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nished, while the contingent expenses of the Assembly: yet the Board have conathe Assembly have been increasing ; so dered it as their duty actively to employ that the amount on which the Board could all the funds at their command; so that if calculate has not been more than 84000 at any time money bas, at the close of the annually; and it is with grief we say it year, remained unexpended, it has been will, this yoar, be still less.

occasioned by the want of suitable mit To go beyond our means would be iner- sionaries. pedient, and indeed contrary to a rule of

The Treasurer of the Trustees of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church

acknowledges the receipt of the following sums for their Theological Seminary at

Princeton, (N. J.) during the month of August last, viz. of the Rev. Dr. John Codman, of Dorchester, (Mass.) per Messrs. Hurd & Sewall, his seventh annual payment, for the Contingent Fund,

$100 00 of the Rev. Thomas Kennedy, of the Senior Class of 1821-2, in full of his subscription for the Oriental and Biblical Literature Professorship, 22 00

Total, $122 00

View of Publick Affairs.

EUROPE. We have seen no European dates more recent than the 31st of July from London, and the 15th from Paris-The foreign papers state that there was a prospect of an abundant harvest the ensuing season in Russia, Poland, Germany, France, Denmark, and Great Britain-Much injury had been sustained in various parts of the auntinent by inundations, occasioned by unusual falls of rain.

BRITAIN.-The British parliament was prorogued on the 2d of July by the Lord Chancellor. Before the prorogation, Mr. Canning was able to carry a bill, making a temporary provision for the introduction of foreign grain, subject to a specifick duty: which had had the effect to reduce the price of domestick corn. It is expected that the corn bill, lately thrown out in the house of Lords, will be renewed as soon as the parliament shall again convene. It is stated in the speech by which parliament was prorogued, that there is “a gradual revival of employment in the manufacturing districts. All the arrangements of office in the new ministry and cabinet have been fully settled—Mr. Canning remains Premier. The Marquis of Anglesea is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, to succeed the Marquis of Wellesley some months bence. The Duke of Wellington had gone to Ireland on a visit to his brother. Mr. Canning had been ill, but was again restored to health. Mr. Huskisson had gone to the continent for the recovery of his health. Eleven professors had been appointed in the London University; two of them,Mr. Long of Virginia and Dr. Pattison of Baltimore,

- from the United States. The Bank of England had resolved to discount at the rate of 4 per cent. instead of 5: and stocks and other property had in consequence rises rapidly in value. The ratification of the treaty between Britain and Mexico had arrived, and the vessel which conveyed it brought 1,200,000 dollars in specie-The most important article of intelligence relates to the treaty entered into by the three great powers, Britain, France, and Russia, for terminating the sanguinary conflict between the Turks and Greeks. It purports to have been signed in London by the plenipotentiaries of the high contracting parties, on the 6th of July last. Tbe ratifications were to be exchanged in two months, and sooner if possible. It comes to this -the hostile parties shall be first requested, and then, if necessary, compelled to fight no more-Greece shall pay an annual tribute to Turkey, but shall choose her own rulers, subject to the approval of the Grand Seignior-The tribute to be fixed once for all, and the Greeks to indemnify the Turkish individuals who have lost property, beside paying the tribute-No Turksto remain in Greece, or in the Grecian islands, -None of the contracting powers to seek for themselves any augmentation of territory, or any commercial advantages for their subjects. How this treaty came before

the publick is a mystery, and some have suspected it to be a forgery. We have no daubt, however, that it is genuine-The fleets which are to proceed to the Mediterranean and Archipelago are on their way. The Turk is restive, and professes to reject the offered mediation. If he should continue to do so, and eventually bring on himself the vengeance of the allied powers, it would seem to be a just retribution for his horrible cruelty to the Greeks. But our space forbids us to extend our remarks on this treaty-Perhaps we may hereafter resume the subject.

FRANCE.-General La Fayette has been elected a member of the French chamber of deputies, in opposition to court influence, vigorously exercised in favour of a rival candidate. The general, with his son, celebrated the last anniversary of American independence in Paris, with about 80 Americans. Mr. Barnet, the American consul, presided, and Mr. Cooper, the novelist, was Vice President-Our minister, Mr. Brown, was a guest-The censorship of the press, which the monarch has undertaken to con duct without a special act of the legislature, is rigorously exercised, and is very unpopular. M. Cuvier refused to act as a censor, and has experienced the marked frowns of the court in consequence. War has actually commenced between France and Algiers, and a French fleet of 12 ships is to blockade the port of Algiers. A portion of the French troops yet remain in Spain. We are glad to find, by the religious journals which we peruse, that Bible and tract societies are likely to produce a happy influence in France, and that evangelical piety is gaining ground in the Protestant churches.

SPAIN.-It appears that a revolt has taken place among the Spanish troops stationed at Algeziras and at the camp of St. Roch— Twelve officers have been arrested. Troubles also continue in Catalonia, and Count Torre Alba has fled to Gibraltar. Bands of robbers infest many parts of the country. The nation is said to be divided between two factions called the Carlists, who wish the king's brother Carlos to be raised to the throne ; and the Ferdinandists, who are attached to the reigning monarch. The Spanish troops have withdrawn from the Portuguese frontier, and a reinforcement was about being sent to the Havanna. The treaty between France and Mexico has produced a great sensation in the Spanish court.

PORTUGAL.—The affairs of this kingdom remain in a very unsettled state. There has been some change, said to be in favour of the liberal or constitutional party, in the administration of the government. A new minister of foreign affairs, and a new ambassador to the court of St. James', have been appointed. In the mean time, Don Miguel refuses to go to Brazil to receive his espoused wife, and in other respects is adverse to the execution of the orders of his brother and king. It seems to be generally believed that the affairs of Portugal cannot be settled, unless Don Pedro shall return and take the reins of government into his own hands—The insurgents are quelled, but the British troops remain in the kingdom.

GREECE.—The report of the defeat of the Greeks before Athens, which we mentioned in our last number, is fully confirmed-We have read the official communication of General Church on the subject. The conflict was severe and bloody--The Greeks lost between two and three thousand men-four or five general officers, and among the rest the gallant Fabvier. Yet General Church does not despair of the Gre. cian cause. The Acropolis has fallen-There appears to have been a capitulation, and the Greek troops, if we rightly understand the accounts, were received on board of foreign vesselsWe hope the intervention of the allied powers will come in time to prevent the farther effusion of blood. Both General Church and Lord Cochrane narrowly escaped captivity in the defeat before Athens-His lordship was watching the Turkish fleet, which was in force far superior to his own. Supplies of provisions from our country have reached Greece, and have afforded considerable relief to the distressed inhabitants.

TURKEY.-Flushed with his late successes against the Greeks, the Grand Seignior seems to spurn the idea of any intervention or mediation of the Christian powers. He will be obliged however to yield, either peaceably or by compulsion. His great ally, the Pacha of Egypt, has deserted him, and we expect shortly to hear that this Pacha has declared himself independent. The ways of Providence are often inscrutable, but always wise. In what precise way we know not, but we have no doubt that the Mahomedan power is hastening to its end,

Russia. It is stated, and with apparent truth, that Russia is about concluding peaco with Persia—Russia gains a large accession of territory; considerably larger, we think, than that to which she laid claim before the war.


ASIA. It appears from reports and communications which we have seen within the past month, that the missionary cause in Asia is prosperous. Bibles and tracts are widely distributed and gladly received; schools for the education of female, as well as male youth, are extending and producing a most salutary influence; and the number of hopeful converts to genuine Christianity is not small-The prospect is indeed cheer. ing. Missionaries, and the funds to support them, are however greatly needed-In the civil or secular state of the country, we observe nothing of importance that is novel. Rangoon is said to have been wrested from the Burmese, by a hostile neighbouring power.

AFRICA. Intelligence of the most gratifying kind has been recently received from the Ame. rican colony of Liberia, as appears from the following extract of a letter from Captain Matthews, who commanded the Doris, the vessel which carrried out the last 'emigrants—The letter is dated “Porto-Praya, Cape de Verd, July 19th, 1827 ;” and the extract is as follows:

" As Mr. Ashmun may not have had an opportunity of communicating with the United States since my departure from Mesurado, I have the honour to inform you, for the information of the Board of Managers, that we landed all our passengers in excellent health at Mesurado, 45 days after our departure from Hampton Roads. I have the satisfaction also to state, that at the date of my departure from the Cape, the 21st June, all the emigrants by the Doris had gone through the fever, two young children only fallen victims to it, and most of them were located and working on their farms on the Stockton. I have despatches on board the Doris, from Mr. Ashmun, for the Board, and the Hon. Secretary of the Navy, which I shall forward immediately on my arrival in Baltimore, for which place I shall sail in two or three days. It affords me much pleasure to bear testimony to the thriving and prosperous condition of the colony. The emigrants by the Doris, with one or two exceptions, appear to be highly pleased with their prospects.”

AMERICA. BRAZIL AND BUENOS AIRES.-Rumours for a month past have been in circulation, that a treaty of peace between these powers was being negotiated, under the friendly mediation of the British government. The last accounts lead us to believe that a treaty of peace is under consideration ; but what are its terms we have not heard. We suspect that Don Pedro wishes for peace in America, that he may return to Portugal.

COLOMBIA.—The affairs of this republick are still in a state of agitation—and the views of Bolivar are in mystery-We still think he is honest.

MEXICO.—The legislature of Vera Cruz, one of the states included in the federation of this great republick, has lately violated all decency, dignity and equity, in some of its measures and acts. The commissary of the state, and superintendant of the customs, of the name of Esteva, an officer constitutionally appointed by the general government, had rendered himself obnoxious to a majority of the members of the legislature of Vera Cruz, by adopting political opinions hostile to theirs—and these opinions, as it would seem, favourable to our country. The legislature, without ce remony, expelled him from office, and drove him from the state. This was followed by a públick manifesto justifying their act, and in unqualified terms, reviling our government and its minister, Mr. Poinsett, as supposed parties to the supposed opinions, views and wishes of Estera. This drew from Mr. Poinsett a counter address or mani. festo, in which he has most clearly and triumphantly confuted every allegation, by which either his government or himself had been impeached. We wait to see the issue of this business---Vera Cruz will have to settle its dispute with the general congress of Mexico, and perhaps Mexico must have an explanation with our government.

UNITED STATES.— Through the greater part of the month of August, a large portion of our country suffered pretty severely by drought, and in some places, the crops of Indian corn have been greatly injured. "But copious rains bave since succeed. ed, and vegetation has given to the earth the aspect of Spring, rather than of Au. tumn. Charleston, S. c. has suffered in a small degree, by yellow fever-Every other part of our country has escaped, and general health prevails. If our gratitude to God bore any proportion to his goodness to us, we should be pre-eminently a happy people.



OCTOBER, 1827.

Heligious Communications.



LECTURES ON THE SHORTER CATE: it is supposed, indications are per CHISM OF THE WESTMINSTER AS- ceptible in the person adopted.

But God adopts many into his family, and not one of them on account of any thing excellent or re

commendatory in the · adopted The second benefit of effectual party, but solely from his own uncalling, or rather the source of merited love and mercy:Hav. many benefits, is adoption. Adop- ing (says the apostle) predestinated tion, says the Catechism, “is an us unto the adoption of children, act of God's free grace, whereby by Jesus Christ to himself, accordwe are received into the number, ing to the good pleasure of his will; and have a right to all the privi- to the praise of the glory of his leges, of the sons of God.”'

grace, wherein he hath made us Here we are first to consider the accepted in the beloved." import of the word adoption. It is The writers on this subject men. a term taken from a human trans- tion two kinds of adoption, general action to illustrate a divine proce- and special ; and the scripture wardure, in reference to redeemed rants the distinction. General sinners.

adoption relates to communities. Among men, adoption is the It is the forming of a certain numtaking of a stranger into a family, ber of mankind into a visible and considering and treating him, church, or family of God, and conin all respects, as if he were by ferring upon them peculiar privibirth a child of that family; or, it leges. This was anciently 'most is our acting toward the child of remarkably exemplified in the de. another as if he were our own. In scendants of faithful Abraham, who like manner, in the adoption of formed the Israelitish nation. God, those who are by nature Hence, says the Apostle Paul, aliens, are received into his family, speaking of his kinsmen according and treated as his children and to the flesh" Who are Israelites; heirs---Heirs of God and joint to whom pertaineth the adoption, beirs with Christ.” Here however and the glory, and the covenants, we remark some important circum- and the giving of the law, and the stantial differences. Men seldom service of God, and the promises : adopt more than one individual; Whose are the fathers, and of and the act generally takes place whom, as concerning the desh, on account of some amiable pro- Christ came, who is over all, God perties or qualifications of which, blessed for ever-Amen." Th Vol. V, -Ch. Adu.


same apostle elsewhere teaches us, being so nearly and tenderly rethat under the Christian dispensa- lated to Him. tion all true believers are to be re The answer before us, as you will garded as the spiritual seed of remark, states, that believers are Abraham.

“ received into the number of the But it is to what is called special sons of God”-This number of the adoption, that the answer of the sons of God, is constituted by all Catechism before us particularly the individuals who compose the refers; and to this we shall direct whole body of the elect, both angels all our additional remarks. Fisher, and men: For holy angels are also in his Catechism, defines special denominated the sons of God; as adoption thus—"It is a sovereign in Job, where it is said" the and free translation of a singer of morning stars sang together, and mankind, from the family of hell or all the sons of God shouted for Satan, into the family or house- joy”-Holy angels, however, are hold of God, with an investiture the sons of God, so to speak, by into all the privileges of the sons birth, and not by adoption. They of God.” He says that this is have retained that sinless and done “by the act and authority of happy state in which they were at God, the Father, Son, and_Holy first created: And it may be proGhost: That the act of the Father per to observe, that this also was in this matter is that he hath pre- the state of Adam before his fall. destinated us unto the adoption of Possibly you may never have rechildren to himself, according to marked the force and beauty of St. the good pleasure of his will: That Luke's concluding declaration, is the act of the Son, in this special tracing the genealogy of our Savioar. adoption is-that, in consequence Having carried it up, and told of of his purchasing the sinner by the whom every individual mentioned price of his blood, he actually gives was the son, till he comes to Adam, the power, right or privilege, to be- he says of him, that he was the son come a child of God, in the day of of God. The meaning is, not only believing: That the act of the Holy that God created him, but that, Ghost is—that he comes in Christ's creating him in his own image, in name, takes possession of the per his moral likeness, he was properly, son, and dwells in him, as a spirit and in every view a son of God of adoption, teaching him to cry child resembling his parent. Abba Father.”

By his fall man lost the moral You will observe that adoption is likeness of his Creator, cast himcalled an act, because it is perfect. self out of God's family, became a ed at once. As soon as a believer child of the devil, and an heir of is virtually united by faith to hell. To the second Adam we are Christ, the head of God's family, entirely indebted for repairing the and the elder brother of every saint, losses of the first. Christ Jesus he is, from that moment, an adopt- has redeemed his people from sin ed child of God. It is called an and perdition; and when they beact of God's free grace, because come united to him, they are again the adoption of any individual or received into the number of the portion of mankind into the house. sons of God, by adoption. It is in hold of God, must flow entirely regeneration that the moral image from undeserved love and favour of God, which was entirely lost, or in Him; since, in their previous effaced by the fall, is partially restate, those who are adopted are, stored, and its complete restorawithout exception, wretched, and tion is ensured. Hence the sons miserable, and poor, and blind, and of God are qualified to belong to naked ;- every way unworthy of his family, at the same time that

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