certain consequence. The

tion raises in him the abhorrence fact is, that assurance always is, of all sin, and an ardent hungering and must be, derived from this and thirsting after perfect holiness source. It is, moreover, propor -From all this the assurance of tioned to the clearness of the evi- God's love necessarily and immedence we have, that we are in a diately flows-or rather it often acjustified, adopted, and sanctified companies, and is to be considered state. If that evidence is full and as itself a gift of the holy and blesscomplete, assurance of God's love

ed Spirit. will be fall and complete likewise The second way in which the as-If that evidence be dubious, we surance of God's love may be obshall also be dubious whether we tained is, by a careful, close, perare the objects of God's love. For severing, and prayerful examinaalthough it may not be proper, tion of our religious exercises-our strictly speaking, to say that there state of heart and life; and by are degrees of assurance, yet, in re- comparing the whole with what gard to the subject before us, it is the word of God lays down as not only true, but of much import- marks and evidence of a gracious ance to be remembered, that the state; and thus, by the aids of the hope of a Christian that he is in fa- blessed Spirit, forming a sound and vour with God, may exist in a great satisfactory conclusion, that we are variety of degrees from those first truly in the love and favour of God. dawnings which only save froin The former of these has sometimes despair, to that prevailing hope of been called the sensible assurance salvation, which is the general at- of God's love ; the latter the assutainment and consolation of Chris- rance of faith. We may lawfully tians; and so on to that full assu- pray with submission, for either; rance of hope, of which the apostle or for both. But it is the latter, or speaks, and which the answer be the assurance of faith, which we are

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chiefly to look for. The following tice of every commanded duty, questions and answers from Fisher's Psal. cxix. 32; but the other enCatechism, may afford useful in courages sloth and indolence, Luke struction on this subject.

xi. 21; the man who has true as" Question. What may afford surance wants to be searched and comfort to a believer, when at any tried, as to the reality thereof, Psal. time he loses this assurance? xxvi. 1, 2; but they who are stuffed

Answer. That the covenant with presumptuous confidence hate stands fast with Christ, Ps. Ixxxix. the light, neither come to the light, 28: that the love of God, is inva- lest their deeds should be reproved, riably the same, Zeph. iii. 17; and John jji. 20.” that he will in his own time return We now proceed to consider the with wonted loving kindness, Isa. second benefit which, in this life, liv. 7, 8.

accompanies or flows from the Q. What is incumbent on be- graces we contemplate. This is, lievers for recovering the assurance "peace of conscience." Peace of of God's love, when they have lost conscience is that inward quiet the present sense of it?

and tranquillity of the mind, which A. To be humbled for sin, as the proceeds from a conviction that all procuring cause of the Lord's de our sins are pardoned and blotted parture, Psal. xl. 12; to justify God out for the sake of Christ, and that and to condemn themselves, Dan. God is truly reconciled, and in ix. 7, 8; and to wait in the exer- friendship with the soul—“Being cise of prayer and fasting, for the justified by faith, (says the apostle,) returns of his love, Isa. viii. 17. we have peace with God through

Q. Of what advantage to believ our Lord Jesus Christ.” It may ers is the assurance of God's love? well be said that this peace accom

A. It animates to the practice of panies and flows from justification, every commanded duty, Psal. cxix. adoption, and sanctification, be32; it supports under all trials and “ there is no peace, saith my afflictions, Psal. xxiii. 4; and it fills God, to the wicked.” None can the soul with the love of God be have true peace of conscience who cause he first loved us, 1 John iv. 19. are not justified, adopted, and sanc

Q. How may we know if we tified. have the well grounded assurance of Peace of conscience flowing from God's love?

justification, is experienced when A. If it flow from faith acted on the conscience, being sprinkled Christ in the promise, Eph. i. 13; with the blood of Christ, is set free if it fill the soul with an humble froin all fear of the deserved wrath and holy wondering at the conde- of God; and what a precious benescending goodness of God, 2 Sam. fit this is, can be fully known only vii. 18; and if it beget ardent de. to those who have felt the fear, and sires after nearer conformity to known this blessed peace as sucGod here, and the full enjoyment ceeding to it. Again-Peace of of him hereafter, 1 John, iii. 2, 3. conscience flows from adoption,

Q. What is the difference be when we have soul quiet and comtwixt a true assurance of God's posure, in the firm faith that God love, and a false and presumptuous is our friend and Father in Christ confidence?

Jesus. Once more-Peace of conA. True assurance makes a man science accompanies sanctification, more humble and self-denied, Gal. when the blessed Spirit shines on ii. 19, 28; but presumptuous con- the soul of the saint, warming it to fidence puffeth up with spiritual the love of holiness, and assisting pride and self-conceit, 2 Kings x. and comforting it in the perform15, 16; the one excites to the prac. ance of duty.

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A chief onuse why some truly and is that inward elevation and eneven eminently pious persons do largement of soul, which flows from not enjoy more peace of conscience the lively exercise of faith, feasting than they actually possess, is, be- on Christ in the promise. “In cause they seek it more than they whom (says the apostle Peter) ought from sanctification, and less though now ye see him not, yet bethan they ought from justification. lieving, ye rejoice with a joy unLuther has given an admirable ex- speakable and full of glory." This planation of this, in his commentary joy receives its denomination from on the epistle to the Galatians. the Author of it, the Comforter, or God forbid that we should make Holy Ghost"I will pray the any approach to the delusion of the Father, (said our Lord, in his last Antinomians, or speak a word in intercessory prayer on earth) and disparagement of sanctification. he shall give you another Comforter, He who talks of inward peace, that he may abide with you for while he allows himself in sin, is a ever; even the Spirit of truth, hypocrite. At the same time, it is whom the world cannot receive bean unquestionable truth, that sanc cause it seeth him not, neither tification, in the present life, is im- knoweth him; but ye know him, perfect in the best; and that the for he dwelleth with you and shall more of it we bave, the clearer be in you.” Accordingly the aposshall we see, and the more deeply tle Paul declares, that “ the kingfeel and bewail, the remainders of dom of God is not ineat and drink; sin and depravity. This being the but righteousness and peace, and case, if we seek peace

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joy in the Holy Ghost." The matscience, only or chiefly from this ter or ground of this joy is, that source, it must of necessity be very God, in Christ, is the everlasting imperfect. But the righteousness portion of the believing soul. This of Christ is perfect and complete, joy is described in scripture as a and when the soul ventures itself hidden joy, a permanent joy, and fully and sweetly on him, it must an unspeakable joy-The peculiar have the sense of pardoned sin and seasons of this joy are “the times peace of conscience, as the conse- of special manifestation after a quence. And here, if I mistake dark night of desertion; the time of not, is the real cause of that want tribulation for Christ's sake; the of inward peace which many of time of God's remarkable appearGod's dear people experience. ance for his church; and sometimes,

They seek it legally-Let them in and about the time of death." indeed press earnestly after sanc- It is, however, not to be understood, tification; but let them seek peace that this holy joy is confined to of conscience chiefly from the blood such seasons; or that it may not be of Christ. A stated warfare against experienced at other times. But all known sin, a constant fear of as there are some who talk of joys oftending Goil, and a sincere en- in religion amounting even to rapdeavour to please bim, constitute tures, who too evidently show that the scriptural evidence of our being all their exercises are either preentitled to derive that peace of God tended or delusive, it is to be carewhich passeth all understanding, fully remembered, that the genuine from the peace speaking blood of joy of which I have now spoken, Jesus.

while it does indeed enliven and The third benefit mentioned in enlarge the soul, does also deeply the answer, as flowing from the humble it, and promote the work of Christian graces we have consider- sanctification in it—The true joy ed is--"Joy in the Holy Ghost.” of the believer, by its humbling, Joy in the Holy Ghost (says Fisher) sanctifying, and quickening effects,

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